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Pesticides (Sp - Tr)

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NAME: Spiroxamine metabolite

CLASSIFICATION:  Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Prosper is an emulsifiable concentrate formulation containing 500g/L spiroxamine. Spiroxamine belongs to the new spiroketalamine group (Group E). Spiroxamine is a new protective, curative and eradicative fungicide with activity that results from the inhibition of sterol biosynthesis.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The toxicological database for spiroxamine, which consists primarily of toxicity tests conducted using animals, is quite extensive. In interpreting the data, it should be noted that toxicity tests generally use doses that are high compared with likely human exposures. The use of high doses increases the likelihood that potentially significant toxic effects will be identified. Findings of adverse effects in any one species do not necessarily indicate such effects might be generated in humans. From a conservative risk assessment perspective however, adverse findings in animal species are assumed to represent potential effects in humans, unless convincing evidence of species specificity is ava ilable. Where possible, considerations of the species specific mechanisms of adverse reactions weigh heavily in the extrapolation of animal data to likely human hazard. Equally, consideration of the risks to human health must take into account the likely human exposure levels compared with those, usually many times higher, which produce effects in animal studies. Toxicity tests shouldalso indicate dose levels at which the specific toxic effects are unlikely to occur. Such dose levels as the No-Observable-Effect-Level (NOEL) are used to develop acceptable limits for dietary or other intakes (ADI and ARfD) at which no adverse health effects in humans would be expected.

NAME: Sudan I                      

CLASSIFICATION: Synthetic chemical dyes
DESCRIPTION:  Sudan dyes are synthetic chemical dyes of similar chemical structure. They are aromatic compounds containing azo group ( - N=N - ).  Sudan I, II, III and IV are kinds of the Sudan red dyes. They can be generally applied for coloring substances such as hydrocarbon solvents, oils, fats, waxes and plastics.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Sudan I was considered by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 to be unsafe for use in food, because of toxicological evidence

NAME: Sudan II                     

DESCRIPTION: Sudan II (C18H16N2O) is a lysochrome (fat-soluble dye) azo dye used for staining of triglycerides in frozen sections, and some protein bound lipids andlipoproteins on paraffin sections. It has the appearance of red powder with melting point 156-158 ¡C and maximum absorption at 493(420) nm.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The material has NOT been classified as "harmful by ingestion". This is because of the lack of corroborating animal or human evidence. The material may still be damaging to the health of the individual, following ingestion, especially where pre-existing organ (e.g. liver, kidney) damage is evident. Present definitions of harmful or toxic substances are generally based on doses producing mortality (death) rather than those producing morbidity (disease, ill health). Gastrointestinal tract discomfort may produce nausea and vomiting. In an occupational setting however, unintentional ingestion is not thought to be cause for concern.

NAME: Sulfallate

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: It is a thiocarbamate herbicide which is poisonous if taken in large amounts. Not poisonous if used according to instructions. It causes muscle spasms, ataxia, depression and, in chloroallyldiethyldithiocarbamate. chronic cases, alopecia. Sulfallate is the generic trade name for 2- Sulfallate is an amber oil that is slightly soluble in water and soluble in acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol, and most organic solvents. When heated to decomposition, it emits toxic fumes of hydrochloric acid, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Sulfallate is no longer used in the United States; therefore the potential for exposure is low. In the past, the general population may have been exposed to Sulfallate through ingestion of residues in food crops. In addition, the potential for exposure existed during the manufacture, formulation, and application of the herbicide. Agricultural workers had the greatest possible risk of Sulfallate exposure and rural residents of agricultural communities were possibly exposed to airborne residues of Sulfallate after spraying operations. No estimate of the number of people exposed was found.

NAME: Sulfanilamide                 

DESCRIPTION: Sulfanilamide (also spelled sulphanilamide) is a sulfonamide antibacterial. chemically, it is a molecule containing the sulfonamide functional group attached to an aniline. As an antibiotic, it functions by competitively inhibiting (i.e., by acting as a substrate analogue) enzymatic reactions involvingpara-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). PABA is needed in enzymatic reactions that produce folic acid that acts as a coenzyme in the synthesis of purine, pyrimidine and other amino acids
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Despite the widespread use of sulfanilamide (paraaminobenzenesulfonamide) in the treatment of certain bacterial infections, very scanty data are available concerning its toxicity for animals. Several observers have reported on its toxicity, using very limited numbers of animals. Buttle and his co-workers,1 giving the drug in acacia suspension by mouth, state that 2.5 Gm. per kilogram is innocuous, 4 Gm. is tolerated but produces incoordination and paralysis, 5 Gm. kills two of six mice, and 10 Gm. kills six of six mice. Rosenthal2 reports that, administered subcutaneously in olive oil suspension, 4 Gm. per kilogram killed none of five mice, while 6 Gm. per kilogram killed three of four mice. Chen3 found the L. D.504 for mice by intravenous injection to be from 0.35 to 0.40 Gm. per kilogram.

NAME: Sulfentrazone

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Sulfentrazone is a chemical used as a herbicide.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Based upon a battery of acute toxicity studies, Authority Herbicide (technical product) is classified as Toxicity Category III. Sulfentrazone is not carcinogenic. However, under the conditions of the studies reviewed, Sulfentrazone caused developmental and reproductive toxicity. The results of these studies elicited a high level of concern, since the developmental toxicity studies demonstrated embryo/fetal toxicity at treatment levels that were not maternally toxic, and significant toxic effects were observed primarily in the second generation animals of the reproduction study. Because these animals had been exposed to Sulfentrazone in utero, the possibility that the observed reproductive toxicity resulted from a developmental and/or genotoxic mechanism was suggested.

NAME: Tamoxifen

CLASSSIFICATION: Estrogen receptor antagonist
DESCRIPTION: Tamoxifen is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor in breast tissue. It has been the standard endocrine (anti-estrogen) therapy for hormone-positive early breast cancer in post-menopausal women, although aromatase inhibitors have been proposed
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Tamoxifen is a preferred agent for the treatment of breast cancer. While efficacious, it is not without serious side effects. Ocular toxicity to the cornea, retina, and optic nerve has been reported. We present a case of Tamoxifen retinopathy and emphasize the need for periodic ophthalmologic examinations to prevent loss of vision.


CLASSSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide, biocide)
DESCRIPTION: It stands for (Thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole. Thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole (TCMTB) is a biocide used in the leather, pulp and paper, and water-treatment industries. TCMTB may enter aquatic ecosystems during its manufacture and use. TCMTB is environmentally unstable; therefore, it is important to evaluate the toxicity of the more persistent degradation products. This study compared the toxicity of TCMTB with its degradation products 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-MBT), 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole (MTBT), benzothiazole (BT), and 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (HOBT). Toxicity was determined using Ceriodaphnia dubia 48-hour acute and 7-day chronic test protocols
HEALTH PROBLEMS: TCMTB was the most toxic compound evaluated in both the acute and chronic tests with EC50s of 15.3 and 9.64 g/L, respectively. 2-MBT, the first degradation product, was the second most toxic compound with acute and chronic EC50s of 4.19 and 1.25 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of MTBT and HOBT were similar with acute EC50s of 12.7 and 15.1 mg/L and chronic EC50s of 6.36 and 8.31 mg/L, respectively. The least toxic compound was BT with acute and chronic EC50s of 24.6 and 54.9 mg/L, respectively. TCMTB was orders of magnitude more toxic than its degradation products. Toxicity data on these benzothiazole degradation products is important because of concerns regarding their release, degradation, persistence, and nonÐtarget organism effects in aquatic ecosystems.

NAME: Tebufenpyrad

CLASSSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Tebufenpyrad is a pyrazole acaricide and insecticide commonly used in commercial greenhouses. The compound exists as a white crystalline solid and is dissolved in water before application. It is found to be very toxic to fish, though is practically non-toxic to birds.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Sublethal effects of the mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor (METI) tebufenpyrad on Tetranychus urticae Koch females surviving treatment as eggs or immatures (³90% mortality) were investigated in life-table assay. The developmental time of females that had survived treatment as eggs (2 mg/l) or larvae (2.5 mg/l) was 1 day longer, while that of protonymphs (2.5 mg/l) or deutonymphs (4 mg/l) was 2 days longer, in addition to reduced longevity and fertility, compared to control. The treatment significantly reduced the intrinsic rate of increase in female survivors: corresponding values were 0.258, 0.278, 0.207 and 0.209, respectively (0.307 in untreated females). The offspring age distribution was significantly affected by the treatment. Sublethal effect of Tebufenpyrad and its impact on T. urticae management are discussed.

Name: Tebutam
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Tebutam - The herbicide N-benzyl-N-isopropylpivalamide. Molecular weight:233.4; Physical form:Light brown liquid. Density:0.975 (20 ¡C); Flash point:>80 ¡C (with 2% toluene); Vapour pressure:c. 89 mPa (25 ¡C); Henry constant:1.5 ? 10-2 Pa m3 mol-1 ( calc.); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = 3; Solubility:In water 0.79 g/l ( pH 7, 20 ¡C). Readily soluble in organic solvents, e.g. acetone, hexane, methanol, toluene, chloroform >500 g/l (25 ¡C).; Stability: Chemically stable under normal storage conditions. Thermally stable at temperatures below the boiling point. Stable to light. Stable to hydrolysis at pH 5, 7 and 9 (all at 25 ¡C).;ÊA pre-emergence herbicide used to control broad-leaved weeds and grasses in brassicas and other crops
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Hazard Class: III (Slightly hazardous)

NAME: Tebuthiuron
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Tebuthiuron is a nonselective broad spectrum herbicide of the urea class. It is used in a number of herbicides manufactured by Dow AgroSciences, and is sold under several trade names, depending on the formulation. It is used to control weeds, woody and herbaceous plants, and sugar cane. It is absorbed by the roots and transported to the leaves, where it inhibits photosynthesis.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Skin, eye or clothing contact with the herbicide should be avoided . It is classified as a moderately poisonous herbicide. Symptoms of tebuthiuron poisoning in rodents include lack of energy, loss of appetite, muscular incoordination and death. Vomiting occurred in cats and dogs. Tebuthiuron has high acute oral toxicity in experimental animals. The amount of the herbicide that causes death to one-half (50%) of test animals to which it is given is referred to as its lethal dose fifty, or LD50. The oral LD50 for tebuthiuron is 644 mg/kg in rats, 57.9 mg/kg in mice, and 286 mg/kg in rabbits. The dermal LD50 for tebuthiuron in rabbits is greater than 5,000 mg/kg. Neither skin irritation nor general overall intoxication were produced in rabbits that had 200 mg/kg of the material applied to their skin . 67 mg of the herbicide in the eye of rabbits produced short-term conjunctivitis, inflammation of the lining of the eye, but no irritation to other eye parts, the cornea and iris . The inhalation by animals of 3.7 g/m3 technical tebuthiuron for 4 hours did not cause death or toxicity. Tebuthiuron did not induce allergic reactions when tested on the skin of guinea pigs.

NAME: Tecnazene

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide and plant growth inhibitor)
DESCRIPTION: Tecnazene is a fungicide and potato sprout suppressant widely used on stored potatoes. Tecnazene is currently marketed in a range of granular (10% and 5% ai) and dust (3% and 6% ai) formulations. The adjuvants used in the granular and dust formulation are all inert materials or fillers, such as potassium, aluminum or calcium sulphate (Zeneca, letter, 1994). Formulations: Fusarex, Hytec, Hytec 6, Hytec Super, Tecnazene 6% Dust, Hystore 10, New Hystore, Tripart, Arena, Nebulin, Tubodust, Bygran, NewArena, Tubostore, New Quadkeep, Tecnacarb, New Quadstore, Tecgran 100, Storite SS, Storaid Dust, Hortag, Hickstor, Hickstor 3, Hickstor 5, Hickstor 6, Hickstor 6 + MBC, Hickstor 10, Hickstor TBZ6. Formulations for which label information was provided are listed by company in the section "Use pattern". Tecnazene is applied to potatoes for the control of sprouting and the prevention of weight loss in store. It also controls dry rot (Fusarium spp.) and reduces levels of skin spot (Polyscaytalum pustulans), gangrene (Phoma exigua spp.) and silver scurf (Helminthosporium solani). Tecnazene is only applied to potatoes, post-harvest, intended for long-term storage (4-6 months). This use is registered in the UK and Tecnazene is currently marketed in a range of granular and dust formulations by various UK-based companies.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is not regarded as acutely toxic, carcinogen - not known. Highly toxic to Fish, Insects, Zooplankton, Crustceans. A group of 24 mice were fed Tecnazene (13.68%) in the diet, consuming 250 mg/day (10 000 mg/kg body weight/day). Mortality was observed in 3-4 days and this test was discontinued. Fatty degeneration of the liver and fatty changes in the spleen and kidney were noted (Buttle & Dyer, 1950).  Groups of mice (12 mice/group) were fed Tecnazene in the diet at levels of 0, 1 344, and 13 440 ppm for 31 days. Growth was inhibited at the high level. Growth was normal and no adverse effects were observed at 1344 ppm (equivalent to 134 mg/kg body weight/day) (Buttle & Dyer, 1950).

NAME: Tefluthrin
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Tefluthrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide (Resistance Management Mode of Action Group 3), registered to control northern corn rootworm, western corn rootworm, black cutworm, wireworm and seedcorn maggot in field corn, sweet corn and seed corn. It is applied to the soil at planting using conventional ground equipment by farmers, farm workers and professional applicators. An insecticide used to control a wide range of soil pests including Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Dermal and inhalational exposures are associated usually with no or only mild adverse effects. Following substantial ingestion, patients    may develop coma, convulsions and severe muscle fasciculations and may take several days, occasionally weeks, to recover. In a 3-month rat study, dietary administration of 10 mg/kg/day produced plasma, red blood cell, and brain cholinesterase inhibition. The NOEL was 5 mg/kg/day. In a 6-month dog study, dietary administration of 10 mg/kg/day (LOEL) produced plasma cholinesterase inhibition. The NOEL was 1 mg/kg/day. In a 21-day rat dietary study, administration of 20 mg/kg/day (LOEL for females) produced decreased platelet counts, increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts in males and females. The NOEL for females was 5 mg/kg/day. Increased absolute and relative liver weights were observed at 5 mg/kg/day in males, thus no NOEL could be established for males. Dietary administration of 10 mg/kg/day (LOEL) for 3 months to rats produced increased absolute liver weights, decreased bilirubin levels, and hepatocellular hypertrophy. The NOEL was 5 mg/kg/day. In a 6-month dog study, dietary administration of 10 mg/kg/day (LOEL) produced hepatotoxicity (effects not reported). The NOEL was 1 mg/kg/day. In a 2-year mouse study, dietary administration of 13.5 mg/kg/day produced liver necrosis. The NOEL was 3.4 mg/kg/day. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing tefluthrin on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(B) based on the available developmental, neurological, hepatic, and hematological toxicity data for this chemical.

NAME: Temephos

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Temephos is a General Use Pesticide (GUP). Temephos containing products are slightly toxic compounds (EPA toxicity class III) that carry the Signal Word WARNING on their labels despite the relatively low toxicity of the technical compound.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Symptoms of acute exposure are similar to other organophosphates and may include nausea, salivation, headache, loss of muscle coordination, and difficulty breathing . Temephos produces signs and symptoms typical of cholinesterase inhibition at moderate levels of exposure, but mortality does not occur unless very large doses of the compound are administered . Reported oral LD50 values of temephos range from 1226 to 13,000 mg/kg in rats , and 460 to 4700 mg/kg in mice. The LD50 for a 2% powder formulation of Temephos in dogs and cats is greater than 5000 mg/kg for both species. Temephos may potentiate (greatly increase) the observed toxicity of Malathion when used in combination with it at very high doses.
NAME: Terbacil
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Terbacil is a selective herbicide used for control of both annual grasses, broad-leaved weeds, and some perennial weeds in sugarcane, apples, alfalfa, peaches, pecans, and mints. It is sprayed on soil surfaces preferably just before, or during, the period of active weed growth. Terbacil works in plants by inhibiting photosynthesis. It is a member of the substituted uracil chemical family. Terbacil is available in wettable powder formulations. Technical Terbacil is 95% pure active material.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Terbacil has low acute toxicity . Clinical signs of poisoning in rats include weight loss, pallor, prostration, and rapid breathing. In dogs, a single dose of 5 mg/kg caused repeated vomiting . Terbacil may irritate the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes of the nose and throat. It is not a skin sensitizer . The oral LD50 of Terbacil is 5000 to 7500 mg/kg in rats . The dermal LD50 is greater than 5000 mg/kg (the maximum feasible dose) in rabbits . These rabbits did not show clinical signs of toxicity, nor any obvious gross changes caused by disease. No skin irritation and only mild eye irritation was seen in rabbits at this dose . Similarly, there was no skin irritation or sensitization in Terbacil-treated guinea pigs. Dogs, given 5000 mg/kg of Terbacil, exhibited vomiting and a lack of eye pupil responsiveness

NAME: Terbucarb

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Carbamates are esters of N-methyl Carbamic acid. Aldicarb, Carbaryl, propoxur, Oxamyl and Terbucarb are carbamates. Although these pesticides differ chemically, they act similarly. When applied to crops or directly to the soil as systemic insecticides, organophosphates and carbamates generally persist from only a few hours to several months. However, they have been fatal to large numbers of birds on turf and in agriculture, and negatively affected breeding success in birds. Many organophosphates are highly toxic to aquatic organisms.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Long-term exposure can produce delayed neurotoxicity, such as tingling and burning in the extremities. This delayed neurotoxicity can progress to paralysis and is seldom reversible. Damage to the liver, kidney, immune system and bone marrow may occur. Some carbamates are also suspected carcinogens.

NAME: Terbufos

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, nematicide)
DESCRIPTION: Terbufos is an organophosphate insecticide and nematicide used on corn, sugar beets and grain sorghum. Primarily formulated as granules, it is applied at planting in a band or directly to the seed furrow. Terbufos controls wireworms, seedcorn maggots, white grubs, corn rootworm larvae, and other pests.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine (a) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature (7, 12, 17¡C), pH (6 5, 7 5, 8 5, 9 5), and time on the toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4 nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the amphipod Gammarus pseudohmnaeus, and (b) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature and pH on chemical bioconcentration during acute tests with rainbow trout and Gammarus exposed to terbufos, 4 nitrophenol, and 2,4 dinitrophenol The toxicity of all four chemicals was significantly affected by pH in all tests, except for Gammarus exposed to terbufos The toxicity of terbufos to rainbow trout and Gammarus was less at pH 7 5 than at higher or lower pH The toxicity of both nitrophenols decreased as pH increased, whereas the toxicity of trichlorfon increased with pH The effect of pH on trichlorfon toxicity decreased with temperature Temperature significantly affected the toxicity of all four chemicals to both species Toxicity increased with temperature in all tests, except for rainbow trout exposed to nitrophenols, toxicity decreased as temperature increased for rainbow trout Chemical bioconcentration was also significantly af fected by temperature and pH and was directly related to toxicity in most tests Significant interactive effects between toxicity modifying factors were also frequently observed Temperature and pH effects on chemical toxicity need to be consid ered in chemical hazard 

NAME: Terbufos-oxon-sulfone         

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, nematicide)
DESCRIPTION: An insecticide and nematicide used to control wireworm, maggots, rootworm larvae and other pests
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Ten organophosphate (OP) pesticides: phorate, disulfoton, terbufos, methidathion, bensulide, chlorethoxyfos, phosmet, methyl parathion, phostebupirim, and temephos were evaluated for their potential to undergo oxidation to their respective oxons and/or other oxidation analogues in laboratory water. Samples were collected at time intervals up to 72 h of chlorination and analyzed by both gas chromatographyÐmass selective detection (GCÐMSD) and liquid chromatographyÐtandem mass spectrometry (LCÐMS/MS). The results show that methidathion and methyl parathion were stable in unchlorinated water, while all other OP pesticides were not stable over the 72 h exposure period. In chlorinated water, phorate and disulfoton formed stable sulfone oxons. Temephos formed stable dioxon sulfoxide and dioxon sulfone. Methidathion, bensulide, chlorethyoxyfos, methyl parathion, and phostebupirim formed stable oxons over the 72 h exposure period. Terbufos, phorate, disulfoton and temephos oxon sulfoxides; temephos sulfoxide; and phosmet oxon were initially formed but were not detected after 24 h. The data illustrate that organothiophosphate pesticides may form oxons and/or other oxidation analogues during chlorination in water treatment plants, which are persistent for at least 72 h.

NAME: Terbufos-sulfone              

CLASSSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide)
DESCRIPTION: Terbufos is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide used mainly on corn in the U.S. Approximately 7.5 million pounds of active ingredient are used annually. Terbufos acts systemically and on contact. It is formulated as a granular product and is applied directly to the soil in furrows. While the parent product breaks down quickly, two of the primary degradates, Terbufos sulfoxide and Terbufos sulfone, are known to be highly toxic and more persistent in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Another degradate, formaldehyde, is prevalent when Terbufos is introduced into aquatic systems.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Terbufos is very highly toxic to freshwater invertebrates by both acute and chronic criteria. Studies have noted developmental abnormalities in aquatic invertebrates at extremely low concentrations of Terbufos. Terbufos is very highly toxic to both warm and cold-water fish species.

NAME: Terbumeton

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are a2591;gs14259;karagard;CARAGARD;terbutone; TERBUMETON;terbuthylon;TERBUMETON STANDARD; terbumeton (bsi,iso);Terbumeton(content>20%). An herbicide used to control annual and perennial grasses and broad-leaved weeds.  Postemergence broadleaf weed control in apple orchards, citrus, vineyards, forestry.  Molecular weight:225.3; Physical form:Colourless crystals. Density:1.08 (20 ¡C); Melting point:123-124 ¡C; Vapour pressure:0.27 mPa (20 ¡C); Henry constant:4.68 ? 10-4 Pa m3 mol-1 ( calc.); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = 3.04; Solubility:In water 130 mg/l (20 ¡C). In acetone 130, toluene 110, methanol 220, dichloromethane 360, n-octanol 90 (all in g/l, 20 ¡C).; Stability:Stable in neutral, weakly acidic and weakly alkaline media. Hydrolysed by strong acids and alkalis, especially at higher temperatures, with the formation of hydroxytriazine;Ê
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Hazard Class: II (Moderately hazardous)

NAME: Terbuthylazine

CLASSIFICATION:  Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Terbuthylazine is a selective herbicide. Chemically, it is a chlorotriazine; compared withatrazine and simazin, it has a tert-butyl group in place of the isopropyl and ethyl groups, respectively. Terbuthylazine is an algicide, microbicide and  microbiostat used to control slime-forming algae, fungi, and bacteria. It is registered for use in commercial and industrial water cooling systems, and in residential and commercial ornamental ponds, fountains and aquaria. Terbuthylazine is formulated as a soluble concentrate/liquid, and is applied as a continuous feed or intermittent slug treatment, using either open pouring or closed system methods.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Terbuthylazine generally is of relatively low acute toxicity. It has been placed in Toxicity Category III, the second-to-lowest of four categories, for acute oral, dermal, and inhalation effects. Terbuthylazine is mildly to moderately irritating to the eyes, and slightly irritating to the skin, and has also been placed in Toxicity Category III for these effects. It is not a skin sensitizer.

NAME: Terbuthylazine-desethyl       

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION:  An herbicide to control grass and broad-leaved weeds in a variety of situations including forestry and for control slime-forming algae, fungi, and bacteria in non-agricultural situations. Synonyms: Deethylterbuthylazine; DESETHYLTERBUTYLAZINE; TERBUTHYLAZIN-DESETHYL;DESETHYLTERBUTHYLAZINE;TERBUTHYLAZINE-DESETHYL;TERBUTHYLAZIN-DESETHYL PESTANAL 250 MG;2-AMINO-4-TERT-BUTYLAMINO-6-CHLORO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE;N2-tert-butyl-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine;2-N-tert-butyl-6-chloro-1,3,5 -triazine-2,4-diamine;(4-amino-6-chloro-s-triazin-2-yl)-tert-butyl-amine
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Protection of ground and surface water quality is critical to human health and environmental quality, as well as economic viability. The presence of contaminants in groundwater is a common phenomenon and derives from many anthropogenic activities. Among these activities most likely to pollute water resources are the use of fertilizers, pesticides, application of livestock, poultry manure, and urban sludge. Therefore, agriculture results to be a significant contributor to diffuse and point sources of groundwater contamination. A study was carried out from April 2005 until December 2007 in order to monitor the concentrations of the herbicide terbuthylazine and one of its metabolite, desethyl-terbuthylazine in shallow groundwater. Terbuthylazine is a widely used herbicide for pre-emergence and post-emergence weed control in several crops. The monitoring study was performed in different Italian areas representative of maize crop. These areas resulted to be in the north of Italy, in the Po Valley area. Inside these representative areas, eleven farms were identified; each farm had a plot extended for about 10 hectares, cultivated with maize according to normal agricultural practices, with slope not exceeding 5%, uniform direction of groundwater flow, absence of superficial water bodies. In order to sample groundwater, each plot was equipped with four couples of piezometers. Groundwater samplings were carried out every two months. The results showed that the concentrations of both compounds were in general low, except in a couple of sites, and especially in June and August, the months that follow the treatment, and in October and December, usually rainy months. In general, metabolite concentrations were higher than the parent compound.

NAME: Terbutryn

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Terbutryn is a General Use Pesticide (GUP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed the revocation of all tolerances for residues of Terbutryn in or on barley, sorghum, and wheat. They do not plan to recommend action levels to replace the tolerances. Many Terbutryn product registrations have been cancelled. The EPA has classified it as Toxicity Class III-slightly toxic. Products containing Terbutryn bear the Signal Word "Caution". Terbutryn is a selective herbicide and a triazine compound. It is absorbed by the roots and foliage and acts as an inhibitor of photosynthesis. Terbutryn is a pre-emergent and post-emergent control agent for most grasses and many annual broadleaf weeds in winter wheat, winter barley, sorghum, sugarcane, sunflowers, peas, and potatoes . It is also used as an aquatic herbicide for control of submerged and free-floating weeds and algae in water courses, reservoirs, and fish ponds. Terbutryn is available as a wettable powder or a soluble concentrate.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Terbutryn is slightly toxic. It affects the central nervous system in animals leading to incoordination, convulsions, or labored breathing. At extremely high dosages, the animals showed swelling and fluid in the lungs and central nervous system.

NAME: Tetrachlorvinphos

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill fleas and ticks. It is a likely human carcinogen and is toxic to the nervous system. An insecticide, Tetrachlorvinphos is currently applied dermally to livestock to control flies and mites; used as a feed-through (oral) larvicide in cattle, hogs, goats, and horses; in cattle ear tags to control flies; in poultry dust boxes to control poultry mites; and as paint on and sprays in poultry houses. Tetrachlorvinphos also is used as a dust/powder, aerosol, and pump spray on pets and in pet sleeping areas, and in collars and shampoos for direct treatment of pets. It is used as a spray to control nuisance and public health pests (flies) in and around refuse sites, recreational areas, and for limited outdoor use as premise sprays for fleas, ticks, chiggers, and mites, around kennels, yards, campgrounds, and parks, and along foot paths and roadways leading to such areas. No Tetrachlorvinphos end-use products are currently registered for use on any plant commodity.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: TCVP interferes with an essential enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, which normally controls messaging between nerve cells. It kills fleas and ticks by inducing spasmodic over excitation of the nervous system. In large doses, it can harm or kill cats, dogs and, in extreme poisoning cases, humans. At lower levels of exposure, TCVP cause a variety of poisoning symptoms, many of which can mimic common illnesses; these include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, wheezing, sweating and tearing eyes. More severe poisoning can cause muscle twitching, drooling, seizures, respiratory paralysis and death.

NAME: Tetraconazole

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: The end-use product, Eminent 125SL, contains 11.6% tetraconazole by weight and is a liquid fungicide for control of Cercospora leafspot and powdery mildew on sugar beets. The proposed application method is ground and aerial application as a foliar spray or by chemigation. The applications must by alternated with non-triazole fungicides. Applications should begin when disease conditions are favorable and be repeated at 21-28 day intervals. A maximum of two applications per growing season may be made using 13 fluid ounces of a 1pound per gallon product per acre. The preharvest interval is 14 days. The product is for agricultural use only. The pesticide's use is proposed in seven U.S. states: CO, MI, MN, MT, ND, NE, and WY.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Tetraconazole has low acute toxicity (Toxicity category III or IV) via the oral, dermal, and inhalation routes. It is a slight eye irritant, but is not a dermal irritant or a dermal sensitizer.
NAME: Tetradifon
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Tetradifon is an insecticide and an acaricide for use in horticultural crops to control a wide range of phytophagous mites. Non-systemic with larvicidal and ovicidal activity. Acts by inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  The effect of Tetradifon on survival, reproduction and growth was monitored for the selected daphnid generations. The parameters used to evaluate pesticide effect on reproduction were: mean total young per female, mean brood size, time to first reproduction, mean number broods per female and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r). Survival and growth (body length) were also determined after 21 days of exposure to the pesticide. Reproduction was significantly reduced when Tetradifon concentration increased in the medium. This effect was higher in F1-1st and F1-3rd offsprings compared to the parental generation (F0) daphnids. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) decreased with increasing concentrations of Tetradifon especially in those animals from F1-3rd. The substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms. Avoid release to the environment in circumstances different to normal use.
NAME: Tetraethylpyrophosphate (TEPP)
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: TEPP is a nonflammable, colorless to amber-colored liquid with a faint, fruity odor. The commercial product contains 40 percent TEPP and is available as an emulsion, aerosol, dust, or concentrate. TEPP was one of the first organophosphate pesticides used in the United States; it has now largely been replaced by other pesticides. Tetraethyl pyrophosphate (TEPP, CAS No. 107-49-3), a total-kill pesticide, is hazardous to handle. Fortunately, TEPP is very unstable in water (a half-life of about  7 hours at pH 7 and 25 ¡C), and its decomposition product, diethyl phosphoric acid (CAS No. 598-02-7), is relatively nonhazardous. Because of its sensitivity to water, TEPP is difficult to prepare as a stable calibration standard.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Tetraethyl pyrophosphate (TEPP, CAS No. 107-49-3), a total-kill pesticide, is hazardous to handle. Fortunately, TEPP is very unstable in water (a half-life of about7 hours at pH 7 and 25 ¡C), and its decomposition product, diethyl phosphoric acid (CAS No. 598-02-7), is relatively nonhazardous. Because of its sensitivity to water, TEPP is difficult to prepare as a stable calibration standard.

NAME: Tetramethrin I                

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Tetramethrin is a potent synthetic insecticide in the pyrethroid family. It is a white crystalline solid with a melting point of 65-80 ¡C. The commercial product is a mixture of stereoisomers. It is commonly used as an insecticide, and affects the insect's nervous system. Tetramethrin is part of the pyrethroid class of pesticides and was first registered in 1968. It is a broad spectrum, non-systemic, synthetic pyrethroid used to control flying and crawling insects in a number of commercial, horticultural and residential applications.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The EPA evaluated potential ecological risk from both indoor and outdoor uses of Tetramethrin. Although the Agency believes exposure to non-target organisms is unlikely, Tetramethrin is considered highly toxic to aquatic organisms. Therefore, the Agency is limiting all outdoor uses to localized spot and crack and crevice treatments, with the exception of (1) barrier, perimeter or band applications to soil or vegetation around structures; and (2) band applications to building foundations, up to a maximum of 3 feet up the walls of the building. Since outdoor uses will be limited to spot treatments, no additional mitigation measures for these uses are required. Although these limitations will reduce exposure to Tetramethrin, there could be a potential for direct effects for Listed insects or indirect effects to plants if they have an obligate relationship with a Listed insect pollinator. 

NAME: Tetramethrin II

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Tetramethrin is a potent synthetic insecticide in the pyrethroid family. It is a white crystalline solid with amelting point of 65-80 ¡C. The commercial product is a mixture of stereoisomers. It is commonly used as an insecticide, and affects the insect's nervous system. Tetramethrin is a broad-spectrum, first-generation synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. Pyrethroids are synthetic esters derived from naturally occurring pyrethrins (insecticides derived from the extract of chrysanthemum flowers). Tetramethrin is a rapid knockdown agent against flying and crawling insects. Tetramethrin may be co-formulated with synergists (e.g., PBO and MGK-264), other active ingredients such as pyrethrins and other pyrethroids (e.g., permethrin, allethrins, phenothrin, resmethrin, and cypermethrin), and growth inhibitors (e.g., fenoxycarb) for greater effectiveness and to control a broader spectrum of insect pests. These other active ingredients are more persistent than tetramethrin and provide residual activity against insects not exposed initially.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Tetramethrin is a type 1 pyrethroid (i.e., lacking a cyano group at the ? carbon position of the alcohol moiety). Type 1 pyrethroids act on axons in the peripheral and central nervous system by interacting with sodium channels in mammals and/or insects. Tetramethrin is a nerve cell membrane sodium channel modulator, which interferes with entrance of sodium ions into the channel, leading to hyperactivity. 

NAME: Tetrapropyl thiodiphosphate   

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Systematic name O,O,O,O-tetrapropyl dithiodiphosphate.  It is used as a pesticide to control chinch bugs and sod webworm in lawns and on turfs.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is poisonous by intramuscular, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. It is moderately toxic by ingestion and skin contact. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of POx and SOx. SIGNAL WORD: CAUTION. TOXICITY CLASS: III. May cause cholinesterase inhibition.

NAME: Thenylchlor

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Thenylchlor is extraordinarily secure herbicide, being judged from the results of toxicity studies and the studies related to environment. Used for pre-emergent control of annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds in rice crops. Absorbs through roots, blocks protein synthesis and so inhibits cell division.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Thenylchlor poses no threat to human health. TOXICITY: (Rat, Mouse): Oral LD50 >5000 mg/kg. (Rat): Dermal LD50 >2000 mg/kg; Inhalation LC50 (4 h) >5.67 mg/l. Fish: TLm (48 h) 0.76 ppm (carp); LC50 (3 h) >100 ppm (Daphnia). Bird: LD50 >2000 mg/kg (bobwhite quail). Bee: LD50 (96 h) >100 µg/bee.

NAME: NAME: Thiabendazole                 

DESCRIPTION: Thiabendazole is an "anthelmintic," or anti-worm, medication. It prevents worms from growing or multiplying in the body. Thiabendazole is used to treat infections caused by worms such as threadworm. Thiabendazole may also be used to treat pinworm (when it occurs with threadworm), hookworm, whipworm, roundworm, and trichinosis.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects. Check with your doctor if any of these most COMMON side effects persist or become bothersome when using Thiabendazole: Appetite loss; bad urine odor; diarrhea; dizziness; drowsiness; dry eyes; giddiness; headache; indigestion; irritability; nausea; sensation of floating; stomach upset or pain; tiredness; vomiting; weakness; worms in mouth or nose.

NAME: Thifluzamide

CLASSIFICATION:  Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION:  Synonyms are    Granual;mon24000;MON 2400;RH 130753;trifuzamide;THIFLUZAMIDE;Thifluzamide [iso];THIFLUZAMIDE STANDARD;thifluzamide (bsi,iso,ansi);2'?6'-diobromo-2-methyl-4'-trifluoromethyox-4-trifluoromethyl-1,3-thiazole-5-carboxanilide. Thifluzamide is persistent chemical. The preliminary leaching studies carried out in the laboratory revealed that Thifluzamide was moderately mobile in alluvial soil. Only small amounts (<1%) were recovered from leachate fractions whereas major portion remained in 0Ð15 cm soil depth. Used to control Rhizoctonia spp. diseases on rice, potatoes, maize, grass and other crops. Mode of action is Systemic, absorbed by roots and translocated, inhibits succinate dehydrogenase in the tricarboxylic acid

Respiratory inhibitors are among the fungicides most widely used for disease control on crops. Most are strobilurins and carboxamides, inhibiting the cytochrome b of mitochondrial complex III and the succinate dehydrogenase of mitochondrial complex II, respectively. A few years after the approval of these inhibitors for use on grapevines, field isolates of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold, resistant to one or both of these classes of fungicide were recovered in France and Germany. However, little was known about the mechanisms underlying this resistance in field populations of this fungus. Such knowledge could facilitate resistance risk assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance occurring in B. cinerea populations. Highly specific resistance to strobilurins was correlated with a single mutation of the cytb target gene. Changes in its intronic structure may also have occurred due to an evolutionary process controlling selection for resistance. Specific resistance to carboxamides was identified for six phenotypes, with various patterns of resistance levels and cross-resistance. Several mutations specific to B. cinerea were identified within the sdhB and sdhD genes encoding the iron-sulfur protein and an anchor protein of the succinate dehydrogenase complex. Another as-yet-uncharacterized mechanism of resistance was also recorded. In addition to target site resistance mechanisms, multidrug resistance, linked to the overexpression of membrane transporters, was identified in strains with low to moderate resistance to several respiratory inhibitors. This diversity of resistance mechanisms makes resistance management difficult and must be taken into account when developing strategies for Botrytis control.

HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is acute toxicity to birds is generally low. No human health hazards are on record.

NAME: Thiofanox                   

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide)
DESCRIPTION: An insecticide and acaricide used to control a range of pests including aphids, capsids, flea beetles and leafhoppers. Systemic Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Synonyms are 2-Butanone, 3,3-dimethyl-1-(methylthio)-, O-[(methylamino)carbonyl]oxime;Dacamox;DS 15647;3,3-Dimethyl-1-(Methylthio)-2-butanone O-[(methylamino)carbonyl]oxime;Diamond shamrock ds-15647;ENT 27851;Rcra waste number P045;Thiofanocarb;2-Butanone, 3,3-dimethyl-1-(methylthio)-, O-*(methylamino)carbonyl;(2Z)-3,3-Dimethyl-2-(([(methylamino)carbonyl]oxy)imino)-1-(methylsulfanyl)butane
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Workers involved in the application of the chemical will probably be exposed through inhalation or through dermal contact.
NAME: Thiometon                  
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Thiometon is an organophosphorus insecticide which is not a    strong cholinesterase inhibitor but when metabolized it converts to    several potent cholinesterase inhibitors. Absorption is rapid and    formulations may be more toxic than the pure compound. Thiometon is effective against sucking insects, mainly aphids, and mites on most crops. Others include psyllids, sawflies, jassids    and thrips.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Twelve female agricultural workers exposed to thiometon were followed for at least 6 months. Changes were reported in catalase, cytochrome oxidase and ceruloplasmin and the changes persisted in some of the workers for the entire period.

NAME: Thionazin

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, nematicide)
DESCRIPTION: Thionazin is a soil insecticide and nematicide effective against a number of plant parasitic as well as free living nematodes, including those attacking buds, bulbs, leaves and roots, as well as against soil dwelling pests such as root maggots and symphylids and foliar insects such as aphids and leaf miners. When incorporated in mushroom compost at spawning it is effective against mushroom flies.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is poisonous by skin contact, inhalation/ingestion. Thionazin was described as slightly persistent in soil, with a given half-life of 2-6 weeks encompassing removal by leaching, hydrolysis, and biodegradation . Commercial formulations of 10 ppm thionazin applied to the top or broadcast 4 inches into a sandy loam soil (pH= 6.1) resulted in a removal half-life of 23 days . The initial loss rate when thionazin was applied at 250 ppm was much slower, and traces of thionazin remained after 2 years . In a laboratory assay, 100 ppm thionazin lost 95% of its biological activity in 100 days . Thionazin was found in soil up to one year after its application to an acidic sandy loam field, but this compound was not detected after 10 weeks in alkaline clay soil . AQUATIC FATE: If released to water, thionazin is expected to undergo hydrolysis. An experimentally determined half-life for the hydrolysis of thionazin at 25 deg C under neutal conditions was given as 29 days at pH 7(1,2). A half-life of approximately 40 and 4 days at pH 10 and pH 11, respectively, can be calculated from a basic hydrolysis rate constant of 7.3 L/mole-hr(1,2). Thionazin was reported as having a half-life of 14 weeks in natural water at pH 6.8 . ATMOSPHERIC FATE: If released to the atmosphere, the vapor pressure, 3X10-3 mm Hg at 30 deg C , suggests that thionazin may exist entirely in the vapor phase in the ambient atmosphere . Thionazin is expected to undergo rapid destruction by the gas phase reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for the reaction can be estimated at 4.3 hr(2,SRC). The water solubility, 1140 mg/l at 25 deg C, suggests that wet deposition may occur.

NAME: Thymol

CLASSIFICATION:  Biocides, fungicide
DESCRIPTION: Thymol is part of a naturally occurring class of compounds known as biocides, with strong antimicrobial attributes when used alone or with other biocides such as carvacrol. Additionally, naturally occurring biocidal agents such as thymol can reduce bacterial resistance to common drugs such as penicillin. Numerous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial effects of thymol, ranging from inducing antibiotic susceptibility in drug-resistant pathogens to powerful antioxidant properties. Research demonstrates that naturally occurring biocides such as thymol and carvacrol reduce bacterial resistance to antibiotics through a synergistic effect, and thymol has been shown to be an effective fungicide, particularly against fluconazole-resistant strains.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Research demonstrates that naturally occurring biocides such as thymol and carvacrol reduce bacterial resistance to antibiotics through a synergistic effect,and thymol has been shown to be an effective fungicide, particularly against fluconazole-resistant strains. This is especially relevant given that opportunistic Candida (fungus) infections can cause severe systemic infections in immunocompromised patients and current treatments are highly toxic, often result in drug resistant Candida strains, and have low efficacy. Compounds in the essential oils of one type of oregano have demonstrated antimutagenic effects, and in particular carvacrol (isomeric with thymol) and thymol were demonstrated to have a strong antimutagenic effect.Additionally, there is evidence that thymol has antitumor properties. Though the exact mechanism is unknown, there is evidence to suggest that thymol possesses at least some of its biocidal properties via membrane disruption.

NAME: Tiocarbazil I                  

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: It is a suitable herbicide in pre - sowing, planting and post - sowing for weed control on rice and sugar beet. SPETTRO D'AZIONE: Range of action:In risaia risulta particolarmente efficace su diverse specie di Giavone (Echinochloa spp.) e di Leersia oryzoides proveniente da seme e su graminacee e dicotiledoni (in miscela con Cloridazon) in genere. In paddy is particularly effective on many species of Giavoni (Echinochloa spp.) And Leers oryzoides from seed and grasses and dicotyledons (mixed with chloridazon) in general. Molecular weight:279.4; Physical form:Colourless liquid, with aromatic odour. Density:1.023 (20 ¡C); Vapour pressure:93 mPa (50 ¡C); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = 4.4; Solubility:In water 2.5 mg/l (30 ¡C). Miscible with polar and non-polar organic solvents.; Stability:Stable to hydrolysis at pH 5.6-8.4. Slightly decomposed after 30 days at 40 ¡C in aqueous ethanol at pH 1.5. Stable to storage for 60 days at 40 ¡C, and for 100 h in aqueous solution exposed to sunlight.;Ê The herbicides bentazone, 2,4-D, MCPA, propanil, molinate, and tiocarbazil, and the insecticide phenthoate, were applied to ricefields in Sardinia at rates equivalent to maximum aqueous concentrations of 0.4-2.8 mg kg?1, assuming the water to be 20 cm deep. Their concentrations in water were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Residues in 162 water samples, collected from 16 ricefields 1, 4, 7, 10, 12, 18, 21 and 120 days after the last spraying, were all below the limit of determination (0.03 mg kg?1). Residues in 40 water samples taken from five drainage canals were also less than 0.03 mg kg.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Signal Word:CAUTION; Hazard Class:III(Slightly hazardous).

NAME: Tolclofos-methyl              

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Tolclofos-methyl is an organophorous fungicide that is effective in the control of soil-born fungus caused by infection.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Tolclofos-methyl is not expected to be toxic to birds or mammals and is, at worst, highly toxic to fish. While slight toxicity to aquatic invertebrates is indicated, Tolclofos-methyl is highly toxic to algae. Terrestrial invertebrates and soil microbial processes were generally insensitive to Tolclofos-methyl. Tolclofos-methyl is not expected to show significant herbicidal effects in non-target terrestrial vegetation.  On the other hand in a study [U-14C]Phenyl-labelled Tolclofos-methyl was administered orally for four consecutive days at 10 mg/kg bw/day to 3 laying hens which were killed 7 hours after the last dose. Three more hens were treated with the vehicle only. The dosage was equivalent to approximately 167 ppm in the diet but was administered each day as a single dose. All eggs laid during the study were collected and excreta were collected daily. The excreta and tissues were extracted by procedures broadly similar to those used in the goat study above. Over 71% of the first dose was eliminated in the first 7 hours and 87% within 24 hours. During the following days the excreted proportion of the administered pesticide varied around 85%. Residues in eggs were 0.37 mg/kg Tolclofos-methyl equivalents in the yolk at 72 hours and 0.27 mg/kg at 79 hours. The corresponding levels in the albumin rose to a maximum of 0.07 mg/kg. The highest residues occurred in the fat, kidneys and liver (1.0, 6.0 and 3.4 mg/kg respectively). Those in other tissues were heart 0.18, muscle 0.11, lung 0.44, spleen 0.12 and ovary 0.47 mg/kg. A similar study was carried out with [14C]phenyl-labelled Tolclofos-methyl at 5 mg/kg bw. Rats were killed at intervals up to 72 hours after administration to determine the changes in tissue residues with time after administration. In a parallel study with bile-cannulated male and female rats bile, urine and faeces were monitored over a 48-hour period after administration. The 14C was distributed in various organs and reached its peak in almost all tissues within 2 hours after administration. The total residues expressed as Tolclofos-methyl amounted to 1.14-1.27 mg/kg in plasma, 3.45-4.67 mg/kg in the kidneys, 1.22-1.24 mg/kg in the liver and 0.74-0.84 mg/kg in blood. Thereafter the concentration of total radioactivity in the plasma and in most tissues decreased. The cumulative excretion of 14C in the bile, urine and faeces for 48 hours after administration was 5.8-11.7%, 46.7-59.4% and 23.7-42.3% of the oral dose, respectively. Two hours after administration at least 7 metabolites were detected in the blood, liver and kidneys. The main products were TM-COOH, PH-COOH, DM-TM and DM-TMCH2OH.Only a small amount of the parent compound was detected in the liver. Most of the 14C excreted into the bile within 24 hours was found to be in polar metabolites consisting mainly of the glucuronides of TM-CH2OH and PH-CH3. Radiocarbon excreted into the faeces from 0 to 24 hours after administration was found to be from the parent compound only (Esumi et al., 1989).

NAME: Transfluthrin

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Transfluthrin is a fast-acting pyrethroid insecticide with low persistency. It has the molecular formula C15H12Cl2F4O2. Transfluthrin can be used in the indoor environment against flies, mosquitoes andcockroaches. It is a relatively volatile substance and acts as a contact and inhalation agent. Transfluthrin is a fast acting insecticide. It is used in household and hygiene products, mainly against flying insects, such as mosquitoes and flies, but also against material pests, such as moths.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Transfluthrin is of low acute toxicity in the rat, with an LD50 of >5000 mg/kg bw via each route of administration and with an acute and dermal NOEL of 100 mg/kg bw/d. The 4 h LC50 was >513 mg/m3 air for male and female rats. The only sign noted during the 14 d observation period was a slight tremor in females for 5 minutes after dosing. Transfluthrin is not a skin or eye irritant, nor a skin sensitizer.
NAME: Tolfenpyrad
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Tolfenpyrad is a pyrazole insecticide, and was discovered by Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation in 1991. The compound acts mainly through the inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport system. Tolfenpyrad has not been registered overseas. In Japan, the compound was first registered for its application to vegetables, tea plants, etc., on April 24, 2003. Twenty-eight tons of technical grade compound were produced in pesticide fiscal year 2002 (Ref. 1). In September 2003, Nihon Nohyaku Co., Ltd. (hereinafter "The Applicant") applied for the registration of the compoundÕs expanded application according to the Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law. Refs. 2-24 and28-82 were submitted (Ref. 2). Because tolfenpyrad is a broad spectrum insecticide and has not exhibited cross resistance with current products, it is being developed for use in vegetables, in particular cruciferous leafy vegetables, fruits and other high-value arkets. Development of tolfenpyrad began in 1996, and initial registration was granted in Japan in April 2002 under the trade name of Hachi-Hachi EC, and registered in Dominican Republic, Thailand and Taiwan, continuously. Since being launched, tolfenpyrad has exhibited excellent insecticidal performance in several crops. Tolfenpyrad is under the development in several countries, such as the United States, Brazil, etc. Tolfenpyrad is a novel insecticide with a new mode of action that results in excellent performance against pests that are resistant to existing insecticides, e.g. organo-phosphates, pyrethroids, benzoyl-ureas and neonicotinoids
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Tolfenpyrad (IUPAC: 4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methyl-N-[4-(p-tolyloxy)benzyl]pyrazole-5-carboxa mide), belonging to the pyrazole class of insecticides, was evaluated based on various tests. The test results used for the evaluation covered animal metabolism (rats), plant metabolism (eggplants, cabbages, peaches), soil degradation, photolysis in water, residues in crops, residues in soils, acute toxicity (rats, mice), subchronic toxicity (rats, mice, dogs), chronic toxicity (dogs), chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity (rats), carcinogenicity (mice), two-generation reproductive toxicity (rats), developmental toxicity (rats, rabbits), genotoxicity, etc. The compound did not show any carcinogenicity, teratogenicity or genotoxicity.

NAME: Tolylfluanid metabolite

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Tolylfluanid is one of the 52 substances of the second stage covered by Commission Regulation (EC) No 451/20001, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1490/2002 This Regulation requires .the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to organise a peer review of the initial evaluation, i.e. the draft assessment report (DAR), provided by  the designated rapporteur Member State and to  provide within one year a conclusion on the risk assessment to the EU-Commission
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Tolylfluanid is extensively and rapidly absorbed (>90%). Oral and dermal toxicity is low. However, toxicity during inhalation exposure was low to high which was related to the particle size leading differentiated proposal for classificat to a ion i.e. tolylfluanid containing ³ 0.1% particles < 50?m (T+; R26). Tolylfluanid has irritating properties in both eyes and skin (proposed classification: Xi; R36/37/38) and has sensitizing properties (proposed classification: R43). Main effects during short term oral exposure were functional disturbance of the thyroid, increased liver weights and decreased liver enzyme levels in the rat and dog and slight histopathological changes in the kidney in the dog at high dose levels. During inhalation exposure severe respiratory tract irritation including deaths was observed. Depending on the particle size, tolylfluanid containing ³ 0.1% particles < 50?m is classified as toxic (proposed classification: T, R48/R23). Tolylfluanid is neither genotoxic nor carcinogenic. There were no effects on reproductive or developmental toxicity observed and no evidence of neurotoxicity was observed.
NAME: Tolyltriazole
CLASSIFICATION: Copper protectant
DESCRIPTION: Tolyltriazole, COBRATEC TT -100, is the most widely used copper and high copper alloy corrosion inhibitor. It is so effective that only 2 to 3 ppm of tolyltriazole is sufficient to protect copper parts in cooling water systems like cooling towers. It is also used extensively in automobile radiators and metal working fluids. Tolyltriazole, is especially useful in systems where fluids are in continuous contact with metals that require protection. Other metals that can be protected include zinc, cobalt and silver. When tolyltriazole is used in multi-metal systems with other corrosion inhibitors, it will protect aluminum and steel.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It has been declared as harmful if swallowed. It may be harmful by inhalation or through skin absorption. Respiratory and eye irritation is also suspected. Tolyltriazole, a corrosion inhibitor found in de-icing fluids, is a suspected human carcinogen. It is also known to be moderately toxic to microorganisms based on Microtox results. The purpose of this research was to determine whether tolyltriazole is toxic to isolated and/or consortia of common soil microorganisms found in soil samples and cultivated using propylene glycol and yeast extract.

NAME: Tolyltriazole

CLASSIFICATION: Corrosion inhibitor
DESCRIPTION: Tolyltriazole is any of a group of four compounds containing three nitrogenand two carbon atoms arranged in a five-membered ring and having the formula C 2 H 3 N 3. Tolyltriazole is the most widely used copper and high copper alloy corrosion inhibitor. It is so effective that only 2 to 3 ppm of tolyltriazole is sufficient to protect copper parts in cooling water systems like cooling towers. It is also used extensively in automobile radiators and metal working fluids.  Tolyltriazole, is especially useful in systems where fluids are in continuous contact with metals that require protection. Other metals that can be protected include zinc, cobalt and silver. When tolyltriazole is used in multi-metal systems with other corrosion inhibitors, it will protect aluminum and steel.
HEALTH PROBLEM: Tolyltriazole, a corrosion inhibitor found in de-icing fluids, is a suspected human carcinogen. It is also known to be moderately toxic to microorganisms based on Microtox results. The purpose of this research was to determine whether tolyltriazole is toxic to isolated and/or consortia of common soil microorganisms found in soil samples and cultivated using propylene glycol and yeast extract.

NAME: Tonalide

CLASSIFICATION: Synthetic musks
DESCRIPTION: Galaxolide and tonalide are synthetic musks, which are common ingredients in fragrances for cleaning products.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The toxicological implications of the presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment remain largely unknown. Acute toxicity tests have generally failed to detect the subtle action elicited by those compounds at environmentally relevant concentrations and they have often overlooked the fact that toxicity can be influenced by additive and synergistic effects.


NAME: Toxaphene Parlar 26           

DESCRIPTION: Toxaphene is one of the major persistent organic pollutants with global environmental impacts. We have measured total toxaphene and specific congeners concentrations in 19 fish samples collected from the Yukon, Canada using gas chromatography coupled to ion trap MS/MS. The total toxaphene concentrations ranged from 42 to 242 ng/g (mean=107±61 ng/g). The sum of the three specific congeners (Parlar 26, 50 and 62) was within 10Ð55 ng/g. The ratio of the sum of the three congeners to the total toxaphene varied between 8% and 25% in the fish samples but the ratio may be species specific. Our results suggest that consumption of these Yukon fish should have minimal risk of toxaphene exposure. Toxaphene has been used as a pesticide throughout the world, and its residues are found in all environmental matrices. Technical toxaphene is a mixture of chlorinated camphene derivatives, primarily bornanes {C,ãH,8.ãC1ã) and bornenes (C,oH,5.ãCln), with a range of 6 to 10 chlorine atoms. This results in the possibility of over 600 individual components, known as toxaphene congeners. Not all of the possible congeners have been identified, but many congeners of environmental significance have been identified by Parlar numbers (l). However, the residues in the environment change due to weathering, bioaccumulation and degradation, so that quantitative analysis of toxaphene can be difficult.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The levels of toxaphene congeners, in addition to PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides, were determined in various fish samples from different Danish waters. While PCB-153 and p,p?-DDE show different levels depending on the fishing area, with highest levels in fish from the Western Baltic Sea, toxaphene was detected in all the samples investigated at a more constant level. The distribution of the three toxaphene congeners Parlar #26, #50 and #62 depends on the fishing area, with the Western Baltic Sea being different from the other waters by having almost equal levels of toxaphene congeners #26 and #50. Elevated toxaphene levels have been reported in the biota of the Arctic. The purpose of this study is to measure total toxaphene levels in food samples commonly consumed by the Canadian Inuit and study the relationship between concentrations of total toxaphene and individual congeners. A total of 127 Inuit food samples were collected for toxaphene analysis. Total toxaphene and the specific toxaphene congeners including Parlar #26, #40/41, #42, #44, #50 and #62 were detected in the food samples. Total toxaphene concentrations ranged from 13 to 2800 ng/g and various congener concentrations ranged from 0 to 610 ng/g. Concentrations of total toxaphene were strongly correlated with congener concentration in marine mammals and weaker in fish. The sum of congeners Parlar #26, #50 and #62 accounted for 0--15% of total toxaphene in fish and 0--66% in marine mammals. Regression models were used to estimate total toxaphene based on individual or combinations of congener concentrations. Dietary intake was estimated to be 1.07 and 0.78 mug/kg body weight per day in Chesterfield Inlet and Igloolik. Our results show that there is no general conversion factor that can be used to estimate total toxaphene concentrations based on congener measurements. 

NAME: Toxaphene Parlar 50            

DESCRIPTION: Toxaphene is a complex mixture of polychlorinated monoterpenes (primarily bornanes and camphenes) produced commercially from 1947 to 1982 and purported to contain600-plus separate congeners. Also known as Camphechlor, Strobane, Melipax, chlorocamphene, polychlorocamphene, and chlorinated camphene. Toxaphene consists of highly chlorinated bornanes and champhenes and was widely used as an insecticide. Technical toxaphene products consist of between 100 and 220 compounds.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: In the Federal Republic of Germany, toxaphene was banned in 1980, but it was used in the former German Democratic Republic until 1990. Since 1982, the use of toxaphene has been prohibited in the European Union and the United States. In Central and South America, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Asia, toxaphene is still widely used , especially in cotton-producing countries of the developing world.  Chlorinated hydrocarbons are ingested by humans in food and accumulate in adipose tissue. At the University Kinderklinik, Mannheim, previously unknown substances have been found in children (e.g., the pesticide toxaphene and chlorinated naphthalenes). These substances have been widely used for industrial purposes in the past. Samples from West and East Germany; Saratov, Russia; and Almaty, Kazakhstan were examined to determine whether these substances are ubiquitous. In specimens from all cities, toxaphene congeners Parlar 26 and Parlar 50 and six chlorinated naphthalenes were traced. Highest median load of toxaphene was 1.97 microg/kg for Parlar 26 and 2.36 microg/kg for Parlar 50 in Stralsund, East Germany. For chlorinated naphthalenes, the median was highest in Mannheim, West Germany, with 12.0 microg/kg.

NAME: Toxaphene Parlar 62           

DESCRIPTION: Toxaphene is a chlorinated pesticide consisting of more than 200 congeners that are mainly chlorobornanes and chlorocamphenes. As the congeners exhibit different stability properties in the environment, only between 20 and 30 compounds can be observed in, e.g., fish, which are represented by technical toxaphene as a mixture. Commercial Toxaphene, known by a variety of trade names, is a technical mixture of several hundred chlorinated Camphenes. It is an extremely effective pesticide, and was used extensively when DDT was banned from use. However, because of the complexity of the technical mixture analysis has been difficult, and the dearth of pure, high-quality individual standards has hindered development of robust analytical methods. Until recently, no 13C-Toxaphene congeners were available, preventing analysts from enjoying the benefits of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS). After finding initial success replacing DDT in many agricultural applications, within a few years Toxaphene too was banned for most uses in much of the world. In 2001 Toxaphene, was included in the first round of chemical pollutants covered by the Stockholm Treaty; one of the "Dirty Dozen."
HEALTH PROBLEMS: In human body, the congeners Parlar #26, #40, #41, #44, #50, and #62 are detected frequently. Three of them, #26, #50, and #62, pose a potential risk to human health due to their persistent characteristic. By using experimental results of a European Union study (MATT, 2000. As with the analysis of other complex mixtures such as PCBs (Aroclors; Kanechlors) and BDEs (commercial PentaBDEs and OctaBDEs), most analysts have focused on methods that target key congeners.Ê In PCB analyses, most laboratories target the WHO ÒDioxin-LikeÓ PCBs and/or the Predominant or ÒMarkerÓ congeners. Since toxicity data is still being developed for BDEs, BDE analysis tends towards those Predominant congeners found in relatively high levels in the technical products.Ê While Toxaphene analysis is still waiting for a definitive method, researchers tend to focus on the most bioaccumulative congeners such as Parlar 26, 50, and 62.


NAME: Trans-Chlordane               

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chlorinated pesticides containing trans-chlordane were used for insect control in the United States between 1948 to 1988. It was mainly used for farm, lawn, and home pest control. Trans-chlordane is found in riverbeds, aquatic life, and mammalian life due to its release into the environment during its production, use and disposal. Trans-chlordane resides in soil for long periods of time and is still found in food supplies due to farmland treatment during the 1960s and 70s.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is a toxic pollutant that affects the nervous system, digestive system, and liver. It is
found in most humans in small amounts, and if taken in large amounts by mouth, can cause convulsions and death. The United Nations included it in the "dirty dozen Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) list.

NAME: Transfluthrin

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Transfluthrin is a fast-acting pyrethroid insecticide with low persistency. It has the molecular formula C15H12Cl2F4O2. Transfluthrin can be used in the indoor environment against flies, mosquitoes andcockroaches. It is a relatively volatile substance and acts as a contact and inhalation agent. Transfluthrin is a fast acting insecticide. It is used in household and hygiene products, mainly against flying insects, such as mosquitoes and flies, but also against material pests, such as moths.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Transfluthrin is of low acute toxicity in the rat, with an LD50 of >5000 mg/kg bw via each route of administration and with an acute and dermal NOEL of 100 mg/kg bw/d. The 4 h LC50 was >513 mg/m3 air for male and female rats. The only sign noted during the 14 d observation period was a slight tremor in females for 5 minutes after dosing. Transfluthrin is not a skin or eye irritant, nor a skin sensitizer.

NAME: Traseolide

CLASSIFICATION: Synthetic polycyclic musk
DESCRIPTION: Traseolide is a synthetic polycyclic musk used as a fragrance ingredient in a variety of consumer products, including soaps, perfumes, and cosmetics (Daughton 1999). Exposure to Traseolide can take place through dermal absorption, inhalation, and ingestion pathways. Inhalation of this chemical typically occurs through use of aerosolized consumer products, such as perfumes or air fresheners, that contain Traseolide; dermal exposure typically occurs through use of personal care products, such as lotion and cosmetics, that are applied to the skin
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Very little is known about potential, long-term toxic effects of human exposure to Traseolide. A recent study using aquatic organisms showed that exposure to Traseolide can cause long-term inhibition of specific transporters in cell walls that are responsible for keeping toxic molecules from entering the cell (Luckenbach 2005). This inhibition could result in accumulation of toxic substances within cells. These same cell wall transporters are found in human tissue as well; further studies should be conducted to investigate any implications of these findings for human health.

NAME: Triallate                     

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Triallate belongs to the thiocarbamate chemical class. It is a pre-emergence selective herbicide used to control grass weeds in field and pulse crops . It is used selectively to control wild oats, black grass, and annual meadow grass in barley, wheat, peas, lentils, rye, maize, beets, brassicas, carrots and onions . Depending on the crop that is treated, the herbicide is incorporated in the soil before or after planting . Triallate is available as emulsifiable concentrates and as granular formulations.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Technical Triallate is slightly toxic by ingestion to humans. It is practically nontoxic via dermal exposure or inhalation . In rats fed Triallate at doses of 50 to 2,000 mg/kg, abnormal behavior was observed at doses of 100 mg/kg and above. No changes in nerve tissue occurred. At doses of 600 mg/kg and above, death and reduced body weight occurred . Sheep may be poisoned by 300 mg/kg of Triallate, with symptoms of depression, lack of appetite, mouth watering, weakness, and convulsions . Inhalation exposure to large amounts of thiocarbamates may cause itching, scratching.

NAME: Triadimefon

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Triadimefon is also known as Bayleton. It is a systemic fungicide in the triazole family of chemicals. Triadimefon is used to control powdery mildews, rusts and other fungal pests on cereals, fruits vegetables, turf, shrubs and trees.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Triadimefon is a moderately toxic compound that carries the signal word WARNING on its label. While there is a rather extensive amount of information on the acute toxicity of the compound to certain animals, there is very little information about its direct effects on humans. The technical compound Bayleton (92.6% triadimefon) has an acute oral LD50 in rats of 569 mg/kg, around 1,000 mg/kg in mice, and about 500 mg/kg in rabbits and dogs .These rather consistent values are slightly higher than normal for the classification moderately toxic. The compound is given the stronger classification because of its potential to cause adverse chronic effects at low to moderate dose levels. As expected, the lower potency formulations of Bayleton have lower toxicities (higher LD50 values). Acute inhalation toxicity of the compound is rather low. The inhalation LC50 is greater than 291 mg/m3 for rats and near that amount for mice exposed over a four-hour interval. Acute toxicity through exposure to the skin is also fairly low. The LD50 values for the dermal toxicity of Bayleton (technical) are greater than 1,000 mg/kg for rats and 2,000 mg/kg for rabbits.

NAME: Triadimenol

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Triadimenol is the primary metabolite of triadimefon and is registered separately under its own active ingredient number. Triadimefon is used to control various fungal diseases in fruit (pineapple) and non-food use sites such as: pine seedlings, Christmas trees, residential (sod farm) and commercial turf, ornamentals, and landscape.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The endpoint of concern for triadimenol is neurotoxicity, which was observed in rat, mice, and rabbit studies. Since no appropriate acute endpoint could be determined from the triadimenol database, the triadimefon subchronic neurotoxicity study in rats was chosen for the acute reference dose (aRfD) for triadimenol, as well. 

NAME: Triamiphos

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticides (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Triamiphos is an organic phosphorus insecticide. Organic phosphorus insecticides are absorbed by the skin, as well as by the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Organophosphates, such as TRIAMIPHOS, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides.

NAME: Triapenthenol                 

CLASSIFICATION:  Plant Growth Regulator
DESCRIPTION: Triapenthenol is the proposed common name for a new plant growth regulator (E)-l-cyclohexyl-4, 4-dimethyl-2-(1, 2, 4-triazol-l-yl)-l-penten-3-01. Its main influence upon plants is an inhibition of shoot growth. Root growth is not inhibited at normal dosages. Growth inhibition in dicotyledons is achieved by either foliar or root uptake, while in monocotyledons, root uptake is necessary and foliar treatment fails to produce growth inhibition. Mainly acropetal transport of the compound is assumed to be responsible for this behaviour. Apart from growth inhibition, a marked influence upon water relations in plants was observed. In barley, water consumption was reduced for whole plants. Calculations also revealed a reduction of transpiration per unit leaf area. In rape only an initial reduction of water consumption was observed. The fresh weight/dry weight ratio of plants was increased by the compound. The total nitrogen content per plant was unchanged but increased when calculated on a dry weight basis. The compound exerted retardant effects by interfering with gibberellin biosynthesis, but the shape of the dose-response curves with increasing gibberellin concentrations in the presence and in the absence of Triapenthenol suggests that this may not be the only effect of the compound on the plant metabolism.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The hazard referred to in this Recommendation is the acute risk to health (that is, the risk of single or multiple exposures over a relatively short period of time) that might be encountered accidentally by any person handling the product in accordance with the directions for handling by the manufacturer or in accordance with the rules laid down for storage and transportation by competent international bodies.
NAME: Triazamate
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: An insecticide used to control aphids on a wide variety of crops. Triazamate is a plant-systemic aphicide which moves both acropetally and basipetally. It acts primarily as a stomach poison and also has contact activity. The product has a rapid knockdown effect. Reductions in the number of aphids can be seen within one hour of application, with complete control within 24 hours. It also has residual activity lasting 2-3 weeks depending on species. Triazamate is specific to aphids. It is safe to beneficial insects and mites. The company notes that the use of adjuvants improves rainfastness and allows lower application rates to be used. In field trials, triazamate gave similar or better results than standard insecticides at lower application rates. It is effective on strains of Myzus persicae (peach-potato aphid), Aphis gossypii (cotton aphid) and Phorodon humuli (damson-hop aphid) resistant to certain other insecticides. Molecular weight:314.4; Physical form:White to light tan, crystalline solid, with a slight sulfur odour ( tech.). Density:1.222 (20.5 ¡C); Melting point:54 ¡C; Flash point:189 ¡C (EEC A9); Vapour pressure:0.16 mPa (25 ¡C); Henry constant:1.26 ? 10-4 Pa m3 mol-1 (25 ¡C, calc.); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = 2.15 ( pH 7, 25 ¡C); pKa:Non-ionising pH 4-9; Solubility: In water 399 ppm ( pH 7, 25 ¡C). Soluble in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate (tech
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It has shown acute oral toxicity to male rat LD50 is 2198mg/kg, to female rat is 2355mg/kg, slight acute toxicity to rat. For many animal studies, a dose response relationship can be determined, which provides a dose that causes adverse effects (threshold effects) and doses causing no observed effects (the ``no-observed effect level'' or ``NOEL''). Moderately toxic if swallowed or inhaled. Oral: Acute oral LD50 for male rats 100-200, female rats 50-100, mice 54 mg tech./kg. Percutaneous: Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >5000 mg/kg. Practically non-irritating to the skin; moderate eye irritant (rabbits). Not a skin sensitizer (guinea pigs). Inhalation: LC50 for rats 0.47 mg/l air. ADI:0.012 mg/kg b.w.

NAME: Triazophos

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide, nematicide)
DESCRIPTION: Triazophos is a synthetic chemical used as an insecticide. Triazophos can be toxic to wildlife. Triazophos is one of a class of chemically similar substances called organophosphorus pesticides. They are chemically similar to compounds developed as 'nerve gas' developed for use as chemical weapons before and during the Second World War, and have a similar mode of action. Triazophos is broken down in the environment and does not bioaccumulate, unlike certain organochlorine insecticides, for example. Effects of releases are therefore considered to be confined to the locality of the release and significant transport in environmental media over long distances is considered to be insignificant.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Excessive exposure to triazophos may affect the brain and peripheral nerve. The Environment Agency aims to ensure that environmental exposures are too low to harm human health. In a survey in the UK 81 samples of carrots were taken in 1991 and 1992 from crops with a known history of treatment with triazophos in accordance with label recommandations. The application rates were 0.53 or 1.05 kg ai/ha, the number of treatments from 1 to 3 and the PHI from 78 to 250 days, mostly between 100 and 200 days. Residues ranged from <0.02 to 0.94 mg/kg with a mean of 0.17 mg/kg, and the 90th percentile was approximately 0.4 mg/kg. Triazophos was evaluated in 1982 and several times since then, most recently in 1991. Maximum residue levels were estimated for a number of commodities and recommended as TMRLs because the ADI was temporary. At the 23rd and 24th Sessions of the CCPR (1991-92) the proposed TMRLs for citrus fruits, bananas,Brussels sprouts, head cabbages, common beans and cauliflower were held at step 7b and referred back to the JMPR. Written comments were received from France, Germany and The Netherlands on citrus fruits, bananas, Brussels sprouts and head cabbages. The manufacturer submitted new residue data from supervised trials on carrots, strawberries and soya beans.

NAME: Tributyl phosphate             

CLASSIFICATION: Hydraulic fluid
DESCRIPTION: Tributyl phosphate, known commonly as TBP, is an organophosphorus compound with the formula(CH3CH2CH2CH2O)3PO. This colourless, odorless liquid finds some applications as an extractant and a plasticizer. It is an ester of orthophosphoric acid with n-butanol. TBP is a solvent and plasticizer for cellulose esters such as nitrocellulose and cellulose acetate. It forms stable hydrophobic complexes with some metals; these complexes are soluble in organic solvents as well as supercritical CO2. The major uses of TBP in industry are as a component of aircraft hydraulic fluid and as a solvent for extraction and purification of rare earth metals from their ores.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Tributyl phosphate (TBP) produces tumors of the bladder urothelium in rats at high doses (700 and 3000 ppm), with greater effects in males than in females. TBP does not produce tumors in mice and it is nongenotoxic. The dose response of TBP effects on urine and urothelium was evaluated in male SpragueÐDawley rats at 0, 200, 700, and 3000 ppm of the diet, 10 rats per group, for 10 weeks.

NAME: Tributyl phosphorotrithioite  

CLASSIFICATION: Cotton Defoliant
DESCRIPTION: S,S,S-Tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) is an organophosphate chemical which was first registered in 1960 for cotton defoliation (U.S. EPA, 1981).
HEALTH PROBLEMS: DEF appears to be readily absorbed by the oral route and rapidly metabolized in the species examined. Several metabolic pathways have been proposed for DEF based on a few metabolites; however, the metabolism of DEF by the various routes of exposure is still highly speculative. One explanation for the inability to identify metabolites was that most of the parent compound had been extensively metabolized into natural constituents, such as fatty acids and proteins. n-Butyl mercaptan (nBM) was identified in the excreta of hens administered DEF orally. It was proposed that DEF was hydrolyzed to nBM in the gut. nBM is thought to be a product of the normal metabolism of DEF in tissues. DEF also readily degrades to nBM in the environment and may be responsible for complaints by residents in communities near cotton fields due to its strong skunk-like odor (odor threshold ~ 0.01 to 1 ppb). However, limited data on nBM preclude a thorough toxicological evaluation. The potential for tribufos to produce a dermal sensitization response was tested in guinea pigs using the Buehler Topical Closed-Patch Technique (Miles, 1990). A total of 35 adult male Hartley albino guinea pigs were assigned to one of five groups: tribufos test group (15 animals), tribufos non-induced control group (five animals, for challenge), tribufos non-induced control group (five animals, for re-challenge), DNCB (positive control) test group (five animals) and DNCB non-induced control group (five animals). The tribufos was administered as a 10% solution for the three induction doses and the challenge dose and as a 1% solution for the re-challenge dose. Animals in the test groups received three topical induction applications of the appropriate formulation on study days 0, 7 and 14, followed by a 13-day "rest" period and a challenge application on day 27. Animals in the two non-induced control groups (tribufos challenge and DNCB) received only the challenge dose on day 27. A re-challenge dose of tribufos was applied on day 34 (test and non-induced control groups) in order to verify that the erythema present in the test group after the challenge dose was due to local irritation rather than to a sensitization reaction. The results of this study indicate that tribufos does not cause a dermal sensitization reaction in guinea pigs using the Buehler Topical Closed-Patch Technique.

NAME: Trichlamide

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Trichlamide is a fungicide which prevents infection of crops with soil pathogens through contact effect. It is used in soil treatment application. The product is used as a reference standard in the measurement of trichlamide.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Hepatotoxicity of trichlamide was considered to be associated with its direct adverse effects on mitochondrial energy production, since it uncoupled isolated mitochondrial respiration at 10Ð6 M and depleted cellular ATP content prior to cell death. Conversely, chlorothalonil- and ziram-induced hepatotoxicity seemed to be related to their depleting effects on cellular sulfhydryls, since addition of the thiol compound dithiothreitol to the hepatocytes incubation mixture protected cells. With respect to isolated mitochondrial respiration, four pesticides inhibited state 3 and/or state 4 respiration rates at 10Ð3Ð10Ð4 M, whereas seven pesticides uncoupled state 4 respiration at 10Ð3Ð10Ð6 M. With respect to isolated microsomal lipid peroxidation, three pesticides were peroxidative at 10Ð3Ð10Ð4 M, whereas three pesticides were antioxidative at 10Ð3Ð10Ð7 M. Only two pesticides,  -endosulfan and metalaxyl, had essentially no effects on any parameters tested at 10Ð3 M.

NAME: Trichlorfon

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION:  Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide used to control cockroaches, crickets, silverfish, bedbugs, fleas, cattle grubs, flies, ticks, leafminers, and leaf-hoppers. It is applied to vegetable, fruit, and field crops; livestock; ornamental and forestry plantings; in agricultural premises and domestic settings; in greenhouses, and for control of parasites of fish in designated aquatic environments. It is also used for treating domestic animals for control of internal parasites. Trichlorfon is available in dust, emulsifiable concentrate, granular, fly bait, and soluble powder formulations with percent active ingredient ranging from 40% (soluble powder) to 98% (technical). Trichlorfon is a selective insecticide, meaning that it kills selected insects, but spares many or most other organisms. Trichlorfon is toxic to target insects through direct applications and via ingestion.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Trichlorfon is moderately toxic by ingestion or dermal absorption. As with all organophosphates, trichlorfon is readily absorbed through the skin. Skin sensitivity (allergies) can result from dermal exposure [106]. Trichlorfon decreases activity of the cholinesterase enzyme which is necessary for normal nervous system function. Symptoms of acute exposure include headache, giddiness, nervousness, blurred vision, weakness, nausea, cramps, loss of muscle control or reflexes, convulsion, or coma [2]. It has been suggested that impurities or additives may be associated with some cases of delayed polyneuropathy (damage to nerve cells) attributed to ingestion of large amounts of trichlorfon [2]. These delayed symptoms may occur following recovery from the initial acute effects. Pure trichlorfon is reported to be less toxic than the technical material [2,8]. The oral LD50 for trichlorfon is 450 to 650 mg/kg in rats and 300 to 860 mg/kg in mice [2]. Other reported oral LD50 values are 94 mg/kg in cats, 400 mg/kg in dogs, 420 mg/kg in dogs, and 160 mg/kg in rabbits [41]. The dermal LD50 is 2000 to 5000 mg/kg in rats [2,8], and 1500 to greater than 2100 mg/kg in rabbits [2,41]. The 4-hour inhalation LC50 for trichlorfon in rats is greater than 0.5 mg/L [13].
Contaminant Facts: Pesticides
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