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Pesticides (Pr - Sp)

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NAME: Procymidone                    
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide, herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Procymidone is a pesticide. It is often used for killing unwanted ferns and nettles, and as adicarboximide fungicide for killing fungi. It is a known endocrine disruptor (androgen receptor antagonist
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Procymidone, fludioxonil, and pyrimethanil are widely used to control the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea in Champagne's vineyards. These fungicides may end up in surface waters and present potential risks for aquatic vascular plants and algae. Therefore, their toxicity was evaluated on Lemna minor and Scenedesmus acutus in six-day or 48-h tests, respectively. Based on growth and chlorophyll (Chl) content of L. minor and S. acutus cultures, the results showed that the alga was the most sensitive to the fungicides. Among the fungicides, pyrimethanil was the most toxic for L. minor, its nominal IC50 was 46.16 mg l(-1) and that of the other two was >100 mg l(-1). In contrast, pyrimethanil appeared the least toxic for S. acutus at low concentration, nominal IC50 were 22.81, 4.85, and 4.55 mg l (-1) for pyrimethanil, fludioxonil, and procymidone, respectively.
NAME: Prodiamine
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Prodiamine is a preemergent herbicide for the control of crabgrass. Properly applied, it will prevent the germination of crabgrass in lawns. It is yellow colored liquid with little odor.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Some chemicals, such as prodiamine, have relatively mild toxicity, but they have been known to cause cancer and disrupt endocrine, reproductive and/or neurological functioning in cases of long-term exposure. Others can cause severe poisoning.
NAME: Profenofos
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Profenofos, an organophosphorus insecticide, was first evaluated by the JMPR in 1990 and has been reviewed for residue in 1992, 1994 and 1995. It was listed for periodic re-evaluation for residue evaluation at the 39th Session of the CCPR by the 2008 JMPR. The toxicology of profenofos was reevaluated by the 2007 JMPR which estimated an ADI of 0Ð0.03 mg/kg bw and an ARfD of1 mg/kg bw.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Profenofos is considered as one of the male reproductive toxicants. Furthermore, we propose that the above three steroidogenic-related genes and the gene of acrosomal reaction as potential biomarkers of testicular toxicity.
NAME: Profenofos metabolite
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Profenofos, an organophosphorus insecticide, was first evaluated by the JMPR in 1990 and has been reviewed for residue in 1992, 1994 and 1995. It was listed for periodic re-evaluation for residue evaluation at the 39th Session of the CCPR by the 2008 JMPR. The toxicology of profenofos was reevaluated by the 2007 JMPR which estimated an ADI of 0Ð0.03 mg/kg bw and an ARfD of 1 mg/kg bw were established.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Profenofos and its metabolites were determined in a case of fatal poisoning. Little profenofos and large amounts of metabolites were detected by gas chromatography/flame photometric detection in the acid extracts of blood and urine after methylation with diazomethane. Four major metabolites containing phosphorus were identified with the synthesized metabolites, namely, despropylated profenofos, desethylated profenofos and des-S-propylated profenofos, respectively. 4-Bromo-2-chlorophenol (BCP), an aryl moiety of profenofos, was also determined in blood and urine with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as free or conjugated metabolites.
NAME: Promecarb
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Almost odorless, colorless crystalline solid. Used as a non-systemic contact insecticide. Not for sale or use in the USA. (EPA, 1998). PROMECARB is a carbamate ester. Carbamates are chemically similar to, but more reactive than amides. Like amides they form polymers such as polyurethane resins. Carbamates are incompatible with strong acids and bases, and especially incompatible with strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Flammable gaseous hydrogen is produced by the combination of active metals or nitrides with carbamates. Strongly oxidizing acids, peroxides, and hydroperoxides are incompatible with carbamates.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is highly toxic with the perils of 1.nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea & excessive salivation sweating. 2. Lassitude & weakness. 3. Rhinorrhea and sensation of tightness in chest may occur with inhalation exposure. 4. Blurring or dimness of vision. Miosis tearing, ciliary muscle spasm, loss of accommodation and ocular pain are on its credit. None of these signs is dependable for diagnosis. Mydriasis may be seen 5. Loss of muscle coordination, slurring of speech, fasciculation & twitching of muscles. 6. Difficulty in breathing, excessive secretions of saliva and of resp tract mucus, oronasal frothing, cyanosis, pulmonary rales & rhonchi, and hypertension. 7. ... Jerky movements, incontinence, convulsions and coma. 8. Death ... due to resp arrest of central origin, paralysis of resp muscles, intense bronchoconstriction or all three.

NAME: Promecarb artifact

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Almost odorless, colorless crystalline solid. Used as a non-systemic contact insecticide. Not for sale or use in the USA. (EPA, 1998)
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Promecarb (3-methyl-5-isopropylphenyl N-methylcarbamate) when orally administered to rats was rapidly eliminated primarily in the urine. Within 3 days, post treatment over 9o% of the administered dose was eliminated generally as unidentified water soluble components. A total of nine organosoluble metabolites were observed. Promecarb and the phenol both free and conjugated, were present in small quantities (ca. 3%) in the urine. The rest of the isolated products were unidentified. pure colorless crystal. The temperature 91 ¡ C ~ 92. The water solubility of 620mg / L, soluble in methanol, acetone, methylene chloride. LD5074 ~ ATG. 20 1950s to the mid-carbamate insecticides may be 3-methyl-5-isopropyl - phenol and methyl isocyanate reaction from the system. Non-Systemic tag agent, the main control Coleoptera and Lepidoptera pests. Preparations have powder, granules, wettable powder.
NAME: Prometon                      
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Prometon, a triazine herbicide, is used for total vegetation control on industrial sites, on noncrop areas on farms, in and under asphalt, and to a small extent by homeowners. Prometon has often been detected in surface water and groundwater in studies reported in the literature, but its presence is seldom discussed, partly because of its infrequent inclusion on lists of herbicides used in either agricultural or urban areas. In recent large-scale studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, prometon has been the most commonly detected herbicide in surface water and groundwater in urban areas and the third and fourth most commonly detected herbicide in groundwater and surface water, respectively, in agricultural areas. It also has been detected in rain. The frequent detection of prometon in the environment is discussed in relation to its use practices and predicted environmental behavior. Prometon is compared to atrazine, a structurally similar agricultural triazine herbicide that is one of the most studied and most commonly detected herbicides found in the hydrologic environment. The environmental data presented here demonstrate the wide-scale occurrence of prometon in all components of the hydrologic system, particularly in the surface water and groundwater of urban areas.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: EPA has set a lifetime Health Advisory Level for Prometon in drinking water.EPA believes that water containing prometon at or below 100 ug/L is acceptable for drinking every day over the course of oneÕs life time and does not pose health concerns.
NAME: Prometryn
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Prometryn is an herbicide applied to various foods and feed crops, primarily cotton and celery; it has been detected in groundwater in agricultural areas in California. Prometryn is a selective herbicide which controls annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in cotton and celery. It inhibits photosynthesis. Prometryn is available in wettable powder and liquid formulations.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: In humans, prometryn is slightly to moderately toxic .It is harmful if swallowed, and exposed workers may complain of sore throat and nausea .Eye and skin contact with the herbicide should be avoided, as should inhalation of dust, and contamination of food and feed. Prometryn mixers, loaders, and applicators receive the most exposure from skin and eye contact, as well as from inhalation .Occupational exposure to triazine herbicides, the class of herbicides within which prometryn is included, may produce some generalized bodily, or 'systemic,' toxicity. Workers in some triazine manufacturing plants suffer from skin irritation. Finished triazines have not been reported to cause significant skin or mucous membrane irritation .Prometryn was not irritating to rabbit skin. Application of 80 mgto rabbit eyes was mildly irritating.
NAME: Propachlor
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Propachlor is an herbicide used to control grasses and broadleaf weeds in the first season (growth establishment phase). Propachlor is used on grain sorghum (milo), field corn, hybrid seed corn, silage corn, and for onion seed in Washington and Oregon. Formulation types registered include: manufacturing product (93% and96.5% a.i.); a flowable concentrate (31.5% and 42% a.i. formulated with atrizine); and a granular (20% a.i.). Propachlor can be applied with groundboom sprayers, tractor-drawn broadcast spreaders, and granular row planters. Application rates vary from 3.0 to 6.0 pounds of active ingredient per acre depending upon the application scenario.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Sufficient data are available to assess the acute, subchronic, chronic toxicity and carcinogenic potential of propachlor. Propachlor has been classified as a "Likely" human carcinogen, based on the (a) rare stomach tumor in male Fischer 344 rats; (b) thyroid tumors in male and ovarian granulosa/theca cell tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats at doses that were not adequate to assess carcinogenicity; c) hepatocellular tumors in male CD-1 mice; (d) in vitro clastogenic activity; and (e) tumors observed at one or more of the same sites with three structurally-related chloroacetanilide compounds.
NAME: Propanil                      
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Propanil is an acetanilide postemergence herbicide with no residual effect. It is used against numerous grasses and broad-leaved weeds in rice. It is available as emulsifiable concentrates, liquid and dry flowable, low volume, and ultra low volume (ULV) formulations.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Propanil is toxic by ingestion and slightly toxic by dermal absorption .It is readily absorbed into the body through ingestion, inhalation or dermal exposure. It may cause central nervous system (CNS) depression. CNS effects include headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and confusion. Other symptoms include dark urine and blood (from the formation of methemoglobin), acetanilide in the urine, chills, cyanosis (also from methemoglobin), and jaundice. Death from respiratory failure may occur. Eating propanil may result in a burning sensation and irritation of the mouth, throat and gut, accompanied by gagging, coughing, nausea or vomiting. Ingestion may also cause stupor, dizziness, fever, drowsiness and blue lips and fingernails. Inhalation of vapors can irritate the nose and throat and cause drowsiness, slurred speech, headache, nausea, dizziness, stupor and unconsciousness. Cardiac patients are especially susceptible to the toxic effects of the acetanilide group of herbicides.
NAME: Propaphos 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: It is Colourless liquid. Soluble in most organic solvents, which is stable in neutral and acidic media, but is slowly decomposed in alkaline media.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Based on LD50 values, acephate and propaphos were markedly less toxic to the wolf spider, Lycosa pseudoannulata than to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Both insecticides underwent slower penetration, poorer internal accumulation, but greater excretion in L. pseudoannulata than in N. lugens. Acephate was mainly metabolized into its active metabolite methamidophos by N. lugens but not by L. pseudoannulata. Propaphos was metabolized into its active metabolites propaphos sulfoxide and propaphos sulfone at greater level by N. lugens than by L. pseudoannulata. However, further degradation of these metabolites into non-toxic compounds was greater by the latter than by the former. Higher acetylcholinesterase inhibition and the greater toxicity for N. lugens than for L. pseudoannulata were associated with the greater activation of acephate and propaphos to their corresponding active metabolites. Based on the results of the study, the metabolic pathways of acephate and propaphos in the test arthropods are proposed.
NAME: Propargite                    
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Propargite is an insecticide used to control mites on a variety of field, fruit, and vegetable crops, as well as ornamentals. It is manufactured by Uniroyal Chemical, under the trade names Omite and Comite. It is sold in both liquid and wettable powder formulations. Propargite is applied by aerial application, chemigation, airblast sprayer, and high pressure handwand.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Propargite generally has been shown to have low acute toxicity via the oral and dermal routes of exposure. However, it is considered to be severely irritating to both the skin and eyes, and dermal sensitization effects have been observed. Toxicity Categories used by EPA range from 1 (most toxic) to 4 (least toxic); for propargite, the categories are 3 for acute oral and dermal toxicity, and 1 for eye and dermal irritation. Propargite is classified as a probable human carcinogen based on the appearance of intestinal tumors in test animals. The cancer concern was based on a 2-year cancer bioassay conducted on Sprague Dawley rats. In that study, propargite caused fatal tumors of the intestine in both male and female rats.
NAME: Propetamphos
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Under normal conditions, Propetamphos is a yellow oily liquid, which has no smell. Propetamphos boils at 88 degrees celsius. Propetamphos is stable under most circumstances, but is broken down when in alkaline conditions. Propetamphos dissolves slightly in water, but mixes readily with organic (carbon-containing) solvents. Propetamphos is as an organophosphorus insecticide, mainly used to control insects and mites in domestic situations and in public buildings. These sorts of insecticides work by interfering with the nervous system, causing paralysis and eventually death. They are chemically similar to chemicals developed as "nerve gas" used at the time of World War II.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Propetamphos can enter the body either by inhalation of air containing propetamphos, accidental ingestion, or by dermal contact with propetamphos. Inhalation of air containing propetamphos can lead to breathing difficulties, chest tightness, nausea, dizziness, headaches and vomiting. Inhalation of high levels of propetamphos may lead to symptoms similar to those exhibited on exposure to other organophosphate pesticides such as numbness, lack of coordination, headache, tremors, nausea, abdominal cramps, blurred vision, incontinence, convulsions and in extreme cases death. Ingestion of propetamphos can lead to effects similar to those for inhalation. Dermal contact and absorption of high levels of propetamphos may lead to symptoms similar to those for inhalation and ingestion. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has not designated propetamphos in terms of its carcinogenicity. However, exposure to propetamphos at normal background levels is unlikely to have any adverse effect on human health.
NAME: Propham
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide, fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: It is an herbicide and fungicide used as a seed dressing; has little if any toxicity. It is a light brown solid with a melting point of 87Ð88¡C; slightly soluble in water; used as a pre- and postemergence herbicide for vegetable crops. Abbreviated IPC (isopropyl-N-phenylcarbamate
HEALTH PROBLEMS: There are both microbiological and toxicity concerns. There have been no long term studies on the effects of a diet of irradiated food on humans, for example. In addition, there are some fruit fly larvae that could remain fertile after being irradiated, with serious biosecurity consequences for New Zealand. Irradiation, far from being a panacea for bacterial and viral problems, can be used to disguise unacceptable levels of hygiene during the production, processing and handling of food.
NAME: Propiconazole-II
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Propiconazole is a systemic foliar fungicide with a broad range of activity. It is used on grasses grown for seed, mushrooms, corn, wild rice, peanuts, almonds, sorghum, oats, pecans, apricots, peaches, nectarines, plums and prunes. On cereals it controls diseases caused by Erysiphe graminis, Leptosphaeria nodorum, Pseudocerosporella herpotrichoides, Puccinia spp., Pyrenophora teres, Rhynchosporium secalis, and Septoria spp.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The acute toxicity to mammals for propiconazole technical are an acute oral LD50 for rats of 1,517 mg/kg and 1,344 mg/kg for rabbits. The acute dermal LD50 for rabbit was reported to be >4,000 mg/kg. Propiconazole was considered a slight irritant in rabbit skin and eye irritation studies. A skin sensitization study in guinea pigs demonstrated no allergic effect.
NAME: Propisochlor
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Propisochlor is one of the 295 substances of the fourth stage of the review programme covered by Commission Regulation (EC) No 2229/20043, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1095/20074 . In accordance with the Regulation, at the request of the Commission of the European Communities (hereafter referred to as Ôthe CommissionÕ), the EFSA organised a peer review of the initial evaluation, i.e. the Draft Assessment Report (DAR), provided by Hungary, being the designated rapporteur Member State (RMS). The peer review process was subsequently terminated following the applicantÕs decision, in accordance with Article 24e, to withdraw support for the inclusion of propisochlor in Annex I to Council Directive 91/414/EEC.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Low acute toxicity is observed when propisochlor is administered by the oral, dermal and inhalation routes. No skin or eye irritation was observed, but there was potential for skin sensitisation. The main effect is decreased body weight upon short-term and long-term exposure in rats and mice.
NAME: Propoxur
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide ( insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Propoxur (Baygon¨) is a carbamate insecticide and was introduced in 1959. Propoxur is a non-systemic insecticide with a fast knockdown and long residual effect used against turf, forestry, and household pests and fleas. It is also used in pest control for other domestic animals, Anophelesmosquitoes, ants, gypsy moths, and other agricultural pests. It can also be used as a molluscicide.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: At a minimum, it carries a substantial risk to fetal development. At worst, exposure to propoxur on a daily basis for decade after decade after decade (after decade after decade etc. etc. etc....) will result in chronic toxicity that likely leads to a multitude of chronic human health problems. In addition, propoxur is deadly in the environment outside your home. It is a death sentence for birds, aquatic organisms and bees. Worst of all, if we poison ourselves and the environment around us to kill the bed bugs we can see at this moment, the likely outcome is that in the near future we'll be poisoned, the environments around us will be diminished and the bed bugs will be OK.
NAME: Propyzamide
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Propyzamide is a residual herbicide absorbed by plant roots. Application should be made to firm, moist soils with a fine tilth. Best control is achieved by treating small black-grass plants, before they begin to tiller. Where conditions are still relatively warm, or where the population is known to contain resistant black-grass plants, always apply the highest recommended dose of propyzamide
HEALTH PROBLEMS: This product is classified as: Hazardous according to the criteria of NOHSC Australia. Not a Dangerous Good according to the Australian Dangerous Goods (ADG) Code. Risk Phrases: R36/38. It is irritating to eyes and skin. Safety Phrases: S24/25.It is suggested to avoid contact with skin and eyes.
NAME: Prothioconazole-desthio       
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Prothioconazole is a broad-spectrum systemic fungicide produced by Bayer CropScience for the control of diseases caused by ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and deuteromycetes. Prothioconazole may be applied alone or as a tank mix with other fungicides, insecticides, or herbicides. Application through any type of irrigation system is prohibited.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Prothioconazole has low acute toxicity by oral, dermal, and inhalation routes. It is not a dermal sensitizer, or a skin or eye irritant. Prothioconazole-desthio also has low acute toxicity by oral, dermal, and inhalation routes. It is not a dermal sensitizer, or a skin irritant, but it is a slight eye irritant. Subchronic studies show that the target organs at the LOAEL include the liver, kidney, urinary bladder, thyroid and blood. Significant clinical chemistry findings were also made.
NAME: Prothiofos
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION:   Profenofos and Prothiofos are highly lipid soluble, moderately toxic OP insecticides. They have an S-alkyl (SÐC3H7) group attached to the phosphorus, in addition to the more typical OÐC2H5 group. Although in vitrostudies with human red cells have been done, the consequences of this different structure on AChE inhibition and reactivation with oximes in vivo are unknown. We therefore prospectively studied patients with a history of S-alkyl OP poisoning to better understand its clinical course. Cholinesterase inhibition and re-activation with pralidoxime was studied in a subgroup of profenofos poisoned patients.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Compared with other commonly used OP insecticides, profenofos and Prothiofos are of moderately severe toxicity, causing relatively delayed respiratory failure and death. There was no apparent response to oxime therapy. The lack of correlation between red cell AChE activity and clinical features suggests that this parameter may not always be a useful marker of synaptic AChE activity and severity after OP pesticide poisoning.
NAME: Prothoate
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide)
DESCRIPTION: Prothoate is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: This is a highly toxic material capable of causing death or permanent injury due to exposures during normal use. Small doses at frequent intervals are additive. Similar to parathion.
NAME: Pyracarbolid
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: It is commercially available as sicarol. It is effective against rust & smut & Rhizoctonia Spp.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The toxicity of leaf deposits of pyracarbolid, mebenil, benodanil and oxycarboxin decreased by 83, 53, 50 and 41%, respectively after 80 h in sunlight. The compounds with low photostability (e.g. carboxin, furcarbanil and cyclafuramid) are recommended mainly for controlling seed- and soil-borne fungi; pyracarbolid, mebenil, oxycarboxin and benodanil, which proved to be more photostable, appear to be useful fungicides to control rust diseases. Among several photochemical decomposition products of carboxin detected, the sulphoxide and sulphone were identified.
NAME: Pyraclofos                    
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Pyraclofos is an organophosphate anticholinesterase compound that has moderate acute oral and inhalational toxicity, low dermal toxicity and has an ADI of 0.001 mg/kg/day.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The product is determined to be of low toxicity by oral and dermal routes, it is considered to be a skin sensitizer and a slight skin and eye irritant. An acceptable daily intake (ADI) for pyraclofos is 0.001 mg/kg/day, based on a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 0.1 mg/kg/day and using a safety factor of 100.
NAME: Pyraflufen-ethyl              
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: This compound is normally used as a salt or an ester, the identity of which should be stated, for example pyraflufen-ethyl.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Pyraflufen-ethyl has low to moderate toxicity from acute exposure and it is not a dermal sensitizer. The liver, kidney, and possibly the hematopoietic system are the target organs for pyraflufen-ethyl in the rat and/or the mouse. There is no evidence of increased sensitivity to the young in developmental and reproductive studies with pyraflufen- ethyl. Pyraflufen-ethyl was not shown to be mutagenic in a battery of tests. Pyraflufen-ethyl was classified as ``Likely to be carcinogenic to humans'' based on male mouse hepatocellular adenomas, carcinomas and/or hepatoblastomas (combined) observed in the mouse carcinogenicity study.
NAME: Pyrazon
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Pyrazon [5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinone], also known as chloridazon, is an herbicide belonging to the pyridazinone class of pesticides. It works as an herbicide by blocking electron transport in photosystem II in green plants, thereby inhibiting photosynthesis. Pyrazon is registered for pre-plant, preemergence, and early post-emergence use on sugar beets and red table beets to control certain weeds. Approximately 10% of the U.S. sugar beet crop and 50% of the U.S. table beet crop are treated with pyrazon annually. Pyrazon is also registered for commercial use on ornamentals, including bulb crops and roses.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Pyrazon is considered to be of low toxicity without highly specific responses in mammals. Pyrazon has low (category III/IV) acute toxicity via the oral, dermal, and inhalation routes of exposure. It is not an eye or skin irritant (category IV) and does not cause dermal sensitization. In longer-term studies, reduced body weight associated with reduced food consumption appears to be the most significant effect of pyrazon exposure in laboratory animals. At higher doses, conditions such as poor general appearance and some motor effects considered to be associated with poor nutrition are noted in rats. No systemic effects resulted from dermal exposure to pyrazon. Pyrazon is classified as Ònot likely to be a carcinogen in humans.Ó

NAME: Pyrazophos                    
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Pyrazophos is an organophosphorus systemic fungicide used on a wide range of crops and cereals in the control of powdery mildew. Pyrazophos was scheduled for evaluation at the 1985 Joint Meeting    but the data base available at that time was insufficient for the estimation of an ADI.
HEALTH PROBLEMS:     Five healthy humans received 0.15 mg/kg bw of Pyrazophos daily    for 10 days. Other 6 subjects received 0.15 mg/kg bw of Pyrazophos    for 3 days, followed by 7 daily doses of 0.07 mg/kg bw. Another 11 subjects received 0.07 mg/kg bw of Pyrazophos for 10 days. Pyrazophos was always administered orally, in orange juice, at breakfast. Males and females were similarly represented in the    groups. Controls received orange juice only. The great majority of controls were the same subjects who had previously taken Pyrazophos.

NAME: Pyrene

CLASSIFICATION: Organic electroluminescence materials (a coal tar derivative)
DESCRIPTION: Pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of four fused benzene rings, resulting in a flat aromatic system. This colourless solid is the smallest peri-fused PAH (one where the rings are fused through more than one face). Pyrene forms during incomplete combustion of organic compounds. Due to extended pi-electron cloud overlaps, organometallic molecules or aromatic oligometers such as anthracene exhibit semiconductor properties. Conductive polymers have extended delocalized bonds that creates electrical conductivity when charge carriers generated make positive charges (holes) and negative charges (electrons) move to opposite electrodes. Doping is the intentional impurities in a pure semiconductor to generate charge carriers. The transportation of charges is responsible for fluorescence and electrical energy. These can form well-ordered thin crystalline films. Organic semiconductors have some merits of self-radiation, flexibility, lightweight, easy fabrication, and low cost. Organic electroluminescence materials have lead to the rapid development of photovoltaic and display devices such as organic solar cells, biosensitizers, OLED(Organic Light Emiting Diode), OTFT(Organic Thin Film Transistor), Wearable Display, and e-Paper. Some examples of organic electroluminescence materials are Oligomer Electro Luminescence Materials

o 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum

o Anthracene

o Pentacene

o Penyl substituent cyclopentadiene derivatives

o Phthaloperinone derivatives

o Perylene derivatives

o Rubrene

Polymer Electro Luminescence Materials

o Polyanilines

o Poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s

o Poly(thiophene)s

o Poly(alkylfluorene)s

o Poly(acetylene)s

HEALTH PROBLEMS: Although it is not as problematic as benzopyrene, animal studies have shown pyrene is toxic to the kidneys and the liver.
NAME: Pyrethrin I                   
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Pyrethrin I is one of the two pyrethrins, naturalorganic compounds with potent insecticidal activity. It is an ester of (+)-Trans-chrysanthemic acid with (S)-(Z)-pyrethrolone. The pyrethrins are a pair of natural organic compounds that have potent insecticidal activity.Pyrethrin I and pyrethrin II are structurally relatedesters with a cyclopropane core, (+)-trans-chrysanthemic acid in the case of pyrethrin I. They differ by the oxidation stateof one carbon. They are viscous liquids that oxidize to become inactivated. They are non-persistent, being biodegradable, and break down on exposure to light or oxygen. The chemical structure of pyrethrins is the basis for a variety of synthetic insecticides called pyrethroids such asbifenthrin, permethrin, and cypermethrin.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Synthetic pyrethroid compounds vary in their toxicity as do the natural pyrethrins. Pyrethrum carries the signal word CAUTION. Inhaling high levels of pyrethrum may bring about asthmatic breathing, sneezing, nasal stuffiness, headache, nausea, incoordination, tremors, convulsions, facial flushing and swelling, and burning and itching sensations .The most severe poisonings have been reported in infants, who are not able to efficiently break down pyrethrum. The lowest lethal oral dose of pyrethrum is 750 mg/kg for children and 1,000 mg/kg for adults. Oral LD50 values of pyrethrins in rats range from 200 mg/kg to greater than 2,600 mg/kg. Some of this variability is due to the variety of constituents in the formulation. Mice have a pyrethrum oral LD50 of 370 mg/kg .Animals exposed to toxic amounts may experience tongue and lip numbness, nausea, and diarrhea. Symptoms may also include incoordination, tremors, convulsions, paralysis, respiratory failure, and death.

NAME: Pyrethrin II                  

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticides)
DESCRIPTION: Pyrethrins are natural insecticides produced by certain species of the chrysanthemum plant. The flowers of the plant are harvested shortly after blooming and are either dried or powdered or the oils within the flowers are extracted with solvents. The resulting pyrethrin containing dusts and extracts usually have an active ingredient content of about 30%. These active insecticidal components are collectively known as pyrethrins. Two pyrethrins are most prominent, pyrethrin-I and pyrethrin-II. The pyrethrins have another four different active ingredients, Cinerin I and II and Jasmolin I and II. Pyrethrin compounds have been used primarily to control human lice, mosquitoes, cockroaches, beetles and flies. Some "pyrethrin dusts," used to control insects in horticultural crops, are only 0.3% to 0.5% pyrethrins, and are used at rates of up to 50 lb/A. Other pyrethrin compounds may be used in grain storage and in poultry pens and on dogs and cats to control lice and fleas.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Synthetic pyrethroid compounds vary in their toxicity as do the natural pyrethrins. Pyrethrum carries the signal word CAUTION. Inhaling high levels of pyrethrum may bring about asthmatic breathing, sneezing, nasal stuffiness, headache, nausea, incoordination, tremors, convulsions, facial flushing and swelling, and burning and itching sensations. The most severe poisonings have been reported in infants, who are not able to efficiently break down pyrethrum. The lowest lethal oral dose of pyrethrum is 750 mg/kg for children and 1,000 mg/kg for adults. Oral LD50 values of pyrethrins in rats range from 200 mg/kg to greater than 2,600 mg/kg. Some of this variability is due to the variety of constituents in the formulation. Mice have a pyrethrum oral LD50 of 370 mg/kg. Animals exposed to toxic amounts may experience tongue and lip numbness, nausea, and diarrhea. Symptoms may also include incoordination, tremors, convulsions, paralysis, respiratory failure, and death.

NAME: Pyributicarb 

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Pyributicarb (CAS NO. 88678-67-5) is a thio-carbamate herbicides, which has high herbicidal activityon annual grass weeds , especially in the bud or postgermination after application , has excellent effect on controlling in pyributicarb's growth.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: A study was carried out to investigate a time course for the concentrations of herbicides in river water used as a source of tap water. The four herbicides monitored by GC-MS were esprocarb, thiobencarb, pyributicarb and pretirachlor, which were mainly used in paddy fields on rice planting. On the monitoring from 9 May to 28 August 1998 at Chitose river, the herbicides were detected from middle May to last of June and the pretirachlor concentration of 5.41 ng/ml was the maximum value observed. From the result, there is a probability that the herbicides for rice puddy fields pollute a tap water source at a high concentration and during a short period. Therefore, the monitoring on these agricultural chemicals during a fixed period seems to be important to supply safe tap water. On GC-MS analysis of the herbicides, we detected an unexpected peak on the chromatograms, which was considered to be an oxon-form of pyributicarb (pyributi-oxon). The retention time and mass spectrum of pyributi-oxon completely agreed with those of authentic sample newly synthesized. Pyributi-oxon was detected in river water at higher concentration than that of pyributicarb during some period. In conclusion, it was revealed that pyributicarb was easily converted into pyributi-oxon by oxidation under environmental condition. Therefore, it seems to be important to study on the safty of pyributi-oxon in order to estimate the influence of pyributicarb in environment.
NAME: Pyridaben
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide)
DESCRIPTION: Pyridaben is a selective contact insecticide and miticide, also effective against thrips, aphids, whiteflies and leafhopprs. Registrations are for pome fruits, almonds, citrus, ornamentals and greenhouse ornamentals. Pyridaben provides exceptionally long residual control, and rapid knockdown at a broad range of temperatures. Pyridaben is one of four important synthetic heterocyclic insecticides and miticides with NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase as the target
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Pyridaben has been studied for toxicity and the results have shown it to be of moderate toxicity. No mortality occurred and there minimum signs in percutaneous tests. Major clinical signs observed were decreased spontaneous activity, abnormal gait, prone/recumbent posture, eye closing, pyloerection and bradypnea. The surviving animal returned to normality. In the inhalation test, there mortalities within one day.

NAME: Pyridate 

DESCRIPTION: Pyridate belongs to the pyridazine group whose herbicidal properties were first reported in 1976. The members of this group of herbicides are inhibitors of plant growth and control a wide spectrum of weeds. Pyridate is rapidly absorbed by leaves. Once inside the sensitive weed species, activity is evident by marginal yellowing, followed by browning and yellowing of the entire leaf. This visible evidence generally occurs within 4-7 days of application. Activity is more rapid at higher temperatures and under good growing conditions. Crop tolerance is due to the rapid inactivation of Pyridate by the crop.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Pyridate has low acute, oral, dermal and inhalation toxicities in rats and/or rabbits. Studies indicate that Pyridate is not mutagenic or teratogenic and exhibits low toxicity to fish, wildlife and honeybees. Subchronic feeding and reproduction studies as well as chronic feeding studies in rats, mice, and dogs are also favorable. The data indicate that when Pyridate is used in corn and tomatoes, in accordance with label directions, residues are not considered to pose a hazard to consumers.
NAME: Pyridinitril
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticides (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are ddpp;culvan;it-3296;PYRIDINITRIL;Pyridinitrile;pyridinitrile (bsi,iso);2,6-dichlor-4-phenylpyridin-3,5-dicarbonitril;2,6-dichloro-4-phenyl-5-pyridinedicarbonitrile;2,6-dichloro-4-phenylpyridinedicarbonitrile-3,5;2,6-Dichloro-4-phenyl-3,5-pyridine carbonitrile. Molecular Formula: C13H5Cl2N3.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Seven pyrimethanil salts were synthesized by organic base containing nitrogen atom reacting with substituted pyridine acids. They are reported for the first time. Their structures have been confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The preliminary toxicity tests indicated that most of them exhibited excellent fungicidal activities.
NAME: Pyrifenox I
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Pyrifenox is a fungicide. A fungicide for the control of powdery mildew, scab and other fungal pathogens on a range of crops. Pyrifenox, a new pyridine derivative, proved to be an inhibitor of ergosterol biosynthesis, blocking the pathway at the C-14 demethylation step in Ustilago maydis (CD.) Cor da. In treated sporidia the incorporation of [1-14C]acetic acid into ergosterol and squalene was reduced and the incorporation into sterols which retain the C-14 methyl group, mainly 24-methylenedihydrolanosterol and obtusifoliol, was increased. In addition, treatment with pyrifenox markedly reduced the incorporation into sterol esters. It is possible that the methylated sterols may be unsuitable substrates for the esterification enzyme.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: No toxicity was detectable up to the limit of solubility of triforine. Slightly hazardous.
NAME: Pyrifenox II
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are RONDO;Corado;DORADO;NRK ;Podigrol;ACR 3651;PYRIFENOX;ro15-1297;Pyriphenox, 297;POLIGROL. Slightly viscous, tan liquid with mild aromatic odor. bp0.1 >150¡. vapor pressure at 25¡: 1.4 « 10-5 torr. Soly (at 20¡) in water at pH 7: 115 mg/l; in hexane: <1 g/l; in acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform, diethyl ether, DMF, isopropyl alcohol, toluene: >250 g/l. LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 950 i.p.; 2900 orally; >5000 dermally; LC50 by inhalation in rats: >2.05 mg/l (Zobrist). Pyrifenox, a new pyridine derivative, proved to be an inhibitor of ergosterol biosynthesis, blocking the pathway at the C-14 demethylation step in Ustilago maydis (CD.) Cor da. In treated sporidia the incorporation of [1-14C]acetic acid into ergosterol and squalene was reduced and the incorporation into sterols which retain the C-14 methyl group, mainly 24-methylenedihydrolanosterol and obtusifoliol, was increased. In addition, treatment with pyrifenox markedly reduced the incorporation into sterol esters. It is possible that the methylated sterols may be unsuitable substrates for the esterification enzyme. Boiling point: bp0.1 >150¡
HEALTH PROBLEMS: LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 950 i.p.; 2900 orally; >5000 dermally; LC50 by inhalation in rats: >2.05 mg/l (Zobrist). Slightly hazardous.
NAME: Pyriftalid
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: English name, Pyriftalid. Ring-ethyl ester was developed by Syngenta pyramiding salicylic acid herbicides. Is mainly used for rice and other grass Control in barnyard grass weeds, use a dose of 100 ~ 300g ai/hm2, residual time in soil 38 days of rice and post-crop safety. Ring-ethyl ester and other pyramiding compounds, like salicylic acid is acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: TC-ethyl ester in rat acute oral LD50&gt; 5000mg/kg, acute dermal LD50&gt; 2000mg/kg, acute inhalation LC50&gt; 5540mg/m3; rabbit skin, eye irritation; guinea pig skin allergy ( allergenicity) test result is non-allergenic; rat subchronic feeding toxicity test 90d maximal no-effect dose: male rats were 23.8mg/kg d, female rats were used as 25.5mg/kg d. 4 mutagenicity tests: Ames test, mouse bone marrow micronucleus test in vivo UDS test in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test were negative, no mutagenic effect.

NAME: Pyrimidifen

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide and insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Pyrimidifen (Miteclean¨) is a new acaricide and insecticide jointly developed by Sankyo Company, Limited and Ube Industries, Limited. This chemical is remarkably effective against a wide range of mites which are Tharmful to fruits, vegetables and tea and against the diamondback moth which is harmful to brassica vegetable. Official tests have been conducted in Japan since1988, leading to the pesticide registration of this chemical approved by Japanese authority in April, 1995.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Instillation of Pyrimidifen technical (about 46 mg/eye) into the eyes of one male and five female New Zealand White rabbits caused slight irritant effects of transient conjunctival inflammation, being, however, reversible within 3 days. Formulation (4%-SC, 0.1 ml/eye, six male New Zealand White rabbits) caused slight conjunctival irritation. Full recovery was observed within 2 days. Furthermore, there was no positive response, corneal damage or iridial inflammation in 1000-fold dilution of4%-SC formulation (0.1 ml/eye, one male and five female New Zealand White rabbits) which is a practical dosage. It's instillation elicited temporary mild conjunctival irritation only.
NAME: Pyriminobac-methyl (E)        
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Methyl E: Methyl E is a completely new and unique proanabolic to hit the sports supplement market. Methyl E (2a,3a Epithio-17a -methyl-17b-hydroxy-5a-androstane) is a chemical analog of a steroidal aromatase inhibitor used safely internationally for decades.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats 6099 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >3100 mg/kg. Moderate irritant to skin; non-irritant to eyes (rabbits). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >2.8 mg/l air. NOEL (2 y) for rats 30, mice 300 ppm; (0.5 y) for dogs 300 ppm. ADI 0.018 mg/kg. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) III (Table 5) EC hazard (R38, R43).

NAME: Pyriminobac-methyl (Z)

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Molecular weight:361.4; Physical form:White powder; ( tech., pale yellow grains). Density:(E)- isomer 1.3868; (Z)- isomer 1.2734 (both 20 ¡C); Composition:Tech. is >93%: (E)- isomer 75-78%, (Z)- isomer 20-11%. Melting point:Tech. 105 ¡C; pure (E)- isomer 107-109 ¡C; pure (Z)- isomer 70 ¡C; Vapour pressure:(E)- isomer 3.5 ? 10-2 mPa (25 ¡C); (Z)- isomer 2.681 ?10-2 mPa (25 ¡C); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):(E)- isomer, logP = 2.98 (21.5 ¡C); (Z)- isomer, logP = 2.70 (20.6 ¡C); Solubility:(E)- isomer: in water 0.00925, methanol 14.6 (both in g/l, 20 ¡C). (Z)- isomer: in water 0.175, methanol 14.0 (both in g/l, 20 ¡C).; Stability: Stable in water (>1 y, pH 4-9), to light, and to heat (not decomposed after 14 d at 55 ¡C);Ê
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Signal Word: CAUTION; Hazard Class: III(Slightly hazardous)
NAME: Pyriproxyfen
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Pyriproxyfen is a pyridine based pesticide which is found to be effective against a variety of arthropoda. It was introduced to the US in 1996 to protect cotton crops against whitefly. It has also found useful for protecting other crops. It is also being used as a prevention for fleas on household pets, and is one of three main ingredients in the product called Vectra 3D¨ produced by Summit VetPharm¨. Pyriproxyfen is a juvenile hormone analogue, preventing larvae from developing into adulthood and thus rendering them unable to reproduce.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Synthetic pyrethroid compounds vary in their toxicity as do the natural pyrethrins. Pyrethrum carries the signal word CAUTION. Inhaling high levels of pyrethrum may bring about asthmatic breathing, sneezing, nasal stuffiness, headache, nausea, incoordination, tremors, convulsions, facial flushing and swelling, and burning and itching sensations . The most severe poisonings have been reported in infants, who are not able to efficiently break down pyrethrum. The lowest lethal oral dose of pyrethrum is 750 mg/kg for children and 1,000 mg/kg for adults . Oral LD50 values of pyrethrins in rats range from 200 mg/kg to greater than 2,600 mg/kg . Some of this variability is due to the variety of constituents in the formulation. Mice have a pyrethrum oral LD50 of 370 mg/kg . Animals exposed to toxic amounts may experience tongue and lip numbness, nausea, and diarrhea. Symptoms may also include incoordination, tremors, convulsions, paralysis, respiratory failure, and death.

NAME: Pyroquilon 

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: It is a fungicide for control of rice blast; seed treatment. The effect of pyroquilon. an inhibitor of meianin synthesis. on the sporulation and secondary infection of Magnaporthe grisea spores was investigated. Spore formation of M. grisea was significantly inhibited on the pyroquilon-containing medium. but mycelial growth was not impaired. Moreover, although the colour of the spore suspension obtained from control medium without pyroquilon was black, the suspension prepared from spores which had grown on the pyroquilon-containing medium was red-brown. The cell walls of the spores consisted of two layers. the outer of which was highly electron-dense and saw-like in cross section, regardless of treatment. Both the outer and the inner layers of the cell walls of spores which had grown on pyroquilon-containing medium were thin compared with those of control spores. When M. grisea spores which had formed on the pyroquilon-containing medium were inoculated onto rice leaf sheaths, red brown appressoria were formed. Compared with the control, appressorial penetration and hyphal growth in the host cells were inhibited. The inhibitory effect pyroquilon exerted upon the infection behavior of M. grisea spores was dependent on the dose of the chemical.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral: Acute oral LD50 for rats 321, mice 581 mg/ kg. Percutaneous:Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >3100 mg/kg. Not a skin irritant; minimal eye irritant (rabbits). Not a skin sensitizer (guinea pigs). Inhalation: LC50 (4 h) for rats >5100 mg/m3. Animals:After oral administration, pyroquilon is rapidly metabolised and eliminated via urine and faeces. Residues in tissues were generally low, and there was no evidence for accumulation or retention of pyroquilon or its metabolites.Soil: DT50 (silty soil) 2 w, (sandy loam) 18 w. Kd 1.3-42µg/g soil, little to moderately mobile. Photolysis in water, DT50 10 d.Plant:Major metabolites in rice grain were 3,4-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxoquinoline-8-acetic acid and two other acetic acid derivatives.

NAME: Quinoclamine

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Quinoclamine is an herbicide under development for control of liverwort, a weed common in nursery crops. With respect to liverwort control, Quinoclamine has been considered to primarily have POST activity. However, some PRE activity has been reported. Growth media sorption studies with 14C-quinoclamine indicate that only 0.64% of the Quinoclamine amount that enters the media remains unadsorbed and thus available to be taken up by established plants or propagules. Computer modeling revealed that a large portion of the surface of the Quinoclamine molecule is positively charged, which likely is the reason for its high adsorptivity. In a simulation of PRE activity, hydroponically grown liverwort and germinating gemmae were exposed to increasing quinoclamine concentrations. Phytotoxicity to both plants and gemmae was obtained with a minimal concentration of 4 to 6 mg L?1. Based upon the projected use rate, and assuming minimal vertical infiltration depth, the theoretical concentration of quinoclamine within the aqueous phase of a pine bark substrate would be approximately 8 mg L?1. In toto, results indicate that the projected use rate will result in sufficient quinoclamine in the aqueous phase of a pine bark substrate to provide PRE control of gemmae propagules as well as to contribute to the efficacy of POST applications to established liverwort.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The acute oral toxicity of quinoclamine is moderate (R22 Harmful if swallowed) but the acute toxicity by inhalation or dermal application is low. The substance is irritating to the eyes (R36 Irritant to eyes) but not to the skin, and has sensitizing properties (R43 May cause sensitization by skin contact). Indications of haemolytic anaemia are observed in the short term studies in rats and dogs. Quinoclamine does not show a genotoxic or carcinogenic potential, but some teratogenic effects were observed and lead to the proposed classification Repro cat. 3, R63 Possible risk of harm to the unborn child. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) is 0.002 mg/kg bw/day, the acceptable operator exposure level (AOEL) is 0.03 mg/kg bw/day and the acute reference dose (ARfD) is 0.05 mg/kg bw. The dermal absorption values are 6.52% for the concentrate and the low dilution, and 10% for the high dilution. The operator exposure estimates in field or greenhouse are below the AOEL only when personal protective equipment is used. Preliminary estimates of children exposure show that the AOEL might be exceeded when the exposure occurs on the day of treatment.

NAME: Rotenone                       

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Rotenone is a selective, non-specific insecticide with some acaricidal properties. Rotenone is used in home gardens for insect control, for lice and tick control on pets and for fish eradications as part of water body management. The use of the pesticide for control of fish and in cranberries is restricted by the Environmental Protection Agency.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Rotenone, when formulated as an emulsified concentrate, is highly toxic and carries the signal word DANGER on its label. Other forms of the insecticide are slightly toxic and require the signal word CAUTION instead.Local effects on the body include conjunctivitis, dermatitis, sore throat, and congestion. Ingestion produces effects ranging from mild irritation to vomiting. Inhalation can cause increased respiration followed by depression and convulsions. The compound is a strong eye irritant to rabbits. The oral LD50 of rotenone ranges from 132 to 1,500 mg/kg in rats. Humans are believed to be fairly susceptible to the compound with an oral lethal dose estimated from 300 to 500 mg/kg . No human fatalities have been reported, perhaps because rotenone is usually sold in low concentrations (1-5% formulation) and because its irritating action causes prompt vomiting.

NAME: S,S,S-Tributylphosphorotrit

CLASSIFICATION: Cotton defoliant
DESCRIPTION: The only registered use of S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) has been as a cotton defoliant. n-Butyl mercaptan (nBM) is a volatile degradation product of DEF that has a strong skunk-like odor. nBM is produced both during the manufacture of DEF formulations and after application of DEF in the environment. The odor threshold for DEF in humans is approximately0.01 to 0.1 ppb. Due to public concerns about the odor associated with the use of DEF, the concentration of nBM in formulations of DEF sold or used in California was limited to less than0.1%. Despite the use of low-odor formulations, complaints from residents have continued. Public health concerns were also raised because of evidence that DEF caused delayed neuropathy. This health assessment addresses the potential health effects from exposure of the general public to DEF in ambient air due to its use as a cotton defoliant.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The acute adverse health effects of DEF in experimental animals are due primarily to its inhibition of various esterases including cholinesterase (ChE) and neuropathy target esterase. The clinical signs observed include both cholinergic signs and delayed neuropathy. Hematological changes were also seen with acute exposure to DEF. Although the technical grade DEF was only mildly irritating to the eyes and skin, the DEF 6 formulation is corrosive to the skin and is a severe eye irritant. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) selected by DPR toxicologists for evaluating the acute exposure to DEF in ambient air was 12.2 mg/m3 (2.9 mg/kg) based on reduced motility, bradypnea, piloerection, ungroomed coat, vocalization, irregular breathing, increased startle response observed at 59.5 mg/m3 (14.3 mg/kg) after 1-3 days of exposure for 6 hours/day.

NAME: Silafluofen

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, termiticide)
DESCRIPTION: It is a brand-new organic pesticide containing a fluorine atom and stable in most conditions. It has powerful contacting and stomach poisoning effect. It has repellant activity to white ant and widely used on tea plant, fruiter, paddy etc. to kill varieties of insects. It applies to preparation but to crops or public areas directly.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Its toxicity varies depending on the type and degree of exposure. Prognosis can be improved by prompt treatment.

NAME: Simazine

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
DESCRIPTION: Simazine is a selective triazine herbicide. It is used to control broad- leaved weeds and annual grasses in field, berry fruit, vegetable and ornamental crops, on turf grass, and in orchards and vineyards. At higher rates, it is used for nonselective weed control in industrial areas. Before 1992, Simazine was used to control submerged weeds and algae in large aquariums, farm ponds, fish hatcheries, swimming pools, ornamental ponds and cooling towers. Simazine is available in wettable powder, water dispersible granule, liquid and granular formulations
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Simazine is highly toxic if inhaled, moderately toxic if ingested, and slightly toxic via dermal exposure . No cases of poisoning in humans have been reported from ingestion of Simazine. Rats given an oral dose of 5,000 mg/kg exhibited drowsiness and irregular breathing. A single oral dose of 4,200 mg/kg produced anorexia, weight loss and some deaths in rats within 4 to 10 days.
NAME: Simeconazole
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: A broad spectrum biofungicide used to control a range of diseases in particular Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Blumeria graminis on rice, fruit, soya and vegetables
HEALTH PROBLEMS: No human health hazards are available .The excretion, tissue distribution and metabolic fate of simeconazole [(RS)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-3-trimethylsilyl propane-2-ol] in rats were studied by administering 14C-labeled simeconazole orally to male and female rats at 5 mg/kg b.w. (low dose) and 70 mg/kg b.w. (high dose). The simeconazole was readily absorbed and most of the radioactivity was excreted in the urine and feces within three days. The blood radioactivity level reached a maximum at 4Ð8 hr and 1Ð2 hr post-dosing in male and female rats, respectively. The radioactivity in the tissues and organs rapidly decreased with time. Simeconazole was initially metabolized to M1, the hydroxymethyl metabolite. M1 was further metabolized to glucuronide, sulfate, silanols and various dessiloxane compounds. © Pesticide Science Society of Japan.

NAME: Spirodiclofen

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Spirodiclofen is a tetronic acid with acaricidal action. It acts by interfering with mite development, thereby controlling such pests as Panonychus spp., Phyllocoptruta spp., Brevipalpus spp., and Aculus and Tetranychus species. Spirodiclofen is active by contact to mite eggs, all nymphal stages, and adult females (adult males are not affected). Spirodiclofen is structurally similar to spiromesifen, which is also a tetronic acid insecticide.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Technical Spirodiclofen has a low acute toxicity via oral, dermal, or inhalation routes. It is not an eye or dermal irritant.

NAME: Spiromesifen

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
DESCRIPTION: Spiromesifen is an insecticide that inhibits the synthesis of lipids and, in Mexico, its use against the Tomato-Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), on chili pepper (Capsicum annum), tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) began in 2005; however, more information is needed to understand its toxicity on this insect pest
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Evaluation of the acute toxicity studies indicates that these Spiromesifen products are low in mammalian toxicity. DPR toxicologists determined that the differences in formulations between the two end-use products and BSN 2060 were unlikely to be of toxicological concern. Acute toxicity studies conducted with BSN 2060 are suitable for bridging to the two end-use products. The precautionary language on the product labels adequately identifies the acute toxicity hazards noted in the studies.

NAME: Spiroxamine I                 

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
DESCRIPTION: Spiroxamine is a fungicide widely used on farm crops.
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The dose at which no adverse effects are observed (the NOAEL) from the toxicology study identified as appropriate for use in risk assessment is used to estimate the toxicological level of concern (LOC). However, the lowest dose at which adverse effects of concern are identified (the LOAEL) is sometimes used for risk assessment if no NOAEL was achieved in the toxicology study selected. An uncertainty factor (UF) is applied to reflect uncertainties inherent in the extrapolation from laboratory animal data to humans and in the variations in sensitivity among members of the human population as well as other unknowns. An UF of 100 is routinely used, 10X to account for interspecies differences and 10X for intraspecies differences.
Contaminant Facts: Pesticides
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