Home Email SiteMap
 
Google Plus
Blog
Pinterest
LinkedIn

Home > Pesticides (Me - Pa)


 

 

Find Supplements Free of:

Casein

Corn


Colorings

Gluten


Gelatin

Soy


Milk

Sugar


Starch

Yeast


Sucrose


Artificial Flavorings

Search

Google

Translate

To translate this page select a language!


To find
international
distributors

Pesticides (Me - Pa)


Mi | N | No | O | Ox | P
 
 
NAME: Methoxychlor
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticides (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Methoxychlor is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally in the environment. Pure Methoxychlor is a pale-yellow powder with a slight fruity or musty odor. Methoxychlor is used as an insecticide against flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, chiggers, and a wide variety of other insects. It is used on agricultural crops and livestock, and in animal feed, barns, grain storage bins, home gardens, and on pets. Methoxychlor is also known as DMDT, Marlate¨, or Metox¨. Methoxychlor,Êalso calledÊ1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)ethane,Êa colorless,ÊcrystallineÊorganic halogen compoundÊused as anÊinsecticide. Methoxychlor is very similar toÊDDTÊbut acts more rapidly, is less persistent, and does not accumulate in the fatty tissues of animals as does DDT. Methoxychlor is prepared by the reaction of chloral with anisole (methyl phenyl ether) in the presence ofÊsulfuric acid; theÊcommercial productÊusually is about 88 percent pure.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is unknown how quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who
have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact. In high doses the agent can lead to neurotoxicity as observed in animal experiments. Some of the agent's metabolites have estrogenic effect as shown in adult and developing animals before and after birth. One studied metabolite is 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)- 1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) which is considered to have reproductive toxicity in the animal model by reducing testosterone biosynthesis. Such effects adversely affect the both the male and female reproductive systems. It is expected that this "could occur in humans" but has not been proven. While one study has linked Methoxychlor to the development of leukemia in humans, most studies in animals and humans have been negative, thus the EPA has determined that it is not classifiable as a carcinogen. The EPA indicates that levels above the Maximum Contaminant Level of 40 ppb "cause" central nervous depression, diarrhea, damage to liver, kidney, and heart, and - by chronic exposure - growth retardation.
 
 
 
NAME: Methyl Parathion
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Methyl parathion is an insecticide that does not occur naturally in the environment. Pure methyl parathion exists as white crystals. Impure methyl parathion is a brownish liquid that smells like rotten eggs. Methyl parathion is used to kill insects on farm crops, especially cotton. The EPA now restricts how methyl parathion can be used and applied; only trained people are allowed to spray it. Methyl parathion can no longer be used on food crops commonly consumed by children.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The World Health Organisation classifies methyl parathion as a class Ia 'extremely hazardous' pesticide. It is highly toxic by inhalation and ingestion, and moderately toxic by dermal adsorption (it is also readily adsorbed through the skin). The oral LD50 in rats is 2.9 mg/kg, in mice is 33.1-119.5 mg/kg, in rabbits is 19-420 mg/kg and dogs is 50 mg/kg(9). The dermal rat LD50 is 44-67 mg/kg. Like other organophosphate insecticides, methyl parathion is a cholinesterase inhibitor. When inhaled, the first adverse effects are a bloody or runny nose, coughing, chest discomfort and difficulty breathing. Skin contact may cause localised sweating and involuntary muscle contractions. Following exposure by any route, other systemic effects may begin within a few minutes, or be delayed for up to 12 hours. These may include pallor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, eye pain, blurred vision, constriction or dilation of the pupils, tears, salivation, sweating and confusion. In severe cases, poisoning will affect the central nervous system, producing in-coordination, slurred speech, loss of reflexes, weakness, fatigue, and eventual paralysis of the body extremities and respiratory muscles. Death may be caused by respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. Effects reported in workers repeatedly exposed to methyl parathion include impaired memory and concentration, disorientation, severe depressions, irritability, confusion, headache, speech difficulties, delayed reaction times, nightmares, sleepwalking, drowsiness and insomnia. There are no epidemiological studies on effects related only to methyl parathion exposure.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer evaluated methyl parathion in 1983, and concluded that the available data do not provide evidence that methyl parathion is carcinogenic to experimental animals.


 
NAME: Metobromuron
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Metobromuron is an important pre-emergence herbicide normally applied to the soil surface to control mainly annual broadleaf weeds in common bean (Phaseolus vul-garis L.) production. Sometimes, herbicide splash during severe rainstorms injures bean seedlings. Differential cultivar response to metobromuron is known. Inheritance of reaction to metobromuron was studied with two insensitive cultivars of cranberry beanÑTaylor Hort and UI 51Ñby crossing with a sensitive bean cultivarÑMidnight. The reaction was controlled by a single dominant gene present in both insensitive cultivars. Insensitive plants recovered quickly from the injury. A single recessive gene, hmb, has been assigned for control of metobromuron-sensitive reaction.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Fish: LC50 43 mg/l (trout). Bird: LD50 565 mg/kg b.w. (quail). Bee: Nontoxic. Rat: Oral LD50 2000 mg/kg (male); 3000 mg/kg (female). (Rabbit): Dermal LD50 >10,200 mg/kg. Eye exposure may result in ocular irritation. Irritation of the respiratory mucous membranes may be noted following prolonged heavy contact. The effect of substituted urea herbicides on rat hepatic microsomal epoxide-hydroxylase activity was studied in-vitro. Male Wistar-rats were given 16.7% of the median lethal dose (LD50) of diuron, linuron, chlorbromuron, chlortoluron, metoxuron, monolinuron, metobromuron or isoproturon on 3 consecutive days by oral gavage. The animals were killed 24 hr after the last dose and the livers were removed. Epoxide-hydroxylase activity was determined by a HPLC assay using styrene-oxide as the substrate and styrene-glycol as the standard. Indices of induction were calculated. The experimental values of epoxide-hydrolase activity in nmoles/min/mg protein were: control, 7.2; diuron, 13.8; linuron, 12.1; chlorbromuron, 13.2; chlortoluron, 21.8; metoxuron, 16.1; monolinuron, 12.6; metobromuron, 10.6; and isoproturon, 29.5. The indices of induction were: diuron, 0.37; linuron, 0.25; chlorbromuron, 0.29; chlortoluron, 0.26; metoxuron, 0.53; monolinuron, 0.43; metobromuron, 0.37; and isoproturon, 0.82. The authors note that the herbicides that have two halogen substituents on the phenyl moiety have higher molar induction that those which have only a single halogen substituent or none.
 
 
NAME: Metolachlor
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: MetolachlorÊis anÊorganic compoundÊthat is widely used as aÊherbicide. It is a derivative ofÊanilineÊand is a member of the chloroacetanilide herbicides. It is highly effective toward grasses but its application is also controversial.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Metolachlor inducesÊcytotoxicÊandÊgenotoxicÊeffects in human lymphocytes.ÊGenotoxic effects have also been observed in tadpoles exposed to metolachlorÊEvidence also reveals that metolachlor affects cell growth. Cell division in yeast was reduced,Êand chicken embryos exposed to metolchlor showed a significant decrease in the average body mass compared to the control.
 
 
NAME: Metolcarb
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Colorless crystalline solid. Metolcarb is an insecticide for the control of rice leafhoppers,
planthoppers, codling moth, citrus mealybug, onion thrips, fruit flies, bollworms and aphids. Not registered as a pesticide in the U.S.
 
HEALTH PROBLEM: The combined toxicity of malathion, 2-sec-butylphenylmethylcarbamate, m-tolymethylcarbamate, and 3,4-xylyl-methylcarbamate was studied in mice and rats. ICR mice and male Fischer 344 rats were exposed orally to a suspension of insecticides at five dose concentrations to determine the median lethal dose (LD50); animals were observed for mortality at least 7 days after dosing. ... Mice were killed, brains were homogenized, and brain acetylcholinesterase activity was determined. Of all combinations tested, only malathion plus 2-sec-butylphenylmethylcarbamate exhibited a marked synergism in acute toxicity in male mice; other combinations with m-tolymethylcarbamate, or 3,4-xylyl-methylcarbamate did not show any significant potentiation of toxicity in male mice. Female mice responded similarly to insecticide synergism. In rats, the synergism was relatively less potent than in mice. Symptoms of muscle fasciculation, increased salivation, urination, convulsion, and dyspnea were similar in mice and rats. Significant time differences in mortality after dosing were observed among the insecticides and between rats and mice. High oral and skin toxicity, and moderate inhalation toxicity. (Non-Specific -- Carbamates) Some carbamates appear to be carcinogenic, teratogenic, and/or mutagenic. Carbamates are cholinesterase inhibitors.
 
 
NAME: Metominostrobin (E)           
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms:ssf-126;Metominofen;Metominostrobin;(E)- Metominostrobin [iso];(E)-Metominostrobin;metominostrobin (bsi, pa iso);methyl (e)-?-methoxyimino-n-methyl-2-phenoxyphenylacetamide. Molecular weight:284.3; Physical form:White crystals. Density:1.27-1.30 (20 ¡C); Composition:>97% pure. Melting point:87-89 ¡C; Flash point:226 ¡C (Seta flash tester); Vapour pressure:0.018 (25 ¡C, gas saturation method); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = 2.32 (20 ¡C); Solubility:In water 0.128 g/l (20 ¡C). In dichloromethane 1380, chloroform 1280, dimethyl sulfoxide 940 (all in g/l, 25 ¡C).; Stability:Stable to heat, and to acidic and alkaline media. Slightly unstable to light. Other formulations are GR: Imochi Ace (metominostrobin 40 g a.i. /kg)

GR: Imochi Ace Starkle (metominostrobin 40 + dinotefuran 17 g a.i./kg)

GR: Imochi Ace Kirappu (metominostrobin 40 + ethiprole 20 g a.i./kg)

GR: Oribright (metominostrobin 150 g a.i./kg)

GR: Oribright (metominostrobin 250 g a.i./kg)

GR: Oribright Starkle (metominostrobin 150 + dinotefuran 15 g a.i./kg)

 
HEALTH PROBLEM: Moderately is toxic by ingestion. WhenÊMetominostrobin (CAS NO.133408-50-1) is heated to decomposition, it emits toxic vapors of NOx.
 
 
NAME: Metominostrobin (Z)
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are (Z)-2-Methoxyimino-N-methyl-2-(2-phenoxyphenyl)acetamide, (Z)-?-Methoxyimino-N-methyl-2-phenoxyphenylacetamide. Syntheses of compounds analogous to the commercialized fungicide metominostrobin and the acaricide fluacrypyrim led to the discovery of a lead compound, (E)-2-{2-[[3, 5-bis (trifluoromethyl) phenoxy] methyl]phenyl}-2-(methoxyimino)-N-methylacetamide (3b), that showed moderate acaricidal activity againstÊTetranychus urticaeÊKoch. Compound 3b has a 3,5-(CF3)2-phenoxymethyl group instead of the unsubstituted phenoxy substituent in metominostrobin. Optimization of compound 3b was achieved by introducing an oxime ether bridge along with an alkylthio(alkyl) branch in place of the oxymethylene chain between two aromatic moieties, as well as by replacing the methoxyiminoacetamide group with a methoxyacrylate structure, leading to (E)- methyl 2-{2-[[[(Z)[1-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-methylthioethylidene]amino]oxy] methyl]phenyl}-3-methoxyacrylate (6c) and (E)- methyl 2-{2-[[[(Z)[1-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1-methylthiomethylidene]amino]oxy]methyl]phenyl}-3-methoxyacrylate (9a, HNPC-A3066). The effect of pH, water hardness and temperature in water on release profile of time-controlled release granule (TCRG) was investigated.?The release profile of metominostrobin from TCRG did not change regardless of changing pH from 4 to 10 and water hardness from 3 to 100.?However, as the temperature increased, the lag time was shortened and the release rate became faster.?When the logarithmic cumulative temperature was plotted as abscissa and release percentage as ordinate, the release profiles measured at fixed temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30?) and changing temperatures from 15 to 30? periodically were superposed. Therefore, the released percentage could be predicted from cumulative temperature.?Thus, it was thought that the difference in water permeation through PVC membrane by temperature caused different release profiles. Strobilurins are a new class of fungicides included in the Quinone outside Inhibitors (QoI) group. They have a novel mode of action, and are very safe from an environmental point of view. The group includes synthetic compounds such as azoxystrobin, metominostrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin and, more recently, picoxystrobin, dimoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin, which act in a similar way to the natural strobilurin A, produced by the strobilurus tenacellus fungus . The effectiveness of strobilurins lies in their inhibition of the mitochondrial respiration of the fungus . However, they can leave residues, which must be controlled for food safety reasons.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: A study describes a newsolvent-freemethod for the sensitive determination of seven strobilurin fungicides (azoxystrobin, metominostrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, picoxystrobin, dimoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin) in baby food samples. Direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode, GCÐMS (SIM), is used. All analyses were performed with 2 g of sample mass, 14mL of sample extract volume and sample extract buffered at pH 5. Optimal extraction conditions were 60 ?C for 40 min under continuous stirring using a PDMS-DVB fiber. Desorption was carried out at 240 ?C for 4 min. The standard additions method is recommended and quantitation limits ranged from 0.01 to 0.4 ng g?1 at a signal to noise ratio of 10, depending on the compound. Recoveries obtained for spiked samples were satisfactory for all the compounds. The method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Different baby foodswere analyzed by the proposedmethod and none of the samples contained residues above the detection limits.
 
 
NAME: Metrafenone
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: EFSA proposed to include the derived processing factor for wine in Annex VI of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005. The residues of metrafenone in rotational crops are of no relevance for the given import tolerance application. The nature and magnitude of metrafenone residues in commodities of animal origin is not relevant in the framework of this application, as table and wine grapes are not fed to livestock. The consumer exposure assessment was performed with revision 2 of the EFSA Pesticide Residues Intake Model (PRIMo). For the calculation of the chronic exposure, EFSA used the median residue value as derived from the residue trials on wine grapes. For the remaining commodities of plant and animal origin, the existing MRLs as established in Annex IIIA of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 were used as input values. Acute consumer exposure was not performed since the setting of an ArfD was considered not necessary for metrafenone. The calculated exposure was then compared with the toxicological reference value derived for metrafenone.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The toxicological profile of metrafenone was assessed in the framework of the peer review and the data were sufficient to derive an ADI of 0.25 mg/kg body weight/day. Due to the low acute toxicity of the active substance, the setting of an ARfD was considered not necessary. The plant metabolism of metrafenone was investigated in grapevines and wheat. From these studies the peer review concluded to establish the residue definition for risk assessment and enforcement in cereals and fruits and fruiting vegetables as metrafenone. For the use on table and wine grapes, EFSA concluded that the metabolism of metrafenone is sufficiently elucidated and that the derived residue definition is appropriate.
 
 
NAME: Mevinphos
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: An insecticide and acaricide used to control a broad spectrum of insects including aphids, grasshoppers, leafhoppers and caterpillars. Mevinphos is a broad spectrum insecticide, an organophosphate chemical that is used for control of a variety of insects, including aphids, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, cutworms, caterpillars, and many other insects on a broad range of field, forage, vegetable and fruit crops It is also an acaricide that kills or controls mites and ticks. It acts quickly both as a contact insecticide, acting through direct contact with target pests, and as a systemic insecticide, which becomes absorbed by, plants on which insects feed. It dissipates quickly and has short-term residual activity. It is extremely effective at very low dosage rates. It is available in concentrate or liquid formulations. Mevinphos is one of a class of insecticides referred to as organophosphates. These chemicals act by interfering with the activities of cholinesterase, an enzyme that is essential for the proper working of the nervous systems of both humans and insects. Please refer to the Toxicology Information Brief on cholinesterase-inhibition for a more detailed description of this topic.
 
HEALTH PROBLEM: Mevinphos is highly toxic through all routes of exposure, including ingestion, dermal absorption and inhalation. Poisoning affects the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system and the eyes. The greatest occupational hazard is absorption of mevinphos through the skin, lungs, and mucous membranes .Its toxic action is direct and quick, regardless of the route of exposure. In humans, symptoms of poisoning have appeared within as little as 15 minutes or 2 hours after exposure to mevinphos, but onset of symptoms have been delayed for as long as 2 days. As with all organophosphates, mevinphos is readily absorbed through the skin. Skin which has come in contact with this material should be washed immediately with soap and water and all contaminated clothing should be removed. The severity of mevinphos poisoning will determine the number and types of symptoms which will result. Poisoning is also influenced by the length and concentration of exposure .Persons with respiratory ailments, recent exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors, impaired cholinesterase production, or with liver malfunction may be at increased risk from exposure to mevinphos.
 
 
NAME: Molinate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molinate is a selective thiocarbamate herbicide used to control broad-leaved and grassy plants in rice and other crops. Molinate is available in granular and emulsifiable liquid formulations.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Molinate is moderately toxic by ingestion and slightly toxic by dermal absorption. It may cause skin irritation or sensitization. Symptoms of exposure to molinate include nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, weakness and conjunctivitis. Molinate is volatile and may be irritating when inhaled .Inhalation exposure to large amounts of thiocarbamates may cause itching, scratchy throat, sneezing and coughing. In male rats, the lowest dosage that will produce a toxic effect when inhaled (TDlo) is 0.6 to 0.64 mg/m3 over 6 hours of exposure (NIOSH RTECS Online File # 85/8406). The amount of a chemical that is lethal to one-half (50%) of experimental animals fed the material is referred to as its acute oral lethal dose fifty, or LD50. The oral LD50 for molinate is 369-955 mg/kg in rats, and 530 mg/kg in mice. For granular formulations (10G), the oral LD50 in rats is greater than 5,000 mg/kg. The dermal LD50 for the rabbit is 3536 to greater than 10,000 mg/kg .The inhalation LCLO for molinate in both rats and cats is 200 mg/m3. An LCLO is the lowest dose to produce deaths in test animals.
 
 
NAME: Mecoprop methyl ester         
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Esters ofÊcarboxylic acids, the most common esters, contain the acid's carbonyl group; the carbon's fourth bond is with the alcohol's oxygen atom. Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of anÊalkaliÊ(saponification) is used to makeÊsoaps fromÊfats andÊoils. Carboxylic acid esters of low molecular weight are colourless, volatile liquids with pleasant odours; they give flavour and fragrance to fruits and flowers and are used as synthetic flavours and fragrances. Others, such as ethyl acetate and butyl acetate, are used asÊsolvents for lacquers, paints, and varnishes. CertainÊpolymers is esters, including LuciteÊ(polymethyl methacrylate) and Dacron (polyethylene terephthalate). Esters of alcohols and inorganic acids include nitrate esters (e.g.Ênitroglycerin), which are explosive; phosphate esters, including such biologically important compounds asÊnucleic acids; and others that are used as flame retardants, solvents, plasticizers, gasoline and oil additives, and insecticides It is a class of chemical compounds formed by the bonding of an alcohol and one or more organic acids, with the loss of a water molecule for each ester group formed. Fats are esters, produced by the bonding of fatty acids with the alcohol glycerol.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Ethyl ether has been used to produce surgical anesthesia in humans; the concentration that is needed to induce anesthesia in humans ranges from 100,000 to 150,000 ppm. After anesthesia has been induced, it is maintained at about 50,000 ppm because respiratory arrest may occur at higher concentrations. At 200 ppm, mild nasal irritation occurs, and at 2,000 ppm, dizziness may be experienced [ACGIH 1991; Hathaway et al. 1991]. Brief exposures of the eyes to the liquid or to high vapor concentrations produced burning but no injury. Prolonged exposure may cause temporary corneal epithelial injury [Grant 1986]. Prolonged skin contact can cause burns. Ethyl ether is also a defatting agent, and repeated exposure may cause skin drying and cracking.
 
 
NAME: Monolinuron
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide, and algaecide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Monolinuron is a selective systemic herbicide, a pesticide and a algaecide. As a herbicide, it is used to control broad-leaved weeds and annual grasses in vegetable crops such as leeks and potatoes. In fish, keeping it is used to control blanket weed and hair algae.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: ÊMonolinuron is highly toxic, or could cause severe eye or skin injury. Highly toxic pesticides also carry the skull and crossbones symbol and the word POISON printed in red. Pesticides than can badly damage the skin or eyes may have the signal word DANGER without the word POISON.
 
 
NAME: MCPA
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: MCPA is a systemic phenoxy herbicide used to control annual and perennial weeds (including thistle and dock) in cereals, grasslands, trees and turf. As with some of the other phenoxy herbicides, MCPA is an acid, but it is often formulated as a salt such as diethanolamine salt. Unless otherwise indicated, this document will refer to the acid form. The herbicide works by concentrating in the actively growing regions of a plant (meristematic tissue) where it interferes with protein synthesis, cell division and ultimately the growth of the plant.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Three ninety-day studies of rats revealed chronic toxic effects at doses around 20 to 25 mg/kg/day. Growth retardation and increased kidney weight were the effects noted in all three studies. Another study of this type indicated that the lowest dose that caused chronic toxic effects in the rat was about 5 mg/kg/day. These levels are substantially below the LD50 values for the organism indicating that chronic toxicity can occur at low exposure levels.
 
 
NAME: Myclobutanil                  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: MyclobutanilÊis aÊtriazoleÊchemical used as aÊfungicide. It is a steroid demethylation inhibitor, specifically inhibitingÊergosterolÊbiosynthesis. Ergosterol is a critical component of fungal cell membranes. It is used heavily to control fungi affecting wine and table grapes, especially in California. It also has a number of other food crop and commercial or residential landscaping applications. Although it has a low acute toxicity, myclobutanil has been found to affect the reproductive abilities of test animals. Myclobutanil is registered for use on a wide range of food and feed crops. It may also be used in greenhouses, public rights of way, turf, and in landscaping applications. Cotton seeds may be treated with myclobutanil (EPA). California accounts for roughly 50% of all myclobutanil use in the US, using 70,000 to 90,000 lbs. annually. Grapes are the most heavily treated crop, using 60% of all myclobutanil in California. Almonds and strawberries are also account for a notable percentage of myclobutanil use in California (EPA).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Myclobutanil has a relatively low acute toxicity. The acute oral LD50 for mice is 1360 mg/kg, and ranges from 1.75 to 1.8 g/kg for rats. Myclobutanil metabolizes into 1,2,4-triazole, which has a lower acute toxicity than the parent compound (EPA). Workers exposed to myclobutanil have reported symptoms such as skin rash, allergic dermatitis, itchiness, nausea, heachache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, nosebleed, and eye irritation (CDPR). In a two-generation study on rats over the effects of myclobutanil on reproduction, researchers found a decrease in pup weight gain, increased incidence of stillborns, and atrophy of the testes and prostate (EPA). Myclobutanil is listed as a developmental toxin in the Toxics Release Inventory (PANNA). Chronic toxicity tests on rats found decreased body weight and changes to brain and spleen weight, in addition to reproductive effects (EPA).

  

 
NAME: N-Methyl-N-1-naphthyl
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: A new insecticide, N-methyl-N-(1-naphthyl) fluoroacetamide (MNFA), was studied in a variety of species. The toxicity varied markedly with species. Guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, and cats were found to be extremely sensitive to MNFA, whereas mice, rats, and monkeys were relatively less sensitive.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The selective toxicity of N-methyl-N- ( 1-naphthyl ) monofluoroacetamide ( MNFA ) in various species of animals and the effects of the compound on the central action, the peripheral action and the fluctuations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems were investigated. Tabulated data present the physiological function or activity investigated the test animal, the dosage of MNFA administered and the route of administration. Results showed that below the toxic level, MNFA had little or no general pharmacologic effect and only a minute effect on the central and peripheral nervous systems and various peripheral organs of the different animals tested. When a toxic dose of MNFA was administered, respiratory depression, a fall of blood pressure and body temperature and a decrease in heart rate were generally observed. Both the rat and cat developed convulsions. Just prior to death, a flat wave was observed in the electrical activity of the brain which was indicative of a serious impediment. A drop in blood pressure of about 30% was observed at 24 hr in rats that received 50 mg/kg of MNFA orally.
 
 
N. N-diethyl m toluamide
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, abbreviated DEET, is a slightly yellow oil. It is the most common active ingredient in insect repellents. It is intended to be applied to the skin or to clothing, and is primarily used to repel mosquitoes. : N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, abbreviated DEET, is a slightly yellow oil. It is the most common active ingredient in insect repellents. It is intended to be applied to the skin or to clothing, and is primarily used to repel mosquitoes. In particular, DEET protects against tickbites, preventing several rickettsioses, tick-borne meningoencephalitis and other tick-borne diseases such as Lyme disease. It also protects against mosquito bites that can transmit dengue fever, West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis, and malaria.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Symptoms of exposure to this compound may include eye and mucous membrane irritation. It can cause contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis, exacerbation of seborrhea and acne vulgaris. Eye contact may result in a smarting sensation. Ingestion of this material can cause central nervous system disturbances. Symptoms resulting from exposure to this compound include disorientation, staggering gait, slurred speech, crying out, and episodes consisting of stiffening into a sitting position, extending of extremities, flexing of the fingers and dorsiflexing the toes. It may also cause jaundice, aplastic anemia, bleeding, convulsive seizure or death. It may irritate tender areas of the skin. It may also cause severe eye injury. Other symptoms are desquamation about the nose, dryness of face, a slight tingling sensation and a bullous eruption in the antecubital fossae. Irritation of the gastro-intestinal tract and coma are possible. It may cause purpuric or ecchymotic areas.
 
 
NAME: Naproanilide                  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Naproanilide is a selective herbicide, used for the control of broadleaved and cyperaceous annual and perennial weeds in rice paddy Þelds. It is absorbed through stems and roots. It is converted into the herbicidally active acid, which has auxin-like activity. It stimulates RNA synthesis and formation of tubers in Cyperus serotinus and Eleocharis kuroguwai, whereas RNA synthesis in rice is little stimulated.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: TOXICITY: (Rat): Oral LD50 >15,000 mg/kg. (Mouse): Dermal LD50 >5000 mg/kg.
 
 
NAME: Napropamide
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Napropamide is an herbicide registered to control broadleaf weeds and annual grasses on numerous food/feed and non-food/feed use sites, including fruits and nuts, vegetables, ornamentals, turf/lawns, forestry sites and tobacco. Napropamide was first registered in 1972. Approximately 368,000 pounds of napropamide active ingredient are applied annually. Sites on which napropamide has the highest percent of crop treated include cranberries (30%), pepper and strawberries (15%), eggplant, tobacco, and tomatoes (10%).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Napropamide is a slightly toxic compound by the oral route. Toxic effects from acute exposure in rats included diarrhea, excessive tearing and urination, depression, salivation, rapid weight loss, respiratory changes, decreased blood pressure and fluid in their body cavity. Acute dietary risk was not assessed as there were no toxicological endpoints of concern attributable to a single exposure. The chronic dietary risk (food + water) of napropamide is well below the AgencyÕs level of concern for the general U.S. population and all population subgroups. The most highly exposed subgroup was children, 1-2 years old, with the estimated exposure at 1.8% of the cPAD. Therefore, no mitigation is warranted at this time for dietary risks.
 
 
NAME: Nicotine
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: It is a toxic colourless or yellowish oily liquid that is the chief active constituent of tobacco. It acts as a stimulant in small doses, but in larger amounts blocks the action of autonomic nerve and skeletal muscle cells. Nicotine is also used in insecticides. It is the main active ingredient of tobacco. Extremely toxic and causing irritation of lung tissues, constriction of blood vessels, increased blood pressure and heart rate, and, in general, central nervous system stimulation.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Nicotine poisoning describes the symptoms of the toxic effects of consuming nicotine, which can potentially be deadly. Historically, most cases of nicotine poisoning have been the result of use of nicotine as an insecticide. Sixty milligrams of nicotine, the amount in about five cigarettes or half a cigar, has the potential to kill an adult who is not a smoker if all of the nicotine were absorbed. This figure is ~120 mg in chronic cigarette smokers, smoking an average of 20 non-light cigarettes delivering ~1.7 mg of nicotine each daily. One cigarette's-worth of nicotine is enough to make a toddler severely ill. In some cases children have become poisoned by topical medicinal creams which contain nicotine. People who harvest or cultivate tobacco may experience. Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS), a type of nicotine poisoning caused by dermal exposure to wet tobacco leaves.
 
 
NAME: Nitrapyrin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (bacteriostat)
 
DESCRIPTION: It is a commercial product that blocks the activity of Nitrosomonas. This keeps soil nitrogen in the ammonium form that does not leach. Research has shown the economic benefits of its use in Iowa to be inconsistent. It may however, have a significant environmental benefit. Used as a nitrification inhibitor and soil bactericide, and can delay the nitration of ammonium ion in soil when used together with urea and nitrogen fertilizer. Soil incorporation is currently required immediately after application for all products except one, for which soil incorporation can be delayed up to 48 hrs, provided that conditions exist where the soil contains at least 3% organic matter and soil temperatures do not exceed 65F.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Nitrapyrin did not cause any clinical toxicity in artificially inseminated female Fischer 344 rats dosed with up to 50 mg/kg/day by gavage on days 6-15 of gestation and did not cause any teratogenic effects in their fetuses. Nitrapyrin caused significant decreases in Sprague-Dawley dam body weight gain at 50 or 120 mg/kg/day and significant decreases in food consumption at 120 mg/kg/day in female rats given nitrapyrin by gavage at doses of 15, 50, and 120 mg/kg/day ondays 6-15 of gestation. Developmental delays in the form of ossification variations in the sternebrae and ribs were noted in fetuses from dams treated with 120 mg/kg/day. The NOEL was determined to be 15 mg/kg/day for maternal toxicity and 50 mg/kg/day for developmental toxicity.An unpublished two-generation reproductive study of nitrapyrin in Fischer 344 rats reported no adverse reproductive or teratogenic effects when rats were fed up to 75 mg/kg/day in the diet. Another unpublished developmental toxicity study in rats observed a possible adverse effect for f etal skeletal development at 50 mg/kg/day but not at 120 mg/kg/day (dosing by gavage).Nitrapyrin caused significant weight loss and significantly increased liver weights in artificially inseminated female rabbits dosed with 30 mg/kg/day on days 6-18 of gestation. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in pregnant rabbits at lower doses of three or 10 mg/kg/day.

 

 
NAME: Nitrobenzene
 
CLASSIFICATION: Volatile organic compounds
 
DESCRIPTION: Nitrobenzene is an industrial chemical. It is an oily yellow liquid with an almond-like odor. It dissolves only slightly in water and will evaporate to air. It is produced in large quantities for use in industry. Most of the nitrobenzene produced in the United States is used to manufacture chemical called aniline. Nitrobenzene is also used to produce lubricating oils such as those used in motors and machinery. A small amount of nitrobenzene is used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, pesticides, and synthetic rubber.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: In high amounts, nitrobenzene is known to be a chemical pollutant. People may get exposed to nitrobenzene mainly through skin absorption (since it readily absorbs through the skin) and through inhalation of its emitted vapors or fumes (since it is a volatile compound). Ingestion is another exposure pathway, although less common. Until recently, toxicity of nitrobenzene to reproductive system was not pointed out (before this notice of intent). So far, nitrobenzene toxicity is linked to various health effects including damage to central nervous system (due to prolonged exposure), damage of liver or kidney, irritation of lung, anaemia, impaired vision, some common health problems including: headache, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, weakness in the arms and legs Ð could be due to exposure to the fumes of nitrobenzene (through inhalation), increase health rate and convulsions Ð may be caused by skin absorption of nitrobenzene, and vomiting and gastrointestinal irritation may be caused by ingestion of nitrobenzene. In very rare cases, prolonged exposure to nitrobenzene may be fatal.
 
 
NAME: Nitrothal-isopropyl           
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: A clear, colorless, flammable, mobile liquid, (CH3)2CHOH, used in antifreeze compounds, in lotions and cosmetics, and as a solvent for gums, shellac, and essential oils. Used on Agricultural crops as unclassified fungicide.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Isopropyl alcohol is an irritant of the eyes and mucous membranes. By analogy with effects seen in animals, it may cause central nervous system depression at very high concentrations. Exposure to 400 ppm isopropyl alcohol for 3 to 5 minutes resulted in mild irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat; at 800 ppm, these symptoms were intensified [Hathaway et al. 1991]. An oral dose of 25 ml in 100 ml of water produced hypotension, facial flushing, bradycardia, and dizziness. A postmortem examination in a case of massive ingestion revealed extensive hemorrhagic tracheobronchitis, bronchopneumonia, and hemorrhagic pulmonary edema. Prolonged skin contact with isopropyl alcohol caused eczema and sensitivity .Delayed dermal absorption is attributed to a number of pediatric poisonings that have occurred following repeated or prolonged sponge bathing with isopropyl alcohol to reduce fever. In several cases symptoms included respiratory distress, stupor, and coma. Epidemiological studies suggested an association between isopropyl alcohol and paranasal sinus cancer; however, subsequent analysis suggests that the "strong-acid" process used to manufacture isopropyl alcohol may be responsible for these cancers. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has concluded that the evidence for the carcinogenicity of this process is adequate but that the evidence for isopropyl alcohol itself is inadequate.
 
 
NAME: Nonachlor, trans
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: trans-Nonachlor is a component of the pesticide chlordane. Chlordane is a mixture of chlorinated hydrocarbons that was manufactured and used as a pesticide from 1948 to 1988. Prior to 1983, approximately 3.6 million pounds of chlordane were used annually in the U.S. In 1988, EPA banned all production and use of chlordane in the U.S. Like PCBs, chlordane is relatively persistent and bioaccumulative. trans-Nonachlor is the most bioaccumulative of the chlordanes. trans-Nonachlor is a probable human carcinogen. Other human health effects include neurological effects, blood dyscrasia, hepatoxicity, immunotoxicity, and endocrine system disruption.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Residue analyses indicated that trans-nonachlor accumulation in adipose was greater than cis-nonachlor when rats were administered each chemical under identical conditions of dose and exposure. For all test chemicals, the major metabolite oxychlordane accumulated in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue residue levels of all test chemicals and the major metabolite were higher in female rats. The liver was a target organ in male and female rats, indicated by increased liver weight and histopathological changes consistent with microsomal enzyme induction. Hepatic changes were most pronounced in rats treated with trans-nonachlor. Elevated kidney weights and depressed organic ion transport were observed in males treated with trans-nonachlor and chlordane. Although in general, changes in target organs and clinical chemistry endpoints were similar for all 3 test chemicals, the approximate toxicity ranking from most to least toxic was trans-nonachlor > technical chlordane > cis-nonachlor.
 
 
NAME: Norflurazon                   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Norflurazon is a bleaching, pre-emergence herbicide. Due to its mobility and long half-life, it presents a potential for groundwater contamination. Norflurazon is a selective pre-emergent herbicide used to control germinating annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in fruits, vegetables, nuts, cotton, peanuts, soybeans, and various non-agricultural and industrial areas. Formulations include granular, flowable concentrate, and water dispersible granules.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Norflurazon caused mortality, locomotive, morphological and histological changes in treated animals compared to corresponding controls. The most prominent histological changes were damage of the outer mucous layer, damage to epidermis and extensive damage to parenchyma cells. Norflurazon in concentrations of 2 and 0.2 ?M induces significant increase of primary DNA damage in planarian cells compared to the corresponding control animals.
 
 
NAME: Norflurazon, Desmethyl-       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Norflurazon is currently labelled for use on alfalfa, avocado, cranberries, cotton, orchard crops (e.g. almonds, walnuts, apples, cherries), blueberries, caneberries, citrus, grapes, hops, soybeans and non-agricultural uses (e.g. industrial areas (outdoors), rights-of-way (ROWs), refuse/solid waste sites) and nursery stock. . Norflurazon is formulated as a liquid concentrate. Application method for most uses of norflurazon is limited to ground spray. Aerial application is permitted for alfalfa, at much lower application rate. Risks from ground boom and aerial applications are expected to result in the highest off-target levels of norflurazon due to generally higher spray drift levels.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Norflurazon is practically nontoxic on an acute exposure basis to aquatic and terrestrial animal species. No chronic effects to aquatic fauna were observed in the available toxicity studies, although chronic effects are present for birds (and by extension terrestrial-phase CRLFs) and mammals.  As expected with an herbicide, there are deleterious effects to plants, both aquatic and terrestrial. Given the structural similarities between the desmethyl degradate and parent norflurazon, equal toxicity is assumed in the absence of data indicating otherwise.
 
 
NAME: Nuarimol
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Nuarimol is pyrimidine fungicide. A never registered pesticide in US.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The interaction of the systemic fungicides triadimefon, nuarimol, and imazalil-nitrate with the plasmalemma of Ustilago avenae can produce alterations in the plasmalemma, such as hemispherical pits and protrusions, deformations of invaginations, and formation of craters or similar structures on the membrane fracture faces.
 
 
NAME: Naproanilide                  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Naproanilide is a selective herbicide absorbed through stems and roots. It is used for the control of broadleaved and cyperaceous annual and perennial weeds in rice paddy Þelds. It is converted into the herbicidally active acid, which hasauxin-like activity. It stimulates RNA synthesis and formation of tubers in Cyperus serotinus and Eleocharis kuroguwai, whereas RNA synthesis in rice is little stimulated.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Health problems of this chemicals have not yet been properly documented.
 

NAME: o-Dianisidine                 
 
CLASSIFICATION: A peroxidase substrate
 
DESCRIPTION: o-Dianisidine (3,3?-dimethoxybenzidine) is a peroxidase substrate suitable for use in ELISA procedures. This substrate produces a soluble end product that is yellow-orange in color and can be read spectrophotometrically at 405 nm. The reaction may be stopped with 5 M HCl.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Probably carcinogen
 
 
NAME: o-Dichlorobenzene             
 
CLASSIFICATION: Organic compound
 
DESCRIPTION: ortho-Dichlorobenzene is a colorless organic liquid with a pleasant, aromatic odor. The Dichlorobenzene, or orthodichlorobenzene(ODCB), is an organic compound with the formula C6H4Cl2. This colourless liquid is poorly soluble in water but miscible with most organic solvents. It is a derivative of benzene, consisting of two adjacent chlorine centers. The greatest use of o-dichlorobenzene is as a chemical intermediate for making agricultural chemicals, primarily herbicides. Other present and past uses include: solvent for waxes, gums, resins, wood preservatives, paints; insecticide for termites and borers; in making dyes; as a coolant, deodorizer, and degreaser.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: o-Dichlorobenzene is irritating to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Eye irritation becomes noticeable at between 25 and 30 ppm. Contact of the skin with liquid o-dichlorobenzene causes blistering, and the area of contact may later become pigmented. Sensitization dermatitis has been reported. Workers exposed for many years to concentrations ranging from 1 to 44 ppm and averaging 15 ppm showed no evidence of organic injury or untoward hematologic affects Accidental exposure of 26 subjects to unspecified levels 8 hours/day for 4 days caused eye, nose, and throat irritation. Ten of the 26 reported dizziness, severe headache, fatigue and nausea.
 
 
NAME: o-Phenylphenol                
 
CLASSIFICATION: Organic compound
 
DESCRIPTION: Phenylphenol, or o-phenylphenol, is an organic compound that consists of two linked benzene rings and a phenolic hydroxyl group. It is a white or buff-colored, flaky crystalline solid with a melting point of about 57 ¡C. It is a biocide used as a preservative under the trade names Dowicide, Torsite, Preventol, Nipacide and many others. The primary use of 2-phenylphenol is as an agricultural fungicide. It is generally applied post-harvest. It is a fungicide used for waxing citrus fruits. As a food additive, it has E number E231. It is also used for disinfection of seed boxes. It is a general surface disinfectant, used in households, hospitals, nursing homes, farms, laundries, barber shops, and food processing plants. It can be used on fibers and other materials. It is used to disinfect hospital and veterinary equipment. Other uses are in rubber industry and as a laboratory reagent. It is also used in the manufacture of other fungicides, dye stuffs, resins and rubber chemicals.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Eye contact can cause severe irritation and burns with possible eye damage. For some individuals, 2-phenylphenol can also irritate the skin. It is one of the chemicals that the Hyperactive Children's Support Group recommends be eliminated from the diet of children.
 
 
NAME: o,p'-DDD                      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Medicine (a medication used in the treatment of the rare disease adrenocortical carcinoma)
 
DESCRIPTION: Mitotane, or o,p'-DDD, is a medication used in the treatment of the rare disease adrenocortical carcinoma. It is an isomer of DDD and is a derivative of DDT. Its main use is in those patients who have persistent disease despite surgical resection, those who are not surgical candidates, or those who have metastatic disease. It has been produced by Bristol Myers Squibb SpA but it is marketed as an orphan drug due to the small number of patients in need of it. A 2007 study of 177 patients shows a significant increase in the recurrence-free interval after radical surgery followed by mitotane when compared to surgery alone. Mitotane alters steroid peripheral metabolism, directly suppresses the adrenal cortex and alters cortisone metabolism leading to hypocortisolism. Side effects as reported by Schteinberg et al. include anorexia and nausea (88%), diarrhea (38%), vomiting (23%), decreased memory and ability to concentrate (50%), rash (23%), gynecomastia (50%), arthralgia (19%), and leukopenia (7%).Its trade name is Lysodren.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Side effects of o,p'-DDD   have been reported by Schteinberg et al. include anorexia and nausea (88%), diarrhea (38%),vomiting (23%), decreased memory and ability to concentrate (50%), rash (23%), gynecomastia(50%), arthralgia (19%), and leucopenia (7%).
 
 
NAME: o,p'-DDE                      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: DDT (from its trivial name, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is one of the most well-known synthetic pesticides. It is a chemical with a long, unique, and controversial history. First synthesized in 1874, DDT's insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. The Swiss chemist Paul Hermann MŸller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1948 "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods." After the war, DDT was made available for use as an agricultural insecticide, and soon its production and use skyrocketed.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Potential mechanisms of action on humans are genotoxicity and endocrine disruption. DDT may be directly genotoxic, but may also induce enzymes to produce other genotoxic intermediates and DNA adducts. It is an endocrine disruptor; The DDT metabolite DDE acts as an antiandrogen (but not as an estrogen). p,p'-DDT, DDT's main component, has little or no androgenic or estrogenic activity. Minor component o,p'-DDT has weak estrogenic activity.
 
 
NAME: o,p'-DDT                      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: DDT (from its trivial name,dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is one of the most well-known synthetic pesticides. It is a chemical with a long, unique, and controversial history. First synthesized in 1874, DDT's insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. The Swiss chemist Paul Hermann MŸller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1948 "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods." After the war, DDT was made available for use as an agricultural insecticide, and soon its production and use skyrocketed.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: DDT may be directly genotoxic, but may also induce enzymes to produce other genotoxic intermediates and DNA adducts. It is an endocrine disruptor; The DDT metabolite DDE acts as an antiandrogen (but not as an estrogen). p,p'-DDT, DDT's main component, has little or no androgenic or estrogenic activity. Minor component o,p'-DDT has weak estrogenic activity.
 
 
NAME: o,p'-DDT                      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: DDT (from its trivial name,dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is one of the most well-known synthetic pesticides. It is a chemical with a long, unique, and controversial history. First synthesized in 1874, DDT's insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. The Swiss chemist Paul Hermann MŸller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1948 "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods." After the war, DDT was made available for use as an agricultural insecticide, and soon its production and use skyrocketed.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: DDT may be directly genotoxic, but may also induce enzymes to produce other genotoxic intermediates and DNA adducts. It is an endocrine disruptor; The DDT metabolite DDE acts as an antiandrogen (but not as an estrogen). p,p'-DDT, DDT's main component, has little or no androgenic or estrogenic activity. Minor component o,p'-DDT has weak estrogenic activity.
 
 
NAME: Ofurace
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Ofurace is a systemic, acylanilide pesticide and fungicide. There are no products containing ofurace currently registered for use in Australia
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Ofurace, oxadixyl, and alachlor were studied for their effect on hepatic xenobiotic biotransformation in male rats by dosing i.p. with 1 or 100 mg/kg of chemical for 7 days. Ofurace decreased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and anilinep-hydroxylase activities but induced ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity. GlutathioneS-transferase and aminopyrineN-demethylase activities responded in a non dose-dependent manner, while cytochrome P-450 content and aldrin epoxidase activities were unchanged. Oxadixyl induced P-450 content, and ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase and aminopyrineN-demethylase activities. It left ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, aldrin epoxidase and epoxide hydrolase activities unchanged and decreased anilinep-hydroxylase activities. Alachlor induced all activities excepting aldrin epoxidase (no change) and anilinep-hydroxylase (decreased). The data indicate that each of these acylanilide pesticides interacts with the monooxygenase system but with differing patterns.
 
 
NAME: ortho-Aminoazotoluene         
 
CLASSIFICATION: Azo compound
 
DESCRIPTION: o-Aminoazotoluene is an azo dye with carcinogenic properties. vitamin A (retinol), in vitro, exhibits a strong inhibitory effect on the mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 in the Ames Salmonella/microsome test. the same inhibitory effect on the mutagenicity of an aminoazo dye, ortho-aminoazotoluene. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect was exerted by retinol esters such as retinol acetate and retinol palmitate, the latter being the physiological storage form of vitamin A. The inhibition is interpreted as an effect on the mixed-function oxidases that convert ortho-Aminoazotoluene to its ultimate mutagenic form. Synonyms: 1-Amino-2-methylbenzene; 2-amino-1-methylbenzene; 2-aminotoluene; ortho-aminotoluene; 2-methyl-1-aminobenzene; 2-methylaniline;ortho-methylaniline; ortho-methylbenzenamine; 2-methylphenylamine; 2-tolylamine; ortho-tolylamine. Commercial production was first reported in the USA in 1922 for ortho-toluidine and in 1956 for ortho-toluidine hydrochloride (IARC, 1982, 2000). In the late 1970s, production volumes were estimated to be 1.1 to 11 million pounds/year, but this increased to 14.5 to 28.2 million pounds/year by the early 1990s (IARC, 2000). ortho-Toluidine hydrochloride has not been commercially produced in the USA since 1975 (HSDB, 2009).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The evidence indicates that exposure to a chemical called Ortho-Aminoazotoluene has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure. o-Aminoazotoluene (OAT) suppressed more than twofold the glucocorticoid induction of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) in the liver of SWR mice, which are sensitive to the hepatocarcinogenic effect of OAT, but not in resistant AKR mice. The hormone- and DNA-binding activities of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were not affected in either line. The OAT-dependent suppression proved to be associated with a decrease in the DNA-binding activity of HNF3 in liver cell extracts. The content of the HNF3 mRNA did not change, suggesting a posttranscriptional effect of OAT.
 
 
NAME: Oryzalin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Oryzalin is an herbicide. It acts through the disruption (depolymerization) of microtubules, thus blocking anisotropic growth of plant cells. Oryzalin is a selective preemergence surface-applied herbicide used for control of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in fruit trees, nut trees, vineyards, established bermudagrass turf and established ornamentals. It inhibits the growth of germinating weed seeds. It is available in aqueous suspension, dry flowable, and wettable powder formulations
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The herbicide Oryzalin was being produced in 1979, three years after the wives of workers producing the chemical in Rensselaer, New York, were found to have borne children with heart defects or miscarriages, and none of their pregnancies was normal. Long-term exposure to oryzalin has caused blood changes and tumors in animals. When oryzalin was fed to rats in doses as high as 135 mg/kg for 2 years, there was an increase in the incidence of thyroid, mammary and skin tumors. Repeated ingestion of large doses led to adverse changes in blood cell formation on dogs. The NOEL in a 1 year feeding study with dogs was 5 mg/kg/day. Rats fed a dietary level of 45 mg/kg for 2 years exhibited blood changes, increased liver and kidney weights, inhibition of growth, and decreased survival. Mice given dietary doses of 1,350 ppm for 1 year exhibited decreased uterine and ovarian weight. The NOEL for this study was 500 ppm (75 mg/kg/day). Rats fed 45 mg/kg or 135 mg/kg, the highest dose tested, for one year showed minimal signs of toxicity.
 
 
NAME: Oxabetrinil                    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide and safener)
 
DESCRIPTION: Oxabetrinil is used as safener as sorghum. The influence of Oxabetrinil and two other crop safeners on the uptake and degradation of 14C-metolachlor was investigated in two corn varieties. Following application of herbicide and safener together to seedling shoots the concentrations of non-metabolized 14C-metolachlor in the tissues was found to be lower in the tolerant variety LG 9 than in the susceptible variety 211A. The difference between varieties was due to differences in both uptake and degradation of 14C-metolachlor. Following shoot application most of the radioactivity was retained in the coleoptile and the mesocotyl. Two hours after application 95% of the herbicide had been degraded in coleoptiles and mesocotyls, whereas approximately 20% of non-metabolized 14C-metolachlor was present in the enclosed developing shoot leaves. In both corn varieties the safener CGA 154281 caused a substantial lowering of tissue levels of parent 14C-metolachlor. This was primarily due to an enhanced degradation. Glutalhione-S-transfer-ase (GST) enzyme activity in shoot tissues was found to be enhanced in both varieties by CGA 154281. Oxabetrinil and fenclorim were less effective than CGA 154281 both in reducing tissue levels of non-metabolized 14C-metolachlor and in enhancing GST activity in either variety. crop safeners on the uptake and degradation of 14C-metolachlor was investigated in two corn varieties. Following application of herbicide and safener together to seedling shoots the concentrations of non-metabolized 14C-metolachlor in the tissues was found to be lower in the tolerant variety LG 9 than in the susceptible variety 211A. The difference between varieties was due to differences in both uptake and degradation of 14C-metolachlor. Following shoot application most of the radioactivity was retained in the coleoptile and the mesocotyl. Two hours after application 95% of the herbicide had been degraded in coleoptiles and mesocotyls, whereas approximately 20% of non-metabolized 14C-metolachlor was present in the enclosed developing shoot leaves. In both corn varieties the safener CGA 154281 caused a substantial lowering of tissue levels of parent 14C-metolachlor. This was primarily due to an enhanced degradation. Glutalhione-S-transfer-ase (GST) enzyme activity in shoot tissues was found to be enhanced in both varieties by CGA 154281. Oxabetrinil and fenclorim were less effective than CGA 154281 both in reducing tissue levels of non-metabolized 14C-metolachlor and in enhancing GST activity in either variety.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is not classified as a hazardous chemical according to the Australian criteria for the classification of chemical.
 
 
NAME: Oxadiazon 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Oxadiazon is a selective herbicide for weed control in a wide range of ornamental plantings, according to the University of California Extension. Oxadiazon is used as a pre-emergent or early post-emergent herbicide for ornamental shrubs and trees. Oxadiazon does not leach readily to groundwater sources unless used in very porous soil. The chemical is sold under different trade names and has been widely used since its registration in 1978. As with other pre-emergent herbicides, oxadiazon controls the weeds before germination of weed seeds. Oxadiazon is a broad-spectrum preemergent herbicide that is moved off the foliage and into the soil by a sprinkler irrigation following application. Oxadiazon is a shoot-girdling herbicide. Used during the growing season from spring until fall. Granular oxadiazon is safe on most woody plants. The wettable powder formulation is generally not used in nursery stock. In containers, granular oxadiazon plus napropamide is a good combination, with a broad range of safety in woody plants. Oxadiazon plus napropamide often has an improved margin of safety over Rout or OHII, especially in young, actively growing plants. Oxadiazon does not control weeds in the chickweed family but napropamide controls those.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Severe exposure to oxadiazon is likely to cause eye and skin irritation. Oxadiazon does not leach readily in the soil, is not a root inhibitor, and thus is less likely to injure established species. Injury may occur, however, if oxadiazon is applied to wet foliage, is not washed from the foliage, or the granules collect in leaf bases or crowns.
 
 
NAME: Oxadixyl   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: A fungicide used, in combination with other agents, to control peronosporales including downy mildew and late blights.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Ofurace, oxadixyl, and alachlor were studied for their effect on hepatic xenobiotic biotransformation in male rats by dosing i.p. with 1 or 100 mg/kg of chemical for 7 days. Ofurace decreased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and anilinep-hydroxylase activities but induced ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity. GlutathioneS-transferase and aminopyrineN-demethylase activities responded in a non dose-dependent manner, while cytochrome P-450 content and aldrin epoxidase activities were unchanged. Oxadixyl induced P-450 content, and ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase and aminopyrineN-demethylase activities. It left ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, aldrin epoxidase and epoxide hydrolase activities unchanged and decreased anilinep-hydroxylase activities. Alachlor induced all activities excepting aldrin epoxidase (no change) and anilinep-hydroxylase (decreased). The data indicate that each of these acylanilide pesticides interacts with the monooxygenase system but with differing patterns.
 
 
NAME: Oxamyl
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Oxamyl is used as an insecticide to kill and control a broad spectrum of insects, as an acaricide to control mites and ticks, and as a nematicide against roundworms. Its action is both systemic and contact. Oxamyl is used on field crops, vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants. Oxamyl may be applied directly on plants or on the soil surface. Oxamyl belongs to a family of pesticides called carbamates. These insecticides work by blocking the normal functioning of cholinesterase, an essential nervous system enzyme. Please refer to the Toxicology Information Brief on cholinesterase-inhibition for more information. Oxamyl is a white crystalline organic solid with a slight sulfurous odor. It is widely used for control of insects, mites and nematodes on field crops, fruits and ornamentals. The majority of Oxamyl is applied to apples, potatoes, and tomatoes. Oxamyl is highly soluble in water, and is relatively stable in acidic waters. Otherwise it is readily broken down. Degradation is also rapid in soils which make it unlikely that Oxamyl will leach to ground water. Accumulation in aquatic life is not expected as Oxamyl is rapidly absorbed, metabolized and toxicological tests.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oxamyl is found to potentially cause tremors, salivation and tearing due to interference with nerve function. In the end, Oxamyl has the potential to cause decreased body weight. Oxamyl has been rated as extremely poisonous to humans. Oxamyl can enter the body by three routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption. Acute oral exposure to Oxamyl has caused human deaths . Oral, skin ('dermal'), and eye ('ocular') exposure may cause poisoning, although absorption through the skin is slow. Exposure of rabbit's eyes to technical Oxamyl caused decreased pupil size and congestion of the iris, the colored portion of the eye; the cornea was not damaged. As with other carbamate compounds, oxamyl's cholinesterase-inhibiting effect is short-term and reversible. Symptoms of Oxamyl poisoning include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, sweating, diarrhea, excessive salivation, weakness, imbalance, blurring of vision, breathing difficulty, increased blood pressure or 'hypertension,' and lack of control of urine or feces release. Death may result from respiratory system failure associated with oxamyl exposure. Complete recovery from an acute poisoning by Oxamyl, with no long term health effects, is possible if exposure ceases and the victim has time to reform their normal level of cholinesterase and to recover from symptoms. Carbamates generally are excreted rapidly and do not accumulate in mammalian tissue. If exposure does not continue, cholinesterase inhibition reverses rapidly. In non-fatal cases, the illness generally lasts less than 24 hours. The amount of a chemical that is lethal to one-half (50%) of experimental animals fed the material is referred to as its acute oral lethal dose fifty, or LD50. In rats the oral LD50 of technical Oxamyl is 5.4 mg/kg. A 24% liquid formulation of this insecticide has an acute oral LD50 of 37 mg/kg in rats. The dermal LD50 for technical Oxamyl is 2,960 mg/kg in rabbits.
 
 
NAME: Oxycarboxin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: It is a fungicide for the control of rust diseases on ornamentals, cereals and nursery trees. It is also used to control fairy rings on turf and a pesticide transformation product. C 12H13NO4S.It is an off-white, crystalline compound with a melting point of 127.5Ð130_C; used to control rust disease in greenhouse carnations. It is also known as 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-oxathiin-3-carboxanilide-4,4-dioxide.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It can be irritating for skin and eyes. It has also been reported to be toxic if swallowed or inhaled.
 
 
NAME: Oxychlordane
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Oxychlordane is a metabolite of chlordane. It is bioaccumulative and is one of the most toxic of the chlordane compounds. Because of its toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate, it was banned in the United States in 1988, banned in 47 other countries and severely restricted in 14 others. Even though it has been 15 years since the ban has been implemented, chlordane can still be detected in some foods grown in the United States. Chlordane has been used on corn and citrus crops, and on residential lawns and gardens.   One of its most common uses was as a pesticide for termites .Chlordane is potentially volatile but is capable of binding to sediment in water and soil. If it binds to sediment in water or soil, the degradation process can be very slow, taking potentially up to 20 years.   Since chlordane can bind itself to sediment in water, fish and shellfish are especially susceptible to ingesting the chemical. Humans become exposed to high doses of chlordane through consuming the fish that have already bioaccumulated it. ÒOther less significant routes of exposure may include eating crops grown in soil containing chlordane; breathing air or touching soil near homes treated for termites with chlordane; and breathing air or touching soil near waste sites or landfills. The seriousness of these minor routes depends on the extent of the chlordane contamination, but significantly, none of them involve bioaccumulation.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oxychlordane, a metabolite of chlordane, is one of the most toxic of the chlordane compounds. Its ability to accumulate in the body and its toxic effects caused its ban in 1988. Even though it has been close to 20 years since the ban, chlordane is still detected in some foods grown in the US. Chlordane was most commonly used as a pesticide against termites as well as a pesticide for lawns and gardens. Not only do these chemicals affect adults and animals, they also impact unborn babies and children. According to a 2007 consensus statement published in Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, developing embryos, fetuses and infants are extremely vulnerable to toxic chemicals and pollutants. Such toxins have devastating impacts on neurological systems and development. Children are more susceptible due to the fact that the blood brain barrier does not fully form until after the age of two, so any toxin, such as pesticides, insecticides and herbicides, can move directly to the brain. Such exposure has been linked to ADHD, allergies, asthma and even autism.
 
 
NAME: Oxydemeton-methyl             
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: ODM is a broad spectrum, systemic insecticide/acaricide registered for foliar and bark treatment uses to control many insects, primarily aphids, mites, and thrips. ODM residues in food and drinking water do not pose risk concerns.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is an aliphatic organothiophosphate insecticide which is toxic in nature and used to control a number of insects on ornamentals and for variety of field crops grown only for seed purposes.. It is absorbed and translocated within the plant in sufficient concentrations to kill insects that feed on the plant by sucking its juices. It is used to control aphids, sawflies, and spider mites in fruits, vegetables, potatoes, cereals, ornamentals, and in forestry. Demeton-s-methyl replaces methyl demeton, a mixture of demeton-s-methyl and demeton-o-methyl sold as Meta-Systox. Demeton- s-methyl is more toxic to insects than demeton-o-methyl. Classified as Category I - highly toxic, products containing demeton-s-methyl bear the SIGNAL WORD: DANGER .It is available as an emulsifiable concentrate.
 
 
NAME: Oxyfluorfen 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: These are the herbicides killing broadleaf weeds by destroying cell membranes within leaves and shoots. At low rates, oxyfluorfen acts as a contact herbicide, though it has good pre-emergence activity at higher rates. The 400 g/kg wettable powder formulation has little contact activity, and must be applied to a weed free soil.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Nausea, vomiting and irritation of the gastrointestinal lining may occur due to presence of solvents in the product. It will cause eye irritation due to solvents. 2XL Herbicide is a severe skin irritant due to the solvents in the formulation. However the dermal toxicity for rats is low for the active oxyfluorfen (LD50 >2,000 mg/kg). Inhalation of solvent vapour or mist can cause irritation of nose, throat, and lungs. Continued inhalation will result in headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness and eventually loss of co-ordination and unconsciousness. Inhalation toxicity is low for Goal Herbicide (LC50 >4,800 mg/m3.) Chronic Repeated overexposure to the active ingredient and solvents in this material may cause liver damage. Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and effects on the reproductive system have not been demons.
 
 
NAME: p-Dichlorobenzene             
 
CLASSIFICATIO: Pesticide (insecticidal fumigant)
 
DESCRIPTION: para-Dichlorobenzene is an organic solid of white crystals with a mothball-like odor. p-Dichlorobenzene is used mainly as an insecticidal fumigant against clothes moths and as a deodorant for garbage and restrooms. It is also used as an insecticide and fungicide on crops, and in the manufacture of other organic chemicals and in plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:   p-Dichlorobenzene is an eye and upper respiratory tract irritant. Eye and nose irritation is painful at concentrations of 50 ppm and becomes severely painful at 160 ppm .Contact of p-dichlorobenzene particles with the eye or the skin causes pain but does not produce damage; repeated exposure of the skin causes mild irritation .One case of allergic purpura that is attributed to p-dichlorobenzene exposure has been reported .Five individuals occupationally exposed by inhalation to a mixture of o- and p-dichlorobenzene or during household use experienced headaches, swelling of the area around the eyes, and runny nose. The four most heavily exposed individuals developed anorexia, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and liver necrosis with jaundice. Two of these individuals died, and a third developed cirrhosis; the extent to which these individuals may also have been exposed to other toxic substances is unknown. There are four case reports of severe blood disorders (dyscrasias) in humans exposed to unspecified concentrations of p-dichlorobenzene in solvents or products containing mixtures of chlorobenzenes .A worker exposed for 10 years to a solvent containing p-dichlorobenzene developed chronic lymphoid leukemia .IARC classified p-dichlorobenzene as a 2B substance, possibly carcinogenic to humans, carcinogen.
 
 
NAME: p-Nitrotoluene                 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Organic compounds
 
DESCRIPTION: Mononitrotoluene, or methylnitrobenzene ornitrotoluene (MNT or NT), is a group of 3 organic compounds, a nitro derivative of toluene (or alternatively a methyl derivative of nitrobenzene). Itschemical formula is C6H4(CH3)(NO2). para-nitrotoluene (PNT), p-nitrotoluene, or 4-nitrotoluene, CAS number . It is a pale yellow material forming rhombic crystals and has a somewhat pleasant, characteristic smell. It is almost insoluble in water.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toluene should not be inhaled due to its health effects. Low to moderate levels can cause tiredness, confusion, weakness, drunken-type actions, memory loss, and nausea, loss of appetite, and hearing and color vision loss. These symptoms usually disappear when exposure is stopped. Inhaling high levels of toluene in a short time may cause light-headedness, nausea, or sleepiness. It can also cause unconsciousness, and even death. Toluene is, however, much less toxic than benzene, and has consequently largely replaced it as an aromatic solvent in chemical preparation.
 
 
NAME: p,p'-DDD                      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) is an organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin.Merck Index, 11th ed, p482 DDD is a metabolite of DDT.Òp,p'-Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDD) (CASRN 72-54-8).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The effects of p,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDE and p,p?-DDD on the freshwater Triclad, Polycelis felina, were studied. The 96 h LC50 of the three chemicals were 1¥05, 1¥23 and 0¥74 ppm, respectively. The chemicals appeared to exert their effects through the nervous system as revealed by the loss of coordinated movement and the retardation of the flip-over times of treated animals. DDT also tended to inhibit asexual fission at concentrations much lower than the observed 96 h LC50. The carrier solvent acetone had no permanent effect on the gross behaviour of the animals. P. felina responded consistently to experimental treatment and the observed intraspecific variation in resistance to organochlorine chemicals, by animals of approximately the same size, was low. The use of this and other species of flatworms as bioassays of organochlorine chemicals is discussed.
 
 
NAME: p,p'-DDM [bis(4-chlorophenyl)
 
CLASSIFICATIO: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: A novel laboratory-made sol-gel calix[4]arene/hydroxy-terminated silicone oil coated fiber has been applied for headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD) to determine 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their metabolites in radish sample. The analytes in the study consisted of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC), 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), 2,4-dichlorobenzophenone (o,p'-DBP), 4,4-dichlorobenzophenone (p,p'-DBP), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), bis(4-chlorophenyl)methane (p,p'-DDM), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDD) and endrin. The following parameters were adjusted to optimize HS-SPME in order to obtain the maximum sensitivity: extraction temperature, extraction time, the addition of salt, desorption temperature and time. Especially, the effect of the complex radish matrix on quantitative extraction of pesticides was discussed in detail. Detection limits of the developed method for radish matrices were below 174ng/kg for all pesticides. Relative standard deviations for quintuplicate analyses of radish samples fortified each analytes were not higher than 13.1%. The results demonstrate the suitability of the HS-SPME/GC-ECD approach for the analysis of multi-residue OCPs and metabolites in radish
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, and tumorigenic data. Poison by ingestion. Moderately toxic by skin contact. Mutation data reported. An insecticide. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl?.
 
 
NAME: p,p'-DDT                      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: DDT (from its trivial name, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is one of the most well-known synthetic pesticides. It is a chemical with a long, unique, and controversial history. First synthesized in 1874, DDT's insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. The Swiss chemist Paul Hermann MŸller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1948 "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods.". After the war, DDT was made available for use as an agricultural insecticide, and soon its production and use skyrocketed
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Potential mechanisms of action on humans are genotoxicity and endocrine disruption. DDT may be directly genotoxic, but may also induce enzymes to produce other genotoxic intermediates and DNA adducts. It is an endocrine disruptor; The DDT metabolite DDE acts as an antiandrogen (but not as an estrogen). p,p'-DDT, DDT's main component, has little or no androgenic or estrogenic activity. Minor component o,p'-DDT has weak estrogenic activity.
 
 
NAME: p,p'-Dibromobenzophenone      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are Benzophenone,4,4'-dibromo- (6CI,7CI,8CI); 4,4'-Dibromobenzophenone; Bis(4-bromophenyl)ketone; Bis(4-bromophenyl)methanone; Bis(p-bromophenyl) ketone; NSC 86518
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Groups of 20 male and 20 female rats in the first generation and groups of 25 male and 25 female rats in the second and third generations were used in a three-generation test (two litters being produced in each generation) and fed on diets containing 0, 2.5 and 5 ppm bromopropylate. In a second test, groups of 25 male and 25 female rats received diets containing 0, 30 and 100 ppm bromopropylate. Through out the tests no abnormalities attributable to bromopropylate were found in the reproductive physiology of male or female rats and there was no evidence of gross abnormalities in the offspring throughout the studies. The number of young in each litter and their growth and survival were normal. The weights of liver, kidneys and spleen were comparable with controls in the rats of the F 3b generation whose parents received 2.5 and 5 ppm diets while spleen and liver weights of F 3b young of parents fed on 30 and 100 ppm diets were slightly higher than controls. No histological abnormalities were found in these animals at any dosage level (Coulston, et al. 1970c; Coulston et al., 1971).
 
 
NAME: p,p'-Dicofol                  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: A persistent organochlorine acaricide of moderate mammalian toxicity. Dicofol is structurally similar to DDT. It accumulates in body fat to a plateau level related to absorption. It is cumulative in the environment. Dicofol was introduced commercially in 1955. Pure dicofol is a colourless solid; m.p. 78.5-79.5 ¼C, b.p. 180 ¼C at 0.13 mbar. Technical product (95% pure) is brown viscous oil and is composed of 80-85% p,pÕ-dicofol and 15-20% o,pÕ-dicofol; density 1.45 at 25 ¼C, specific gravity 1.135 at 20 ¼C; stable ? 80 ¼C; up to 18 impurities were reported. The purer form is generally >95% dicofol which contains less than 0.1% DDT related impurities (i.e. DDT, DDE and DDI).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Dicofol is extensively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The highest tissue concentrations were found in adipose tissue followed by the adrenal glands, thyroid and liver. The p,pÕ-dicofol isomer, the main component of technical dicofol, was more persistent in the body than the o,pÕ-isomer. Female rats tended to retain dicofol to a greater extent than males. Dicofol showed a similar pattern of distribution on elimination as DDT but it is more polar and therefore less persistent in the body. In adipose tissue the parent compound was predominant.
 
 
NAME: Paclobutrazol                  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Paclobutrazol is used as a fungicide and as a plant growth regulator, but there are few studies about its potential toxic effects.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Experiments were conducted to determine whether this compound has adverse effects on the reproduction and development of offspring. The influence of 1.0 mg/kg Paclobutrazol (10 x the acceptable daily intake-ADI), by oral exposure during gestational organogenesis of rats, was evaluated on maturational and behavioral aspects of offspring development. This dose did not promote evidence of maternal toxicity and the weight of gravid uterus, fetus, and ovary on days 16 and 20 of pregnancy were not affected. Also, the pesticide did not affect body weight gain of the dams and offspring. However, the pups' survival at weaning was impaired by Paclobutrazol. Beyond that, study of the functional state of rat pups' nervous system at different stages of postnatal development revealed some differences in treated ones. Damage was observed in the expression of acoustic startle reflex and altered locomotion and/or rearing in an open-field apparatus in treated pups depending on their age. There were no observed alterations in swimming behaviour. The data support further studies of the potentially toxic effects that exposing mothers to this pesticide may have on their litters.
 
 
Contaminant Facts: Pesticides
 
0-9 | A-Bi | Bi-Ch | Ch-Di | Di-Diu | Do-Fe | Im-Me | Me-Pa | Pa-Pr | Pr-Sp | Sp-Tr | Tr-Z