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Pesticides (Pa - Pr)


Peb | Phen | Pic
 
Paraoxon
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
 
NAME: Parathion
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Colorless and odorless toxic oil used as an insecticide Parathion, also called parathion-ethyl or diethyl parathion, is an organophosphate compound. It is a potent insecticide and acaricide. It was originally developed by IG Farben in the 1940s. It is highly toxic to non-target organisms, including humans.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Parathion is highly toxic by all routes of exposure. Human fatalities have been caused by ingestion, dermal adsorption, and inhalation of parathion (2). As with all organophosphates, parathion is readily absorbed through the skin (1). Skin which has come in contact with this material should be washed immediately with soap and water and all contaminated clothing should be removed. Persons with cardiovascular, liver or kidney diseases, glaucoma, or central nervous system abnormalities may be at increased risk from exposure to parathion. High environmental temperatures or exposure of the chemical to visible or UV light may increase its toxicity (11). Parathion may cause thickening and roughening of the skin (hyperkeratinization). It does not cause sensitization (allergies). Parathion is not irritating to the eyes. Splashing parathion into an eye may cause constriction of the pupil, making it difficult to determine the path of moving objects.
 
 
 
PBB 101
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
 
PBB 15
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
 
NAME: PBB 169 Hexabrombiphenyl      
 
CLASSIFICATION: polybrominated biphenyls
 
DESCRIPTION: Hexabrombiphenyl belongs to a wider group of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). The term Òpolybrominated biphenylsÓ or ÒpolybromobiphenylsÓ refers to a group of brominated hydrocarbons formed by substituting hydrogen with bromine in biphenyl. The hexabromo congeners exist as 42 possible isomeric forms. According to the available data, production and use of Hexabrombiphenyl has ceased in most, if not all, countries. However, it is possible that Hexabrombiphenyl is still being produced in some countries.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Hexabrombiphenyl is readily absorbed into the body and accumulates following prolonged exposure. Although the acute toxicity of Hexabrombiphenyl is low, a number of chronic toxic effects including hepatotoxicity have been observed in experimental animals at doses around 1 mg/kg bw/day following long-term exposure, and effects are seen in the rat thyroid at doses as low as 0.05 mg/kg bw/day. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified Hexabrombiphenyl as a possible human carcinogen (IARC group 2B). The PBBs are endocrine disrupting chemicals, and effects are seen on reproductive capacity in rats, mink and monkeys. There is epidemiological evidence of hypothyroidism in workers exposed to polybrominated biphenyls and of increased incidence of breast cancer in exposed women. Data on toxicity to other species than laboratory mammals is scarce but suggests the environmental toxicity of Hexabrombiphenyl is comparable to that of hexachlorobiphenyl.
 
 
 
NAME: PBB 52 Tetrabrombiphenyl      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polybrominated biphenyls
 
DESCRIPTION: Polybrominated biphenyls ( PBB ) are a class of compounds, in the case of a bicyclic system, several hydrogen atoms by bromine are replaced. They are characterized by high chemical stability, biodegradable and hardly any fat to accumulate in the.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: A cohort epidemiologic research was conducted in 3500 male employees who had worked in a PBB manufacturing plant from 1935 to 1976 and were possibly exposed to bromine compounds including PBB. Because of lack of quantitative data, those exposed to PBB were classified into 2 categories of Òdaily exposureÓ and Ònon-daily exposureÓ. No death occurred in 91 workers in the former, but 2 of 237 classified in the latter died. It was reported that the cause of death in one of them was cancer of large intestine (IARC, 1986). Other than this report, there is no report on carcinogenicity of PBB in humans. Neurologic symptoms were the earliest and most prominent symptoms recorded in Michigan farm residents exposed to PBB as compared to a non-PBB exposed control farm population in Wisconsin. In Michigan (particularly among males) those who exhibited the most marked symptoms tended to show diminished performance as assessed by special tests, although population differences in performance were not as marked. Low indices of performance were also significantly correlated with intake of home-produced foodstuffs, particularly during the years 1972-1974 and store-bought products during the years 1975-1976. Between 1972 and 1976 the Michigan farm residents studied made significant changes in their consumption patterns of products suspected to be contaminated with PBB, as compared to those of Wisconsin farm residents. Serum PBB levels were not found to be significantly higher in Michigan males and females exhibiting the most prominent neurologic symptoms. Serum PBB levels were negatively correlated with performance test scores, particularly in males in older age groups
 
 
NAME: PCB 101                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Environmental contaminants
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms: Ê1,1'-Biphenyl, 2,2',4,5,5'-pentachloro-;2,2',4,5,5'-Pentachloro-1,1'-biphenyl;PCB 101. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants found in the serum of human populations across the globe. Any of a family of industrial compounds produced by chlorination of biphenyl, noted primarily as an environmental pollutant that accumulates in animal tissue with resultant pathogenic and teratogenic effects. The commercial product, a mix of several PCB isomers, is a colourless, viscous liquid that is almost insoluble in water, does not degrade under high temperatures, and is a good electrical insulator. PCBs became widely used as lubricants, heat-transfer fluids, and fire-resistant dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors in the 1930s and '40s. In the mid 1970s they were found to cause liver dysfunction in humans and came under suspicion as carcinogens; their manufacture and use were consequently restricted in the U.S. and many other countries, though illegal dumping by manufacturers continued. They persist in the environment and have entered the food chain, causing great harm especially to invertebrates and fish.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The Chicago Great Lakes cohort of pregnant African American women was developed to study organochlorine exposure through Great Lakes resources in a pregnant African American population and their children. Comparison of PCB serum concentrations in women reporting mixed race/ethnicity within the cohort shows significant elevations of serum PCB 101 and 118 in women reporting exclusive African American ancestry. Incubations were performed using pooled human liver microsomes followed by individual recombinant human CYP isoform microsomes to identify whether the other sentinel congeners are metabolized by human CYP 450. In human liver microsome metabolism experiments with the sentinel PCB congeners (IUPAC# 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180), only PCB 101 metabolism produced an identifiable metabolite. However, a significant loss of parent compound was observed for PCB 118 incubations with human liver microsomes. The loss of PCB 101 and PCB 118 in microsome experiments indicates they are likely metabolized in human liver.
 
 
NAME: PCB 105                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Non-conductive liquids
 
DESCRIPTION: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heat-resistant and non-conductive liquids and resins, came into use in the 1930s as coolants and lubricants for various electrical equipment, including transformers, capacitors, vacuum pumps turbines, surface coatings, plasticizers, pesticide extenders and copy paper. By 1974, according to the U.S. governmentÕs Report on Carcinogens, which says PCBs are Òreasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen, Monsanto Chemical Company manufactured 99 percent of the PCBs used by U.S. industry, producing 40 million pounds a year.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Birth or developmental effects, Brain and nervous system, Cancer, Endocrine system, Immune system (including sensitization and allergies), Persistent and bioaccumulative, Reproduction and fertility. Thousands of medical PCB studies have shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) cause a wide variety of health effects, often at very low exposure levels. The average American already carries enough PCB in his or her body to meet or exceed the minimum threshold for beginning health problems due to PCBs. In Northeast Wisconsin, we have much higher PCB exposures and greater health risks. Not all of the 209 kinds of PCB have the same effects. Some have properties like dioxin (one of the world's most toxic man-made compounds), some PCBs act like hormones, and other PCBs are nerve poisons. We have a mixture including all types in the Fox River and Green Bay. PCBs alter major systems in the body (immune, hormone, nervous, and enzyme systems); therefore, PCBs affect a wide variety of body organs and functions. Our PCB contamination is a public health crisis which has been ignored far too long. Birth or developmental effects, Brain and nervous system, Cancer, Endocrine system, Immune system (including sensitization and allergies), persistent and bioaccumulative, reproduction and fertility.
 
 
NAME: PCB 110                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)
 
DESCRIPTION: PolyChlorinated Biphenyls, a mixture of up to 209 chlorinated chemicals. Although PCBs are no longer produced in the US where they were once known under the trade name Aroclor, PCBs are still found in the environment. A number of adverse health effects have associated with exposure to PCBs.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The most commonly observed health effects in people exposed to large amounts of PCBs are skin conditions such as acne and rashes. Studies in exposed workers have shown changes in blood indicating liver damage. Some studies of workers indicate that PCBs are associated with certain kinds of cancer in humans, such as cancer of the liver and biliary tract.
 
 
NAME: PCB 118                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)
 
DESCRIPTION: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs;CAS number 1336-36-3 ) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10chlorine atoms attached to biphenyl, which is a molecule composed of twobenzene rings. The chemical formula for PCBs is C12H10-xClx. PCBs were widely used for many applications, especially asdielectric fluids in transformers,capacitors, and coolants. Due to PCB'stoxicity and classification as apersistent organic pollutant, PCB production was banned by the United States Congress in 1979 and by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:   Male rats receiving 10,000 ppb PCB 118 had increased liver weight and hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Increased hepatic EROD activity but not liver weight was observed in female rats given the 2000-ppb PCB 118 diet. Increased EROD activity was also noted in male rats given 10,000 ppb and in female groups receiving 1000 or 10,000 ppb PCB 77. Male rats exposed to 10,000 ppb PCB 77 had decreased vitamin A in the liver and lung and elevated levels in the kidney. Liver vitamin A of both 1000- and 10,000-ppb PCB 77 female groups was decreased. PCB 118 had no effects on tissue vitamin A at the levels studied. No hematological changes or serum biochemical changes were seen in any of PCB 118- and PCB 77-treated groups, nor were liver uroporphyrin levels altered. A reduction in dopamine and homovanillinic acid in the substantia nigra region of the brain was observed in female rats fed 2000 ppb PCB 118, while 10,000 ppb PCB 77 was associated with an elevation in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the nucleus accumbens region of male rat brains. Mild to moderate changes were observed in the liver and thyroid of rats given PCB 77 or PCB 118. PCB 118 accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in fat and to a much lesser extent in liver. In contrast, very low levels of PCB 77 residue were found in the tissues examined. Based on the above data it was concluded that the NOAEL of PCB 77 is 100 ppb in diet or 8.7 ?g/kg and that of PCB 118 is 200 ppb in diet or 17 ?g/kg body wt/day.
 
 
NAME: PCB 126                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polychlorinated biphenyls
 
DESCRIPTION: Any of a family of industrial compounds produced by chlorination of biphenyl, noted primarily as an environmental pollutant that accumulates in animal tissue with resultant pathogenic and teratogenic effects.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Birth or developmental effects, Brain and nervous system, Cancer, Endocrine system, Immune system (including sensitization and allergies), Persistent and bioaccumulative,. Dioxins [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF)] and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are potentially hazardous compounds. Animal studies have demonstrated that PCDD, PCDF, and PCB can alter thyroid hormone homeostasis. We investigated thyroid hormone levels in 105 mother-infant pairs. To estimate maternal and infant exposure, four nonplanar PCB congeners were measured in maternal plasma during the last month of pregnancy and in umbilical cord plasma. Seventeen PCDD and PCDF congeners, three planar PCB congeners, and 23 nonplanar PCB congeners were measured in human milk. Higher PCDD, PCDF, and PCB levels in human milk, expressed as toxic equivalents, correlated significantly with lower plasma levels of maternal total triiodothyronine and total thyroxine, and with higher plasma levels of TSH in the infants in the 2nd wk and 3rd mo after birth. Infants exposed to higher toxic equivalents levels had also lower plasma free thyroxine and total thyroxine levels in the 2nd wk after birth. We conclude that elevated levels of dioxins and PCB can alter the human thyroid hormone status.
 
 
NAME: PCB 127                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polychlorinated biphenyls
 
DESCRIPTION: Any of a family of industrial compounds produced by chlorination of biphenyl, noted primarily as an environmental pollutant that accumulates in animal tissue with resultant pathogenic and teratogenic effects. Polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, are toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative, and lipophilic ("fat-.loving").
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: In humans, PCBs are associated with skin lesions, thyroid disruption, and altered menstrual cycling, as well as damage to the nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. PCB exposure in the womb or during lactation is also associated with decreased IQ and impaired psychomotor development, decreased immune function and skin disease (chloracne) (ATSDR 2000b). The National Toxicology Program considers several PCB mixtures to be "reasonably anticipated" human carcinogens (NTP 2002). Likewise, EPA considers PCBs to be "probable" human carcinogens (EPA 2002b). In laboratory animals, PCBs are known to cause cancer and damage to the reproductive, endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. In addition, PCBs damage the kidney and gastrointestinal tract, and cause birth defects. PCBs build up and are stored in fatty tissues and fluids, such as breast milk, and can be passed on to fetuses and infants during pregnancy and lactation. In humans PCBs are linked to increased rates of a number of cancers, including malignant melanoma; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and brain, liver, and lung cancer. PCB poisonings in humans have caused fetal and infant death, birth defects, and brain damage in children exposed in the womb. PCBs are known to interfere with hormonal processes. In 1976, the manufacturing of PCBs was banned in the United States because of human health impacts, but is still widely found in the general population of the U.S.
 
 
NAME: PCB 131                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polychlorinated biphenyls
 
DESCRIPTION: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; CAS number 1336-36-3 ) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10chlorine atoms attached to biphenyl, which is a molecule composed of two benzene rings. The chemical formula for PCBs is C12H10-xClx. PCBs were widely used for many applications, especially as dielectric fluids in transformers, capacitors, and coolants.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Due to PCB's toxicity and classification as a persistent organic pollutant, PCB production was banned by the United States Congress in 1979 and by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001. Concerns about the toxicity of PCBs are largely based on compounds within this group that share a structural similarity and toxic mode of action with dioxin. Toxic effects such as endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are also associated with other compounds within the group.
 
 
NAME: PCB 136                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are 2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl;2,3,6,2',3',6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl;2,2',3,3',6,6'-HEXACHLORO-1,1'-BIPHENYL;PCB 136. 2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is a chiral and highly neurotoxic PCB congener of environmental relevance. (+)-PCB 136 was previously shown to be enriched in tissues from mice treated with racemic PCB 136. We investigated the spectral interactions of (+)-, (-)-, and (+/-)-PCB 136 with mouse and rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to test the hypothesis that enantioselective binding to specific P450 enzymes causes the enrichment of (+)-PCB 136 in vivo. Hepatic microsomes prepared from C57BL/6 mice or Long Evans rats treated with beta-naphthoflavone or 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital, and dexamethasone (prototypical inducers of CYP1A, CYP2B, and CYP3A, respectively) were used to determine first, whether the (+)-PCB 136 atropisomer binds to hepatic microsomal P450 enzymes to a greater extent than does the (-)-PCB 136 atropisomer and second, whether P450 enzymes of one subfamily bind the two PCB 136 atropisomers more efficiently than do P450 enzymes of other subfamilies. Increasing concentrations of (+)-, (-)-, or (+/-)-PCB 136 were added to hepatic microsomes, and the difference spectrum and maximal absorbance change, a measure of PCB binding to P450 enzymes, were measured. A significantly larger absorbance change was observed with (+)-PCB 136 than with (-)-PCB 136 with all four hepatic microsomal preparations in mice and rats, indicating that (+)-PCB 136 interacted with microsomal P450 enzymes to a greater degree than did (-)-PCB 136. In addition, binding of the PCB 136 atropisomers was greatest in microsomes from PB-treated mice and rats and was inhibited by CYP2B antibodies, indicating the involvement of CYP2B enzymes. Together, these results suggest preferential binding of (+)-PCB 136 to P450 enzymes (such as CYP2B and CYP3A) in hepatic microsomes, an observation that may explain the enantioselective enrichment of the (+)-PCB 136 atropisomer in tissues of mice.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: a chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), racemic PCB 136, was administered as a single dose (50 mg/kg body weight) to male or female C57BL/6 mice either orally or via intraperitoneal injection. Mice were sacrificed after either 3 or 6 days, and blood and organs were collected for PCB analysis. Intraperitoneal injection of PCB 136 produced statistically higher PCB levels in blood and organs than did the oral administration. Tissue levels were higher after 3 days than those after 6 days. Enantioselective analysis showed that (+)-PCB 136 was enriched in most organs, with the most pronounced enrichment found in the liver and the brain of animals dosed orally or by intraperitoneal injection, respectively. Significantly higher retained enantiomeric fractions of PCB 136 were found in the oral treatment groups compared with those found in intraperitoneal treatment groups, possibly as a result of the lower PCB levels in oral treatment groups. Therefore, the choice of administration route may well have implications for the enantioselective disposition of PCB 136 and other chiral substances. Polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, are toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative, and lipophilic ("fat-loving"). This means that PCBs build up and are stored in fatty tissues and fluids, such as breast milk, and can be passed on to fetuses and infants during pregnancy and lactation. In humans PCBs are linked to increased rates of a number of cancers, including malignant melanoma; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and brain, liver, and lung cancer. PCB poisonings in humans have caused fetal and infant death, birth defects, and brain damage in children exposed in the womb. PCBs are known to interfere with hormonal processes. In 1976, the manufacture of PCBs was banned in the United States because of concern for human health impacts, but are still widely found in the general population of the U.S.
 
 
NAME: PCB 138                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polychlorinated biphenyls
 
DESCRIPTION: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants in aquatic environments, often causing the decline or disappearance of wild populations
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The toxicity of mixtures of environmental pollutants is known to differ from the toxicity of the individual substances. Little is known about why and how dioxins and non-dioxin-like PCBs affect each otherÕs toxicity. We wanted to investigate this further, says researcher PŒl A. Olsvik at the National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES).
 
 
NAME: PCB 153                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
 
DESCRIPTION: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrially produced environmentally persistent compounds. In developed countries all humans have detectable levels in blood and other tissues. PCBs alter thyroid hormone metabolism in animal experiments, and human data suggest background-level exposure may have similar effects in neonates. We evaluated this possible effect among 160 North Carolina children whose in utero PCB exposure was estimated on the basis of the mother's PCB levels in milk and blood, in 1978-1982 (estimated median PCB level in milk at birth, 1.8 mg/kg lipid). Their umbilical cord sera were thawed in 1998 and assayed for total thyroxine, free thyroxine, and thyroid stimulating hormone. We found that PCB exposure was not strongly related to any of the thyroid measures. For example, for a one unit change in milk PCB concentration (mg/kg lipid), the associated multivariate-adjusted increase in thyroid stimulating hormone level was 7% (95% confidence limits (CL) = -6, 21). Despite the possibility of sample degradation, these data suggest that within the range of background-level exposure in the United States, in utero PCB exposure is only slightly related to serum concentration of total thyroxine, free thyroxine, and thyroid stimulating hormone at birth.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The subchronic toxicity of 2,2?,4,4?,5,5?-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) was investigated in rats after 13 weeks of dietary exposure. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered PCB 153 in their diet at levels of 0.05, 0.50, 5.0 or 50ppm for 13 weeks. The control groups received the diet containing 4% corn oil. Growth rate and dietary consumption were not affected by treatment. Clinical signs of toxicity were not observed. Enlarged, fatty liver was observed in treated animals at necropsy, but most were confined to the two highest dose groups. Increased hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, aminopyrine-N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase activities occurred in high-dose groups of both sexes, with increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity being observed starting at 0.05ppm in females and at 0.5?ppm in males. Treatment-related reduction in hepatic and pulmonary vitamin A was seen in the highest dose group of both sexes. Changes in brain biogenic amines and intermediate products were observed mainly in females; these included decreased dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations in the frontal cortex region, and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the caudate nucleus region at 5.0 and 50?ppm. Female rats appeared to be more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of PCB 153 than males. Dose-dependent histological changes were observed in the thyroid and liver of rats of both sexes and significant changes occurred at 5.0 and 50ppm. Based on these data, the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of PCB 153 was judged to be 0.5ppm in the diet or 34?gkg?1 body wt. day?1.
 
 
NAME: PCB 169                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polychlorinated biphenyls
 
DESCRIPTION: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of manufactured organic chemicals that contain 209 individual chlorinated chemicals (known as congeners). Concentrated PCBs are either oily liquids or solids and are colorless to light yellow in color. They have no known smell or taste. There are no known natural sources of PCBs. Some commercial PCB mixtures are known in the United States by their industrial trade name, Aroclor.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Birth or developmental effects, Brain and nervous system, Cancer, Endocrine system, Immune system (including sensitization and allergies), Persistent and bioaccumulative, Reproduction and fertility. PCBs alter major systems in the body (immune, hormone, nervous, and enzyme systems); therefore, PCBs affect a wide variety of body organs and functions.
 
 
NAME: PCB 170                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polychlorinated biphenyls
 
DESCRIPTION: In polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) family of chemicals - banned industrial insulators and lubricants; cause cancer and nervous system problems .Any of a class of highly stable organic compounds prepared by the reaction of chlorine with biphenyl, a two-ring compound. The commercial product, a mix of several PCB isomers, is a colourless, viscous liquid that is almost insoluble in water, does not degrade under high temperatures, and is a good electrical insulator .PCBs became widely used as lubricants, heat-transfer fluids, and fire-resistant dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors in the 1930s and '40s. In the mid 1970s they were found to cause liver dysfunction in humans and came under suspicion as carcinogens; their manufacture and use were consequently restricted in the U.S. and many other countries, though illegal dumping by manufacturers continued. They persist in the environment and have entered the food chain, causing great harm especially to invertebrates and fish
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Birth or developmental effects, Brain and nervous system, Cancer, Endocrine system, Immune system (including sensitization and allergies), persistent and bioaccumulative, reproduction and fertility.
 
 
NAME: PCB 180                       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polychlorinated biphenyls
 
DESCRIPTION: (PCB-180) is an industrial chemical which is a recognized developmental toxicant and exposure to it has the potential to negatively affect a developing baby.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The severity and range of negative effects experienced can vary greatly depending on the chemical, the stage of pregnancy at which the exposure occurred and the duration, level and nature (e.g. inhalation, skin exposure, ingestion) of the exposure. Developmental toxicity can include such things as low birth weight, birth defects, fetal death and behavioral and psychological problems. Sometimes the effects may not manifest until the baby becomes older. More detailed information about the symptoms, causes, and treatments of Developmental toxicity -- 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-Heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB-180) is available below.
 
 
NAME: PCB 30                        
 
CLASSIFICATIO: coolants and insulating fluids (transformer oil
 
DESCRIPTION: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of manufactured organic chemicals that contain 209 individual chlorinated chemicals (known as congeners). Concentrated PCBs are either oily liquids or solids and are colorless to light yellow in color. They have no known smell or taste. There are no known natural sources of PCBs.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Aroclors can cause damage to the liver because of prolonged exposure to the vapour and to the liquid. To the best of our knowledge, no fatality has ever been attributed to a chlorinated diphenyl, but in view of the chronic action on the liver we advise that contact with the vapour and liquid must be kept to a minimum.
 
 
NAME: PCB 31                         
 
CLASSIFICATION: Congeners
 
DESCRIPTION: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of manufactured organic chemicals that contain 209 individual chlorinated chemicals (known as congeners). Concentrated PCBs are either oily liquids or solids and are colorless to light yellow in color. They have no known smell or taste. There are no known natural sources of PCBs. Some commercial PCB mixtures are known in the United States by their industrial trade name, Aroclor. PCBs do not burn easily and are good insulating material. They have been used widely as coolants and lubricants in transformers, capacitors, and other electrical equipment. The manufacture of PCBs stopped in the United States in 1977 because of evidence that they build up in the environment and cause harmful health effects. Products containing PCBs are old fluorescent lighting fixtures, electrical appliances containing PCB capacitors, old microscope oil, and hydraulic fluids.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The health effects of PCBs have been very widely studied. PCB related health effects have been studied in people, laboratory animals, and wildlife in contaminated areas. These studies indicate that people who are regularly exposed to PCBs are at greater risk for a variety of health problems. Some of the most important findings are summarized below. Much of this information was taken from a joint assessment of PCB health effects conducted by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
 
 
NAME: PCB 49                    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Congeners
 
DESCRIPTION: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of manufactured organic chemicals that contain 209 individual chlorinated chemicals (known as congeners). Concentrated PCBs are either oily liquids or solids and are colorless to light yellow in color. They have no known smell or taste. There are no known natural sources of PCBs. Some commercial PCB mixtures are known in the United States by their industrial trade name, Aroclor.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Thousands of medical PCB studies have shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) cause a wide variety of health effects, often at very low exposure levels. The average American already carries enough PCB in his or her body to meet or exceed the minimum threshold for beginning health problems due to PCBs. In Northeast Wisconsin, we have much higher PCB exposures and greater health risks. PCBs alter major systems in the body (immune, hormone, nervous, and enzyme systems); therefore, PCBs affect a wide variety of body organs and functions. Our PCB contamination is a public health crisis which has been ignored far too long. PCB history is not pretty. As the timeline shows, the manufacturers and major users of PCBs knew by the 1930s and 1940s that PCBs caused serious health problems in their workers, and doctors advised them that other effects could be occurring as well. But this did not stop industries from producing and using PCBs, or from releasing PCBs into our environment, contaminating our public waterways, air, croplands, and wildlife. It appears from this PCB history that several companies also deliberately misled workers, customers, regulators and the public for many decades, allowing the PCB problem to spread and become much worse.
 
 
NAME: PCB 77                        
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)
 
DESCRIPTION: PolyChlorinated Biphenyls, a mixture of up to 209 chlorinated chemicals. Although PCBs are no longer produced in the US where they were once known under the trade name Aroclor, PCBs are still found in the environment. A number of adverse health effects have associated with exposure to PCBs.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: No clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Increased spleen weight occurred in male rats fed 1000 or 10,000 ppb PCB 77.
 
 
NAME: PCB 81                        
 
CLASSIFICATION: Industrial compounds
 
DESCRIPTION: Any of a family of industrial compounds produced by chlorination of biphenyl, noted primarily as an environmental pollutant that accumulates in animal tissue with resultant pathogenic and teratogenic effects.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The toxic effects of PCB exposure were observed as early as 1933. In animals PCBs have been shown to cause cancer and a number of serious non-cancer health effects on various systems in the body including the endocrine system, immune system, reproductive system, nervous system, and others. In the 1970s, PCB production was banned in the United States and regulations concerning the presence of PCBs in the environment were promulgated. Birth or developmental effects, brain and nervous system, cancer, Endocrine system, Immune system (including sensitization and allergies), Persistent and bioaccumulative, Reproduction and fertility are the results of PCB 81.
 
 
NAME: Pebulate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: It is a thiocarbamate herbicide of low toxicity.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The EPAÕs pesticide incident-reporting system receives up to 6,000 reports annually ranging from pet poisonings to water contamination and is rarely able to confirm the details. Many of the reports are quite specific, however, and include breathing difficulties, peeling skin, hives, vomiting, and muscle aches tied to pyrethroids and pyrethrins. The data show that at least 50 deaths have been attributed to the chemicals since 1992 Ñ 20 of them since 2003. In her masterÕs thesis, Jacqueline Mosby, now a branch chief with the EPA toxics program, used EPA and American Association of Poison Control Centers data, as well as reports in scientific and medical journals, to document the deaths of four people following pyrethrin or pyrethroid exposures: a 37-year-old woman who died after she gave her dog a flea bath, a 39-year-old woman who died after applying a flea treatment to her two dogs, an 11-year-old girl who died after washing her dog with a pet shampoo, and a 48-year-old woman who died after using a bug spray.
 
 
NAME: Penconazole
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Penconazoe is a systematic triazole fungicide with preventive and curative properties for the control of powdery mildew.It stops the development of fungi by interfering with the biosynthesis of sterols in cell membranes.It is used of fruit,especially apples and grapes, and vegetables.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The toxicity of the biocides triclosan, penconazole and metalaxyl were evaluated with the freshwater bacterium Caulobacter crescentus and with a freshwater microbial community using a combination of single- and double-stain flow cytometric assays. Growth of crescentus and the freshwater community were repressed by triclosan but not by penconazole or metalaxyl at concentrations up to 250 ?M. The repressive effect of triclosan was dependent on culture conditions. Caulobacter crescentus was more sensitive to triclosan when grown with high glucose at high cell density than when grown directly in sterilized lake water at low cell density. This suggests that the use of conventional growth conditions may overestimate biocide toxicity.
 
 
NAME: Pendimethalin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Pendimethalin is a selective herbicide used to control most annual grasses and certain broadleaf weeds in field corn, potatoes, rice, cotton, soybeans, tobacco, peanuts and sunflowers. It is used both preemergence, that is before weed seeds have sprouted, and early postemergence. Incorporated into the soil by cultivation or irrigation is recommended within 7 days following application. Pendimethalin is available as emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder or dispersible granule formulations
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Pendimethalin is slightly toxic if ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. The most probable occasion for human exposure is to applicators during mixing, loading, spraying and flagging .Pendimethalin is a mild skin irritant .When applied to the eyes of rabbits, pendimethalin caused irritation of the cornea which cleared within 7 days. Inhalation of dusts or fumes may be mildly to moderately irritating to the linings of the mouth, nose, throat and lungs.
 
 
NAME: Pentachloroaniline
 
CLASSIFICATIO: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Pentachloroaniline is an important environmental degradation product of quintozene, a fungicide no longer registered in the United States. If released to air, an estimated vapor pressure of 3.5X10-6 mm Hg at 25 deg C indicates pentachloroaniline will exist in both the vapor and particulate phases in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase pentachloroaniline will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 12 days. Particulate-phase pentachloroaniline will be removed from the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition. Aniline compounds structurally similar to pentachloroaniline have been found to photolyze in the ambient environment suggesting that pentachloroaniline may photolyze when exposed to environmental UV radiation. If released to soil, pentachloroaniline is expected to be immobile based upon a Koc of 41,687. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process based upon an estimated Henry's Law constant of 4.25X10-7 atm-cu m/mole. Pentachloroaniline is not expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces based upon its vapor pressure. Pentachloroaniline has not been found to undergo biodegradation in soil under aerobic conditions. If released into water, pentachloroaniline is expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment in the water column based upon the estimated Koc. Pentachloroaniline degrades through preferential ortho chlorine removal with a rate constant of 0.017 day-1 resulting in a half-life of 40 days under anaerobic conditions. Volatilization from water surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process based upon this compound's estimated Henry's Law constant. A BCF of 363 suggests bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is high. Hydrolysis is not expected to occur due to the lack of hydrolyzable functional groups. The general population may be exposed to pentachloroaniline via ingestion of food and drinking water. Pentachloroaniline has been widely detected in foods containing oils and fats.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Aniline is a skin and eye irritant and a mild dermal sensitizer. It is rapidly absorbed by all routes and induces methemoglobinemia. Symptoms of          methemoglobinemia include cyanosis, headache,         dizziness, weakness, lethargy, loss of coordination, dyspnea, coma, and death. A Heinz-body hemolytic crisis may follow the development of methemoglobinemia by 2 to 7 days. Heart, liver, and kidney effects may be secondary to hemolysis.
 
 
NAME: Pentachloroanisole
 
CLASSIFICATIO: A chlorinated aromatic compound
 
DESCRIPTION: Pentachloroanisole is a chlorinated aromatic compound, which is widely distributed at low levels in the environment. It is the main degradation product of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and pentachloronitrobenzene. As pentachloroanisole is easily evaporated and has a relative stability in the atmosphere, as such it is subject to long range environmental transport and can be found in remote areas such as the Arctic.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: There is no information available on its toxicity. However, inbiota PCA can be demethylated back to PCP, which is more easily excreted. Therefore PCA can have a similar toxicity.
 
 
NAME: Pentachlorobenzene
 
CLASSIFICATIO: An intermediate in the manufacture of pesticides, particularly the fungicide pentachloronitrobenzene
 
DESCRIPTION: Pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C6HCl5 that is a chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon. It consists of a benzene ring substituted with five chlorine atoms. PeCB was once used industrially for a variety of uses, but because of environmental concerns there are currently no large-scale uses of PeCBPentachlorobenzene is a substance that looks like white or colorless crystals and has an odor. Pentachlorobenzene is a man-made odor. Pentachlorobenzene is a man-made substance that is used to make another chemical, pentachloronitrobenzene. Therefore, pentachlorobenzene enters the environment when pentachloronitrobenzene is used. Pentachlorobenzene is used to make pentachloronitrobenzene, a fungicide. In addition, it has been and is currently used as a fire retardant.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Short-term exposure to pentachlorobenzene can affect the central nervous system. Longterm exposure can affect the liver and kidneys and can cause tissue lesions. Animal studies and tests show that pentachlorobenzene can possibly cause toxic effects on human reproduction. PeCB is very toxic to aquatic organisms, and decomposes on heating or on burning with the formation of toxic, corrosive fumes including hydrogen chloride.
 
 
NAME: Pentachloronitrobenzene
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Pentachloronitrobenzene, typically abbreviated PCNB, is a registered fungicide formally derived from nitrobenzene. It is either an off-white or yellow solid, depending on its purity, with a musty odor. PCNB was originally synthesized in the laboratory in 1868. It was introduced to the agricultural world in the 1930s in Germany by Bayer AG as a substitute to mercurial pesticides. PCNB is prepared by chlorination of nitrobenzene at 60Ð70 ¡C inchlorosulfuric acid, with iodine as a catalyst. It can also be produced by the nitration of chlorinated benzenes. A side product of the synthesis of PCNB is hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which is considered as hazardous as PCNB.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Major damage to the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, liver and kidneys is caused by it. Mice acute poisoning, respiratory accelerated, cyanosis, trembling and spastic convulsions, ataxia, or even death was reported. Chronic under initial hemoglobin and red blood cell number increased, the content of the subsequent inhibition of hematopoietic function, exhaustion, convulsions, some animals died.
 
 
NAME: Pentachlorophenol
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticides (chemicals used for killing pests, such as rodents, insects, or plants), Phenols/phenoxy acids
 
DESCRIPTION: Pentachlorophenol is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. Pure pentachlorophenol exists as colorless crystals. Impure pentachlorophenol (the form usually found at hazardous waste sites) is dark gray to brown and exists as dust, beads, or flakes. Humans are usually exposed to impure pentachlorophenol (also called technical grade pentachlorophenol). Pentachlorophenol was widely used as a pesticide and wood preservative. Since 1984, the purchase and use of pentachlorophenol has been restricted to certified applicators. It is no longer available to the general public. It is still used industrially as a wood preservative for utility poles, railroad ties, and wharf pilings. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organochlorine compound used as a pesticide and a disinfectant. First produced in the 1930s, it is marketed under many trade names.It can be found in two forms: PCP itself or as the sodium salt of PCP, which dissolves easily in water.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Some people who drink water containing pentachlorophenol well in excess of the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. It is rapidly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract following ingestion. If deposition in the tissues occurs, the major sites are the liver, kidneys, plasma protein, brain, spleen and fat; but accumulation is not common. Unless kidney and liver functions are impaired, PCP is rapidly eliminated from blood and tissues, and is excreted unchanged via the urine. Single doses of PCP have half-lives in blood of 15 hours in rats, 78 hours in monkeys, and 30-50 hours in humans. Short-term exposure to large amounts of PCP can also cause harmful effects on the liver, kidneys, blood, lungs, nervous system, immune system, and gastrointestinal tract. Elevated temperature, profuse sweating, uncoordinated movement, muscle twitching, and coma are additional side effects.
 
 
Pentanochlor
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
NAME: Permethrin I                  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as insecticide, acaricide, and insect repellent. It belongs to the family of synthetic chemicals called pyrethroids and functions as a neurotoxin, affecting neuron membranes by prolonging sodium channel activation. It is not known to rapidly harm most mammals or birds, but is dangerously toxic to cats and fish. In general, it has a low mammalian toxicity and is poorly absorbed by skin
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Excessive exposure to Permethrin can cause nausea, headache, muscle weakness, excessive salivation, shortness of breath, and seizures. Worker exposure to the chemical can be monitored by measurement of the urinary metabolites, while severe over dosage may be confirmed by quantitation of Permethrin in serum or blood plasma.
 
 
NAME: Permethrin II
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Permethrin is a pesticide in EPA toxicity class II or III, depending on the formulation. Formulations are placed in class II due to their potential to cause eye and skin irritation. Products containing permethrin must bear the Signal Word WARNING or CAUTION, depending on the toxicity of the particular formulation. All products for agricultural uses (except livestock and premises uses) are Restricted Use Pesticides (RUPs) because of their possible adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Restricted Use Pesticides may be purchased and used only by certified applicators.
 
 
Perthane
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
NAME: Phantolide                    
 
CLASSIFICATIO: synthetic aromachemicals
 
DESCRIPTION: Phantolide is a musk substance like    Musk Xylene, Musk Ketone, Galaxolide,

Tonalide, Celestolide, Traesolide, , Cashmeran, Musk Ambrette, Musk Moskene, and Musk Tibetene. Musk is the name originally given to a substance with a penetrating odor obtained from a gland of the male musk deer and the substance has been used as a perfume since ancient times. The name ÒmuskÓ has later on come to encompass a wide variety of substances with somewhat similar odors although many of them are quite different in their chemical structures.

HEALTH PROBLEMS: No serious health problem is on record.
 
 
NAME: Phenamiphos/ Fenamiphos   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (nematicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Fenamiphos is an organophosphate nematicide used to control a wide variety of nematode (roundworm) pests. Nematodes can live as parasites on the outside or the inside of a plant. They may be free living or associated with cyst and root-knot formations in plants. Fenamiphos is used on a variety of plants including tobacco, turf, bananas, pineapples, citrus and other fruit vines, some vegetables, and grains. The compound is absorbed by roots and is then translocated throughout the plant. Fenamiphos, as is typical of other organophosphates, blocks the enzyme acetylcholinesterase in the target pest. The pesticide also has secondary activity against other invertebrates such as sucking insects and spider mites. It is available in emulsifiable concentrate, granular, or emulsion formulations.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Fenamiphos is highly toxic via the oral route, with reported LD50 values of 2 to 19 mg/kg in the rat and 56 to 100 mg/kg in guinea pigs. It is also highly toxic to dogs and rabbits . The acute dermal toxicity of the compound is also high, with reported dermal LD50 values of 72 to 154 mg/kg in rats. The inhalation toxicity of the compound is also high, with reported inhalation LC50 values in rats of 0.11 to 0.17 mg/L. Longer exposures at moderately lower concentrations also caused rat mortality. The compound has the potential to cause significant eye damage at acute exposure levels. It is nonirritating to the skin. Symptoms of acute toxic exposure to the nematicide are consistent with those of other organophosphate compounds and include difficulty in breathing, diarrhea, urination, and slowness of the heart. Other symptoms include muscle twitching and tremors.
 
 
NAME: Phenanthrene                  
 
CLASSIFICATION: A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
 
DESCRIPTION: A crystalline hydrocarbon present in coal tar, used esp. in making dyes and synthetic drugs. Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzenerings. The name phenanthrene is a composite ofphenyl and anthracene. The natural opiates (i.e.morphine) and semi-synthetic opioids (i.e.hydromorphone, buprenorphine) have a phenanthrene skeleton. In its pure form, it is found incigarette smoke and is a known irritant,photosensitising skin to light. Phenanthrene appears as a white powder having blue fluorescence. Phenanthrene is one of a group of chemicals called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs for short. PAHs are often found together in groups of two or more. They can exist in over100 different combinations but the most common are treated as a group of 15. PAHs are found naturally in the environment but they can also be man-made. Phenanthrene is a colorless, crystal-like solid but can also look yellow. PAHs are created when products like coal, oil, gas, and garbage is burned but the burning process is not complete. The compound with a phenanthrene skeleton and nitrogens at the 4 and 5 position is known as phenanthroline or 4, 5-diazaphenanthrene (IUPAC name).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: There is no information available from studies on humans to tell what effects can result from being exposed to individual PAHs at certain levels. However, breathing PAHs and skin contact seem to be associated with cancer in humans. Animal studies showed that exposing mice to 308 parts per million (ppm) of PAHs (specifically benzo (a) pyrene) in food for 10 days (short term exposure) caused birth defects. Mice exposed to 923 ppm of benzo (a) pyrene in food for months developed problems in the liver.
 
 
NAME: Phenanthrene-d10              
 
CLASSIFICATION: a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
 
DESCRIPTION: Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzene rings. The name phenanthrene is a composite of phenyl and anthracene. The natural opiates (i.e. morphine) and semi-synthetic opioids (i.e. hydromorphone, buprenorphine) have a phenanthrene skeleton. In its pure form, it is found in cigarette smoke and is a known irritant, photosensitising skin to light Phenanthrene is one of a group of chemicals called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs for short. PAHs are often found together in groups of two or more. They can exist in over 100 different combinations but the most common are treated as a group of 15. PAHs are found naturally in the environment but they can also be manufactured. Phenanthrene is a colorless, crystal-like solid but can also look yellow. PAHs are created when products likecoal, oil, gas, and garbage is burned but the burning process is not complete.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: A number of PAHs have caused tumors in laboratory animals that were exposed to PAHs through their food, from breathing contaminated air and when it was applied to their skin. When pregnant mice ate high doses of a PAH (benzo(a)pyrene), they experienced reproductive problems. In addition, the offspring of the pregnant mice showed birth defects and a decrease in their body weight. Other effects include damage to skin, body fluids and the immune system that help the body fight disease. However, these effects have not been seen in humans.

  

 
NAME: Phenkapton
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Phenkapton is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The chemical may be absorbed through the skin and cause skin irritation.
 
 
Phenol
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
NAME: Phenothiazine
 
CLASSIFICATION: Anthelmintic
 
DESCRIPTION: A synthetic compound that is used in veterinary medicine to treat parasitic infestations of animals. Phenothiazine is an organic compound that occurs in various antipsychotic and antihistaminic drugs. It has the formula S(C6H4)2NH. This yellow tricyclic compound is soluble in acetic acid, benzene, and ether. The compound is related to the thiazine-class of heterocyclic compounds. Derivatives of the parent compound find wide use as drugs.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The phenothiazine structure occurs in various neuroleptic drugs, e.g. chlorpromazine, and antihistaminic drugs, e.g. promethazine. The term "phenothiazines" describes the largest of the five main classes of neuroleptic antipsychotic drugs. These drugs have antipsychotic and, often, antiemetic properties, although they may also cause severe side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (including akathisia and tardive dyskinesia), hyperprolactinaemia, and the rare but potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome as well as substantial weight gain. Phenothiazines are used as inodilators in congestive heart failure, acting upon the type I calcium/calmodulin dependent phosphodiesterase. Phenothiazine, the parent compound of a multitude of present-day drugs, has been employed on an extensive scale for its insecticidal, fungicidal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Almost a catholicon, its widespread use in animals and man has led to the uncovering of many adverse reactions encompassing effects on blood elements, neuromuscular problems and photosensitization. The high lipophilicity of phenothiazine and the formation of two redox systems amongst its many metabolites can facilitate the occurrence of generalised macromolecular disruption. Information from the literature has been garnered and appraised in this review to enable an insight into the possible mode(s) of interaction of phenothiazine with living systems.
 
 
Phenothrin I
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
NAME: Phenothrin II                 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Phenothrin, also called sumithrin, is a synthetic pyrethroid that kills adult fleas and ticks. It has also been used to kill head lice in humans. d-Phenothrin is used as a component of aerosol insecticides for domestic use. Phenothrin is often used with methoprene, an insect growth regulator that interrupts the insect's biological life cycle by killing the eggs. In 2005, the EPA required Hartz Mountain Industries to cancel uses of several flea and tick products containing Phenothrin that were linked to a range of adverse reactions, including hair loss, salivation, tremors, and numerous deaths in cats and kittens. In the short term, the agreement called for new warning labels on the products.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Like most insecticide treatments, Phenothrin can have minor side effects, such as skin rashes.
 
 
Phenoxyacetic acid
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
NAME: Phenthoate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: The pure substance is a colourless crystalline solid; the technical product is a reddish-yellow, oily liquid. Both have an aromatic odour. The melting point is 17-18¡C; the density (d420) is 1.226; the refraction index (nD20) is 1.5550; the flash poin (cleveland) is 165-170¡C (technical product). Neither the pure substance nor the technical product is corrosive.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: In mammals, potentiation of toxicity occurs with several impurities found in early preparations of the technical product.
 
 
NAME: Phorate sulfone 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: A toxic liquid, C7H17O2PS3, used as an insecticide especially in soil treatment
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Excessive salivation, sweating, rhinorrhea and tearing can be the result of Phorate sulfone along with   muscle twitching, weakness, tremor, and incoordination. Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea have been reported as well as respiratory depression, tightness in chest, wheezing, productive cough, fluid in lungs. Pin-point pupils, sometimes with blurred or dark vision are caused by it. Severe cases involve seizures, incontinence, respiratory depression, loss of consciousness.
 
 
NAME: Phorate sulfoxide
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, nematicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Phorate is an organophosphate insecticide and nematicide primarily used on a variety of field agricultural crops. Phorate is a restricted use pesticide based on its high dermal, oral, and inhalation toxicity. It is applied using ground equipment only since the technical registrants, BASF and Aceto Agricultural Chemicals Corporation, have agreed to cancel the aerial use. About three million pounds are used annually, of which 80 % is applied to corn, potatoes, and cotton.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: EPAÕs human health risk assessment for phorate indicates some risk concerns. Dietary risk from food treated with phorate is not of concern. The aggregate dietary risk from combined food and drinking water exposure may pose concerns, based on modeling results. There are no residential uses of phorate, and therefore no residential risks were considered taken together risk from such uses. The risks of applying phorate using ground equipment are below our level of concern for loaders, handlers, and applicators when closed loading and application systems are used. Risks to aerial applicators are of concern but this application method will be prohibited because registrants have agreed to restrict this method. Phorate ranks high in the number of occupational incidents resulting in adverse health effects.


 

Phorate-oxon

 
NO ENTRY
 
 
NAME: Phosalone
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Phosalone is an organophosphate chemical commonly used as an insecticide and acaricide. Phosalone was introduced in 1963 by Rhone-Poulenc company as a nonsystemic insecticide and acaricide for use on deciduous fruit trees, market garden crops, cotton, potatoes and rape (. It is a broad-spectrum pesticide with rapid killing ability. Approximately 12-20 days control may be expected. Phosalone is a member of the organophosphate family of insecticides. It is used as both an insecticide and acaricide. It comes in emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder and dust formulations . It is used on nut crops, citrus, pome fruits, stone fruits, grapes, potatoes, artichokes, roses and arborvitae . It is active against the red spider mite on apples and pears. It controls a wide range of caterpillars and beetles on crops of economic importance as well as a number of hemiptera and hymenoptera.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Phosalone is a compound of moderate toxicity . The acute oral LD50 values ranged between 82-205 mg/kg for male rats; and between 90-170 mg/kg for female rats. The acute dermal LD50 values for rats ranged between 350 mg/kg and 390 mg/kg .The acute percutaneous LD50 for rats is 1,500 mg/kg . Acute oral toxicities reported for mice ranged between 73 - 205 mg/kg ;between 82-380 mg/kg for guinea pigs ; 112 mg/kg for cats; and greater than 1,600 mg/kg for dogs . Studies on rabbits exposed to phosalone reported the dermal LD50 to be greater than 2,000 mg/kg and the percutaneous LD50 to be greater than 1,000 mg/kg. The primary dermal irritation was found to be mildly irritating to intact and abraded skin and moderately irritating to the skin and eyes.
 
 
NAME: Phosfolan                     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: C6H14O3PNS2 a colorless to yellow solid with a melting point of 37-45¡C; used as an insecticide and miticide for cotton.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Death may result due to respiratory arrest as a result of paralysis of respiratory muscles and intense bronchoconstriction. Similar to parathion. Death may result due to respiratory arrest as a result of paralysis of respiratory muscles and intense bronchoconstriction. Also considered a cholinesterase inhibitor.
 
 
Phosmet
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
NAME: Phosphamidon I                
 
CLASSIFICATIO: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: phosphamidon is a pale yellow to colourless oily liquid with a faint odour. It consists of a mixture of (Z)-isomer and (E)-isomer in the approximate proportion of 70:30.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Phosphamidon affects the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme essential for normal nerve impulse transmission. An impurity of the technical product, gamma-chlorphosphamidon, inhibits mammalian cholinesterase 10 to 20 times more than pure phosphamidon.
 
 
NAME: Phosphamidon II
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Phosphamidon II is systemic insecticide and acaracide with strong stomach action and slight contact action.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The organophosphate insecticides are cholinesterase-inhibitors. They are highly toxic by all routes of exposure. When inhaled, the first effects are usually respiratory and may include a bloody or runny nose, coughing, chest discomfort, difficult or short breath and wheezing due to constriction or excess fluid in the bronchial tubes. Skin contact with organophosphates may cause localized sweating and involuntary muscle contractions. Eye contact will cause pain, bleeding, tears, pupil constriction and blurred vision. Following exposure by any route, other systemic effects may begin within a few minutes or be delayed for up to 12 hours. These may include pallor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, eye pain, blurred vision, constriction or dilation of the pupils, tears, salivation, sweating and confusion. Severe poisoning will affect the central nervous system, producing incoordination, slurred speech, loss of reflexes, weakness, fatigue, involuntary muscle contractions, twitching, tremors of the tongue or eyelids, and eventually paralysis of the body extremities and the respiratory muscles. In severe cases there may also be involuntary defecation or urination, psychosis, irregular heartbeat, unconsciousness, convulsions and coma. Respiratory failure or cardiac arrest may cause death. Phosphamidon affects the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme essential for normal nerve impulse transmission. An impurity of the technical product, gamma-chlorphosphamidon, inhibits mammalian cholinesterase 10 to 20 times more than pure phosphamidon. Phosphamidon is very highly toxic to mammals and is listed as WHO Hazard Class Ia. A harvester developed symptoms of moderately severe poisoning after working in a field that had been sprayed with the chemical 2 weeks earlier. He collapsed and exhibited significant depression of serum cholinesterase, but recovered completely within 2 days after successful treatment with atropine. International trade of phosphamidon is covered by the Rotterdam Convention. Early symptoms of poisoning may include excessive sweating, headache, weakness, giddiness, nausea, vomiting, hypersalivation, stomach pains, blurred vision and slurred speech. If these symptoms occur, the person should remove contaminated clothes, wash the affected skin with soap and water and flush with large quantities of water. If in the event of collapse artificial resuscitation is used, vomit may contain toxic amounts of the substance. In case of ingestion, the stomach should be emptied as soon as possible by careful gastric lavage. Do not induce vomiting if the formulation contained hydrocarbon solvents.
 
 
NAME: Phthalide
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: A lactone obtainedby reduction of phthalyl chloride, as a white crystalline substance; hence, by extension, any one of the series of which phthalideproper is the type.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It has a special toxicological significance expressed at the level of liver, excretory and central nervous system, with repercussions on the immune system (Awad et al., 1998). The high levels of acrylamide in food products and the exposure risk of the consumers demand for the necesity of finding means of reducing its toxicity, represented by phytotherapeutical, chemopreventive or enzymatical reduction methods, which can accelerate the excretion of the toxic metabolites or that can prevent the formation of chemical aducts, precursors of the biochemical lesion.
 
 
NAME: Phthalimide
 
CLASSIFICATIO: Phthalimidoyl (deprotonated)
 
DESCRIPTION: Phthalimide is an imide, which is a chemical compound with two carbonyl groups bound to a primary amine or ammonia. Imide refers to any compound which contains the divalent radical "-C (=O) NHC (=O)-". Imide compounds are derived from ammonia or primary amine, where two hydrogen atoms are replaced by a bivalent acid group or two monovalent acid groups, resulting in consisting of two carboxylic acid groups (or one dicarboxylic acid).Ê In other description, Imide is a compound derived from an acid anhydride by replacing the oxygen with the =NH group. Imides are monomers to prepare polyimides that contain repeating imide groups. Aromatic polyimides have better resistance to high temperatures and corrosion than linear polyimides. Frequently, the term of imide refers to the combined forms such as maleimides, phthalimides, and succinimides which are used as plastic modifiers to improve heat-resistant, antioxidant and antifoulant properties. They are used as intermediates for the synthesis of cross-linking agents, pesticides, dyes, antiseptics and crystalline adducting agents. They are also useful compounds in the synthesis of primary amines and amino acids for the application in the field of medicine and biological research. Phthalimide, derived from phthalic anhydride with ammonium hydroxide by heating, is used in the synthesis of primary amines and amino acids. It is used to make synthetic indigo and phthalocyanine pigments which have macrocyclic structure showing striking coloring features like porphyrins (biopigments). Phthalimide has isoindole moiety. Indole structure is a motif in nature. Prominent examples include tryptophan (aromatic side chain amino acid), serotonin (neurotransmitter), auxin (plant growth hormone), and indigo (plant colorant). The radical "=NH" is called imido group. Imido is a prefix used to denote the presence in a compound of the bivalent group "=NH" attached to only acid radicals. Imine is a compound containing the bivalent "=NH" group combined with a bivalent nonacid group, as "R-HC=NH". It is produced by the condensation reactions of aldehydes or ketones with ammonia (or amines). Imino is a prefix denoting the presence of the bivalent group "=NH" attached to nonacid radicals.It is a white solid at room temperature. Phthalimide can be prepared by heating phthalic anhydride with aqueous ammonia giving 95-97% yield. Alternatively, it may be prepared by fusing the anhydride with ammonium carbonate. Phthalimide is used in plastics, in chemicalsynthesis, and in research.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It was postulated that thalidomide causes birth defects by being metabolized to a toxic electrophilic intermediate. This hypothesis was tested by using an in vitro assay in which drug toxicity to human lymphocytes was assessed in the presence of a hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing system. Maternal hepatic microsomes from pregnant rabbits mediated the production of a metabolite that was toxic to lymphocytes. Toxicity was enhanced by inhibitors of epoxide hydrolase (EC 3.3.2.3) and abolished by adding the purified enzyme to the incubation medium. The metabolite thus appears to be in arene oxide, consistent with the previously reported isolation of phenolic metabolites of thalidomide from the urine of treated animals. Two teratogenic analogs of thalidomide (phthalimidophthalimide and phthalimidinoglutarimide) were also toxic in the system; two nonteratogenic analogs (phthalimide and hexahydrothalidomide) were not toxic, even in the presence of epoxide hydrolase inhibitors. The toxic metabolite of thalidomide was not produced by rat liver microsomes (the rat is not sensitive to thalidomide teratogenesis) but was produced by hepatic preparations from maternal rabbits, and rabbit, monkey, and human (all sensitive species) fetuses. A toxic arene oxide therefore may be involved in the teratogenicity of thalidomide.
 
 
Picloram methyl ester
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
NAME: Picolinafen  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Picolinafen inhibits the activity of phytoene desaturase, leading to a reduction in carotenoid pigments and ultimately, destruction of leaf chlorophyll in the foliage of sensitive plants. Symptoms in the field occur as bleaching or whitening (often with mauve discolouration) of leaf tissue, followed by necrosis and death. Picolinafen is an aryloxypicolinamide and as such is classified for weed resistance management purposes as a GROUP F herbicide.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Picolinafen was given to pregnant rats by oral gavage at 0, 100, 500 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day on days 6 to 19 of gestation... The incidence of bipartite ossification in the thoracic vertebrae in foetuses at 1000 mg/kg bw/day was increased, but no other alterations were observed. Since a NOEL for maternal toxicity was not established in this study, a follow-up study using 0, 5, 25 or 50 mg/kg bw/day was conducted. No treatment-related effects were observed on dams or on foetal development... In a developmental study, picolinafen was given to rabbits by oral gavage at 0, 5, 20 or 50 mg/kg bw/day on days 6-28 of gestation. Soft or liquid faeces were observed at 50 mg/kg bw/day and body weight gain and food consumption were reduced at 20 and 50 mg/kg bw/day... The number of resorptions was slightly increased at 50 mg/kg bw/day and an increased incidence of fused sternal centra was observed in foetuses at 50 mg/kg bw/day. The NOEL for maternal toxicity in this study was 5 mg/kg bw/day and the NOEL for embryotoxicity and foetotoxicity was 20 mg/kg bw/day.
 
 
NAME: Picoxystrobin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Picoxystrobin fungicide is used for the control of a wide range of diseases in Wheat and Barley.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is unlikely to cause harmful effects when handled and used as directed on the label.
 
 
Pindone
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
NAME: Piperalin                     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Piperalin is a fungicide used for the control of powdery mildews on ornamentals... /and/ is a potent inhibitor of growth and ergosterol biosynthesis in sporidia of Ustilago maydis. Piperalin (84.4%, SePRO) is a pale yellow viscous liquid with a slightly musty straw odor and has density of 1.18 g/cc (9.8 lb/gal). It decomposes at 208oC, miscible in acetone, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and toluene. Its solubility in water at 25oC is 200 ppm, 3-5 g/100 in acetonitrile, 5-10 g/100ml in hexane and 5-10 g/100ml in methanol. A 50% slurry has a pH of 9.0. The vapor pressure is<1.0 x 10-7 Torr @ 25oC, dissociation constant (pk ) is 8.9 (in 66% DMF) and octanol/water partition coefficient (K ) is 20400 (Log K = 4.31). It is stable to heat, ow ow to metal and metal ions (i.e., Copper, Brass, Stainless steel 304 and 316, Nickel (II) chloride [NiCl ], Cuprous chloride [CuCl] and Ferric chloride [[FeCl .6H O]) for 28 2 3 2 days at 50oC and stable in storage at RT up to about seven (7) years.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: An acute oral toxicity study in Fischer 344 rats found an LD of 50 approximately 800 mg/kg for females and 1419 mg/kg for males, which is toxicity category III (MRID 40503201). An acute dermal toxicity study with New Zealand white rabbits showed an LD greater than 5850 50 mg/kg, which is toxicity category IV (MRID 40503201). An acute inhalation toxicity study with Fischer 344 rats found the LC was 50 greater than 0.5 mg/L, which is toxicity category III (MRID 40503201).
 
 
NAME: Piperonyl butoxide            
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide synergist
 
DESCRIPTION: Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is a pesticide synergist. It does not, by itself have pesticidal properties. However, when added to insecticide mixtures, typically pyrethrin, pyrethroid, and carbamate insecticides, their potency is increased considerably.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Effects of piperonyl butoxide and carbaryl synergism were studied on the metabolism of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Snails were exposed to 40 % and 80 % of the 48 h LC50 of carbaryl or carbaryl + piperonyl butoxide mixture (1:5). The amount of carbaryl present in the LC50 mixture was only 0.23 % of the LC50 of carbaryl alone. The treatments caused a dose-dependent decrease in glycogen and protein levels and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and alkaline phosphatase activity; simultaneously, there was an increase in levels of lactic acid, reducing sugars and amino acid and the activity of acid phosphatase. Significant differences in AChE and phosphatase activity were also observed between the effects of equivalent concentrations of carbaryl and carbaryl-synergist.
 
 
NAME: Piperophos                    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: It is herbicide selective, systemic, absorbed by roots and foliage, works by inhibiting cell division.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Comparative study of petrilachlor, metsulfuron-methyl, bensulfuron-methyl, piperophos/dimethametryn and butachlor was done at the rates of 120, 1.5, 8.0, 120 and 160 g. a.i./rai. Herbicides were applied at 3 days before seeding (DBS) and 10 days after seeding (DAS). The trials were conducted at Suphan Buri Rice Experiment Station and Chai Nat Rice Experiment Station as split plot design. The toxicity to rice, grade of weed control were recorded as well as the height of rice at harvest, number of panicles/0.5 square meters and yield of rice. At Suphan Buri, toxicity to rice for the treatments of application at 3 DBS tended to be less than those at 10 DAS except bensulfuron-methyl. Grades of weed control were identical between two application times of herbicide and among herbicidal treatments in each time of application. At Chai Nat, the results in wet season in term of the toxicity to rice were the same between the times of application and among herbicidal treatments piperophos/dimethametryn had highest toxicity. Grades of weed control at 3 DBS and 10 DAS were almost the same resulting in no difference in yield. For the dry season, it was found to be similar to the wet season in case of toxicity to rice and weed control. The yields were the same between two application times but not in each application time.
 
 
NAME: Pirimicarb                    
 
CLASSIFICATIO: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Pirimicarb is a carbamate insecticide used to control aphids on vegetable, cereal and orchard crops by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity. The selective toxic insecticidal properties of pirimicarb, carbaryl and methamidophos to Myzus persicae (Sulz.) and its predators Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timb. And Chrysopa oculata Say were studied. Pirimicarb was less toxic than carbaryl or methamidophos to Coleomegilla m. lengi and Chrysopa oculata and more toxic to the aphids. The selectivity ratio for pirimicarb indicating selectivity favouring the predators was about 4000:1. A fast-acting selective aphicide useful against both       OP-resistant and non-OP-resistant strains. It acts by contact translaminar, vapor, and systemic action. Used on a wide range of       crops including cereals, sugar beet, potatoes, fruit, and vegetables. It       is relatively nontoxic to beneficial predators, parasites, and bees
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: ACUTE TOXICITY DERMAL: LD50 = >500 mg/kg (rat) (56); nonirritant (20a). ORAL:    LD50 = 147 mg/kg (rat) (56) LD50 = 107 mg/kg (mouse); 25-50 mg/kg (poultry); 100-200 mg/kg (dog) (62). EYES: Pirimor caused no irritation when introduced as a 5% solution of technical material into the eyes of rabbits (20a).
 
 
NAME: Pirimiphos-ethyl
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: pirimiphos-ethyl is an insecticide with contact and fumigation action. It is widely used to kill pests of banana, crops, ornamintal plant, turf, vegetable, etc. It also can be used to deal with seeds and kill mospuitoes and flies in mixed fertilizer for mushroom
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: In an acute study, albino rats of both sexes were orally administered graded doses of Pirimiphosmethyl, and the statistically computed median lethal dose (LD-50) were 1861 and 1667 mg/kg body weight for male and female rats respectively. No treatment related changes were discernible with regard to food intake, growth, gross or histopathology of the organs. In a time-course study, the correlation between symptoms and degree of esterase inhibition was examined in rats administered the minimum lethal dose (MLD : 1000 mg/kg b.w.) of the insecticide. Time - course inhibition pattern of both cholinesterase (ChE) and non-specific carboxylesterase (NSE) activities in brain and plasma revealed maximum inhibition at 24 h post-treatment which correlated well with the intensity of symptoms.
 
 
NAME: Pirimiphos-methyl       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Pirimiphos-methyl is the active ingredient of a product called Actellic which is manufactured by Zeneca. It is used as a spray and a dust on stored grain to kill insect pests. Actellic is the market leader by a long way. The only other available products are both OPs: Satisfar, based on the active ingredient etrimfos, is made by Novartis; and Reldan, based on the active ingredient chlorpyrifos, is made by Dow Elanco. Reldan is not a competitor in the real sense, because it is only available as an emulsion for spraying on to grain, and is not used as a dust.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The toxicology of pirimiphos-methyl was evaluated by the FAO/WHO JMPR in 1974, 1976 and 1992, the 1992 JMPR establishing an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0.00-0.03 mg/kg bodyweight (JMPR, 1992b). The only biochemical effect consistently noted in acute, short-term and long-term, or chronic toxicity tests was inhibition of cholinesterase. The JMPR concluded that pirimiphos-methyl is not genotoxic. Residues of pirimiphos-methyl were considered by the JMPR in 1974, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1983, 1985, 1994 and 2003. In assessing short-term intake of residues, the 2003 JMPR noted that an acute reference dose (acute RfD) may be required for pirimiphos-methyl but had not been established (JMPR, 1992a).
 
 
Plifenat
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
NAME: Potasan
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Potasan has an action similar to chlorinated hydrocarbons and act as contact poisons.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Organophosphate compounds include some of the most toxic chemicals used in agriculture. Included in the organophosphate group are disulfoton, phorate, dimethoate, ciodrin, dichlorvos, dioxathion, ruelene, carbophenothion, supona, TEPP, EPN, HETP, parathion, malathion, ronnel, coumaphos, diazinon, trichlorfon, paraoxon, potasan, dimefox, mipafox, schradan, sevin, chlorpyrifos and dimeton. These insecticides are esters, amides, or simple derivatives of phosphoric and thiophosphoric acids. Some of the less toxic compounds are used as systemic insecticides in animals against internal and external parasites. These include chlorthion, thichlorphon, diazinon, fenchlorphos, and dichlorvos. The organophosphate insecticides can be grouped according to their toxic action on insects. Malathion, paraoxon, parathion, and potasan have an action similar to chlorinated hydrocarbons and act as contact poisons, while others such as dimefox, mipafox, and schradan are selective systemic insecticides which are absorbed into the plant sap and remain active for long periods of time. Selective systemic organophosphate insecticides are toxic to plant pests but not to their predators.
 
 
NAME: Prallethrin, cis-             
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Prallethrin (E-ISO) as defined in the accompanying specification, consists mainly of [1R, trans; S] and [1R,cis; S] isomers in a ratio of approximately 4:1. The E-ISO common name and CAS Registry number define Prallethrin as the racemic mixture of the 8 possible stereoisomers implied by the structure. WHO recognizes that this use of the ISO common name is potentially confusing but, in the absence of an internationally accepted alternative, the name Prallethrin is applied to the mixture defined by the WHO specification. Prallethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid with fast knockdown activity against household insect pests. It is used in household insecticide products against mosquitoes, houseflies and cockroaches Prallethrin also has veterinary uses in the treatment of domestic pets
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Prallethrin is moderately toxic when administered orally or by inhalation and is more toxic to female than male rats. It is of low toxicity via the dermal route. It is nonirritant to skin and a minimal irritant to the eyes of rabbit. It is not a skin sensitizer in guinea pigs.
 
 
Prallethrin, trans-
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
NAME: Pretilachlor
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Pretilachlor is a selective pre-emergence herbicide that is effective against annual grasses, sedges and broad-leaved weeds. The herbicide was applied in pre-seeding on a flooded rice field where water circulation was stopped for about 3 weeks after treatment. Pretilachlor concentration in the paddy water was decreased by more than 90% during the first three weeks after the treatment. The amount of the herbicide in the paddy water gradually fell to levels below the sensitivity of the analytical method when water circulation was re-established. The Pretilachlor concentration in the sediment gradually increased after the treatment, reaching the highest value 5 to 6 days later. The average DT50 in water and sediment were 6.77 and 28.76 days in 2001, 4.68 and 15.01 days in 2002, respectively. The low percolation rate (0.95 and 0.79 mm day-1 in 2001 and 2002, respectively) and the high ratio of the herbicide adsorption on the sediment suggest that Pretilachlor disappearance from the water was mainly the result of degradation.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It may cause lung damage if swallowed and is irritating to skin and eyes. It may also cause sensitization by skin contact.
 
 
NAME: Probenazole
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Probenazole (3-allyloxy-1,2-benzothiazole 1,1-dioxide, PBZ) is a bactericide and fungicide that acts by inducing plant defense systems. It has been shown to induce the expression of NBS-LRR genes like RPR1 (rice probenazole-response gene) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-like disease resistance. Two maize (Zea mays L.) genes Zmnbslrr1 (a NBS-LRR gene, cloned from a disease resistance analog PIC11 based) and Zmgc1 , (a putative guanylyl cyclase-like gene) have both been associated with quantitative resistance loci (QTL) for resistance to Fusarium graminearum . PIC11 was associated with Fusarium stalk rot and ZmGC1 showed resistance to Gibberella ear rot caused by F. graminearum . The objectives of the current study here were to characterize the Zmnbslrr1 gene and to determine whether it and Zmgc1 respond to the inducer PBZ. The transcript abundance of Zmnbslrr1 expression was significantly reduced in corn seedlings of the Gibberella ear rot resistant genotype CO387 48 h after PBZ treatment. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the maize Zmgc1 gene increased more than 10-fold 8h after the treatment. Therefore, the two genes do not appear to be coordinately regulated by PBZ.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute toxicity to mammalfsr from fungicides is low. The fungicides that rank in the three highest acute toxicity classes (LDs0 rat 1-50, 50-100, and 100-1000 mg kg-1) are mostly conventional, first- and second-generation compounds such as copper and tin derivatives (6). Most third-generation-fu~n. gicides have LDs0v alues higher than 1,000 or even 10,000 mg kg Consequently, the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of most fungicides relatively high, and is in excess of the level likely to be foundi n humand iets (60). Thus, the threat to humanh ealth from consumptiono f food contaminated with fungicide residues are lower than for other pesticide classes (2, 8), significant achievement indeed.
 
 
NAME: Prochloraz                    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Prochloraz is a broad-spectrum fungicide. It acts by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis. Prochloraz is used as a seed treatment and foliar spray on a wide range of crops. For diseases on cereals, oilseed rape, rice, mushrooms, ornamentals; postharvest treatment of certain fruits. Prochloraz is a non-systemic imidazole fungicide, an ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor with contact and translaminar, protectant and eradicant activity. It is used in agriculture and horticulture against various plant diseases, especially Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti. It is used to control foliar diseases of cereals( Pseudocercosporella, Pyrenophora, Rhynchosporium and Septoria spp.), field crops(such as Alternaria, Botrytis, Pyrenopeziza and Sclerotinia in oilseed rape, Ascochyta and Botrytis in legumes, Pyricularia in rice), fruit (blossom blight) and vegetables (anthracnose).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: In order to assess the bioenvironmental effect and biological toxicity of prochloraz comprehensively and correctly,under the conditions of illumination and constant temperaturet,he experiment about the effect of prochloraz and its formulation(sportak) on Lp.aucicostata's growth was studied in the laboratory.When the concentration of prochloraz less than 1.56 mg/L,the growth of Lp.aucicostata can be stimulated in 1st day and the stimulating action would drop slightly in the following three days.However,the growth of L.paucicostata could be inhibited obviously when the concentration of prochloraz higher than 1.56 mg/L.When it came to sportakt,here was a similar result like prochlorazI.n a word,the lower concentration or the longer duration of action promoted the growth of Lp.aucicostata,and the higher concentration or shorter duration of action inhibited its growth.It also can be found that in the first day,the toxicity of prochloraz to Lp.aucicostata was lower than that of sportak to Lp.aucicostata and in the following three days,the toxicity kept higher than that of sportak to L.paucicostata,which should be paid more attention and deeply discussed.
 
 
Contaminant Facts: Pesticides
 
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