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Pesticides (Im - Me)


Ip | Isop | J | K | L | M | Metha

NAME: Imazamethabenz-methyl II
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical formula is 2/3-methyl-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-p-toluate. Imazamethabenz is a recently developed herbicide of the imidazolinone family having low toxicity for humans and that can constitute an alternative to phenoxy herbicides, such as 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, or to triazine herbicides. In the natural environment, the dynamics and the accumulation/degradation mechanisms of hydric pollutants is of high interest. The knowledge of the electrochemical behaviour of these substances is essential in developing elimination methods that let decrease their toxicity. Imazamethabenz-methyl, I. shows in dc polarograpy one reduction wave strongly distorted by the presence of adsorption maxima that prevents the analysis of the data. However, DP polarograms are well defined and susceptible of analysis. One or two reduction peaks were found, depending on the acidity of the medium. In the pH range 1-5 the evolution of such peaks with the pH showed that two species related by a protonation equilibrium are reduced at very close potentials. This occurred at pH values around the pK (close to pH 3). Linear-sweep cyclic voltammetry showed that the overall processes are irreversible, both on mercury and carbon electrodes. Two electrons were found to be taken in the overall reduction process. The only reducible group of the molecule in the accessible potential window is the imidazolinone ring. Since no evidences are given in the literature on the reduction of the N=C bond in imidazolines, it seems plausible that the carbonyl group is reduced.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Potential exposure to imazamethabenz-methyl may occur through diet (food and water), when handling and applying the product or by prematurely entering treated sites. When assessing health risks, two key factors are considered: the levels at which health effects occur in animal testing and the levels to which people may be exposed. The dose levels used to assess risks are established to protect the most sensitive human population (e.g. children and nursing mothers). Only uses for which the exposure is well below levels that cause no effects in animal testing are considered acceptable for registration. Toxicology studies in laboratory animals describe potential health effects from varying levels of exposure to a chemical and identify the dose where no effects are observed. The health effects noted in animals occur at doses more than 100-times higher (and often much higher) than levels to which humans are normally exposed when imazamethabenz-methyl products are used according to label directions. Imazamethabenz-methyl was slightly irritating to the eyes, but was not an irritant to the skin of rabbits nor was it a sensitizer in guinea pigs. Consequently, no hazard statements are required on the label of the technical class product. Imazamethabenz-methyl did not cause cancer in animals, was not genotoxic or teratogenic and showed no signs of neurotoxicity. The liver was the main target of toxicity in rats. The first signs of toxicity in dogs given daily doses of imazamethabenz-methyl over longer periods of time were slight changes in hematology along with effects on organ weights and decreased body weight. In mice, effects on organ weights were also noted at high doses. When imazamethabenz-methyl was given to pregnant animals, effects on the developing fetus were observed at doses that were toxic to the mother, indicating that the fetus is not more sensitive to imazamethabenz-methyl than the adult animal. The risk assessment protects against these effects by ensuring that the level of human exposure is well below the lowest dose at which these effects occurred in animal tests.
 
 
 
NAME: Imibenconazole
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical formula is 4-chlorobenzyl (EZ)-N-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)thioacetamidate. Additional Names are 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl-isothioacetic acid 2¢,4¢-dichloroanilide S-p-chlorobenzyl ether; 4-chlorobenzyl-N-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)thioacetimidate. Molecular Formula is C17H13Cl3N4S.Molecular Weight is 411.74. Percent Composition of elements are C 49.59%, H 3.18%, Cl 25.83%, N 13.61%, S 7.79%. White crystalline solid, mp 89.5-90¡. Vapor pressure (25¡): 85 nPa. Soly in water (25¡): 1.7 mg/l. Soly at 25¡ (g/l): acetone 1063; benzene 580; xylene 250; methanol 120. LD50 in male, female rats, male, female mice (mg/kg): 2800, 3000, >5000, >5000 orally; in male, female rats (mg/kg): >2000, >2000 dermally; in honey bees (mg/bee): >125 orally. LC50 (48 hr) in carp: 1.02 ppm. LC50 (6 hr) in water fleas: >102 ppm (Ogawa). Melting point is 89.5-90¡. H-Bond Acceptor are 3 and donar is 0. Systemic with curative and preventative action. Available in a wide variety of formulations including emulsifiable concentrates, soluble concentrates, water dispersiable granules and wettable powders. Use in Controls Anthracnose, blister blight, powdery mildew, rust, peanut brown leaf spot, scab (apple, citrus, Japanese apricot, pear, peach). Water Solubility is 1.7 mg/l at 20¡C. A mimicing soil ecosystem was conducted to reveal degradation daynamics of imibenconazole(imi) in soil. The residues of imi was determined by gas chromatography(GC) procedure. The result showed this pretreating method, by which the sample was extracted with acetone and dichloromethane and eluted with Florisil column, was simple and effective. The GC?s spiked level and sensitivity was meeted the demand. Imi disappeared rapidly from soil. The half-life in soil was 12.5 d with 0.951 mgákg-1 of initial concentration in 2005, while the half-life in soil was15.6 d with1.014 mgákg-1 of initial concentration in 2006.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: LD50Êin male, female rats, male, female mice (mg/kg): 2800, 3000, >5000, >5000 orally; in male, female rats (mg/kg): >2000, >2000 dermally; in honey bees (mg/bee): >125 orally; LC50Ê(48 hr) in carp: 1.02 ppm; LC50Ê(6 hr) in water fleas: >102 ppm (Ogawa).
 
 
 
NAME: Imibenconazole-desbenzyl   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular formula is C10H8Cl2N4S C10H8Cl2N4S . Molecular Weight is 287.17 . Available in a wide variety of formulations including emulsifiable concentrates, soluble concentrates, water dispersiable granules and wettable powders. Use in Controls Anthracnose, blister blight, powdery mildew, rust, peanut brown leaf spot, scab (apple, citrus, Japanese apricot, pear, peach). Water Solubility is 1.7 mg/l at 20¡C. A mimicing soil ecosystem was conducted to reveal degradation daynamics of imibenconazole(imi) in soil. The residues of imi was determined by gas chromatography(GC) procedure. The result showed this pretreating method, by which the sample was extracted with acetone and dichloromethane and eluted with Florisil column, was simple and effective. The GC?s spiked level and sensitivity was meeted the demand. Imi disappeared rapidly from soil. The half-life in soil was 12.5 d with 0.951 mgákg-1 of initial concentration in 2005, while the half-life in soil was15.6 d with1.014 mgákg-1 of initial concentration in 2006.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: LD50Êin male, female rats, male, female mice (mg/kg): 2800, 3000, >5000, >5000 orally; in male, female rats (mg/kg): >2000, >2000 dermally; in honey bees (mg/bee): >125 orally; LC50Ê(48 hr) in carp: 1.02 ppm; LC50Ê(6 hr) in water fleas: >102 ppm.
 
 
 
NAME: Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
 
DESCRIPTION: Ideno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene is a high molecular weight, 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and an EPA Priority Pollutant and EPA-classified carcinogen[446,680,634]. Ideno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene is included on the expanded scan of PAHs and alkyl PAHs recommended by NOAA [828]; this list includes the PAHs recommended by the NOAA's National. This compound often occurs together with other aromatics (sometimes including alkyl PAHs), and a typical complex mixture of aromatics may be more toxic or hazardous in general than this compound would be alone (see "PAHs as a group" entry). Status and Trends program Molecular Formula is C22H14 O2. Molecular Weight is 310.36. Flash Point is 296.1¡C. Density is 1.5g/cm3. Boiling Point is 614.2¡Cat760mmHg. Freely Rotating Bonds are 2. Polar Surface Area is 18.462. Index of Refraction is 1.857. Molar Refractivity: 92.81 cm3. Molar Volume is 206.4 cm3. Polarizability is 36.79 ?10-24 cm3. Surface Tension is 82.9 dyne/cm. Density is 1.5 g/cm3. Flash Point is 296.1 ¡C. Enthalpy of Vaporization: 95.82 kJ/mol. Boiling Point: 614.2 ¡C at 760 mmHg. Vapour Pressure: 6.09E-16 mmHg at 25¡C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol and through the skin. After inhalation fresh air, rest. Remove contaminated clothes. Evaporation at 20¡C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap. When get contact with eye first rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor. Do not eat, drink, or smoke during working with this agent. Rinse mouth. Refer for medical attention. Sweep spilled substance into covered containers; if appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Provision to contain effluent from fire extinguishing. Well closed. Store in an area without drain or sewer access. This substance may be hazardous to the environment; special attention should be given to air quality and water quality. Bioaccumulation of this chemical may occur in fish. This substance is possibly carcinogenic to humans.
 
 
 
NAME: Indoxacarb and Dioxacarb
 
CLASSIFICATION: PESTICIDE (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Indoxacarb is an oxadiazine pesticide developed by DuPont that acts against lepidopteran larvae. It is marketed under the names Indoxacarb Technical Insecticide, Steward Insecticide and Avaunt Insecticide. It is also used as the active ingredient in DuPont's line of commercial pesticides: Advion and Arilon. Indoxacarb is the active ingredient in a number of household insecticides, including cockroach baits, and can remain active after digestion. Its main mode of action is via blocking of nerve sodium channels. It is fairly lipophilic with a Kow of 4.65. Dioxacarb : An obsolete insecticide once used to control pests such as potato bugs, Phyllotreta undulata and Ceutorrhynchus. Belongs to Carbamate group. IUPAC Name is 2-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)phenyl methylcarbamate. Soluble in water and organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It has moderate to low acute and chronic toxicity and does not cause mutagenic, carcinogenic, developmental, or reproductive effects. Some neurotoxicity was present, but often at fatal doses. Based on the lack of evidence of increased susceptibility of infants and children, the Agency reduced the FQPA safety factor to 1X... The environmental fate data to support the registration of indoxacarb and its R-enantiomer were complete and adequately characterized indoxacarb, its R-enantiomer and a few of the degradates. Due to the exceptionally complex degradation scheme, the registration is conditional upon receiving further elucidation and characterization of some additional degradates... Several levels of concern resulted, in marginal exceedences that, with further refinements, would fall within the Agency's levels of concern. In addition, these risk values are very low when compared to those of the alternative chemicals. Dioxacarb is dangerous for the environment
 
 
 
NAME: Ioxynil  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Scientific name is 4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodobenzonitrile or 4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl cyanide. Molecular Mass is 370.9. Empirical Formula is C7H3J2NO. Vapour pressure is 2.04 á 10-6 Pa at 25¡C. It is sensitive to light. Not soluble in water. The substance is toxic to aquatic organisms. Avoid release to the environment in circumstances different to normal use. Melting point is 212-213¡C. Vapour pressure is Pa at 20¡C: <0.001.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Inhalation may cause Dizziness, headache, sweating, vomiting, weakness, fever, skin can absorb and redness pain occurs. Eye contact also causes redness in eyes. Ingestion may result in vomiting.
 
NAME: Ioxynil octanoate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4-cyano-2,6-diiodophenyl octanoate. Molecular Formula is C15H17I2NO2 . Molecular Weight is 497.10 . Solid form, slightly yellow in color and have mild odour. Specific Gravity is 1.175 at 20C.Melting point is 45-46C. Flashpoint is greater than 66C. Flammability limits is not available. Solubility in Water. Stable under normal conditions. Exposure to strong oxidizers. Avoid contact with chlorine and in organic Peroxides. Corrosive to iron and aluminum. Dangerous to fish and other aquatic life. Do not contaminate surface water or ditches with this product or used containers. Not toxic to bees. Avoid contact with the spilled material or contaminated surfaces. When dealing with spills wear personal protective clothing and equipment as described in the PERSONAL PROTECTION section above. Keep people and animals away and upwind. Contain spill and absorb with earth, sand, clay, or other absorbent material. Collect and store in properly labeled, sealed drums for safe disposal. Deal with all spillages immediately. If contamination of drains, streams, watercourses, etc. is unavoidable, warn the local water authority. Neutralizing chemicals are not needed. Triple or (preferably) pressure rinse containers before disposal. Add rinsings to spray tank. Do not dispose of undiluted chemicals on site. If recycling, replace cap and return clean containers to recycler or designated collection point.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Poisonous if swallowed. Will irritate the eyes. May irritate the skin. May cause sensitization by skin contact. Harmful if inhaled. If poisoning occurs, immediately contact a doctor or Poisons Information Centre, and follow the advice given. Show this Material Safety. Wash out mouth with water. Do not induce vomiting. Keep patient at rest and seek medical advice. Rinse eye immediately with clean water for at least 15 minutes and obtain urgent medical aid. Carefully remove contaminated clothing. Wash affected areas with soap and water. Seek medical aid if at all worried. If inhaled, remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest. Obtain medical advice if at all worried. Ensure washing facilities are available. Avoid contact with skin, wear personnel protective equipment. Do not allow to enter drains or water courses. Advice relevant authorities in case of contamination of public waters. Methods of Cleaning: Collect contaminated material in heavy-duty plastic bags or drums. Dispose of through a reputable waste disposal contractor. Inform the local water Service Company and national Rivers Authority immediately if spillage enters drains or water courses.
 
 
NAME: Ipconazole
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (1RS,2SR,5RS;1RS,2SR,5SR)-2-(4-chlorobenzyl)-5-isopropyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)cyclopentanol. Molecular Formula is C18H24ClN3O. Molecular weight is 333.9.Physical form is colourless crystals. The common name ipconazole refers to a mixture of the (1RS,2SR,5RS) isomer pair . Hydroxy, benzyl and isopropyl groups on the same side of the cyclopentyl ring and the (1RS,2SR,5SR) isomer pair. Melting point is 88-90 ¡C. Vapour pressure is 3.58 ?10-3 mPa (25 ¡C); 6.99 ?10-3 mPa (25 ¡C) (isomer pair II); Partition coefficient is logP = 4.21 (25 ¡C). Solubility in water 6.93 mg/l (20 ¡C). Good thermal and hydrolytic stability. Usually available as a microemulsion but also available as emulsifiable concentrates and suspension concentrates. Calculated risks for seed treatment handlers are low This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of ipconazole from seed treatment in or on cotton, peanut, soybean, dry shelled pea and bean (Subgroup 6C), cereal grains (Group 15) except rice, and forage, fodder, and straw of cereal grains (Group 16) except rice. Chemtura Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Ipconazole is not intended for direct application to food producing crops, but simply as a seed treatment. An ADI for ipconazole was established at 0.015 mg/kg bw/day based on a NOEL of 1.5 mg/kg bw/day. ARfD has not been established as ipconazole is not considered likely to present an acute hazard (including developmental toxicity) to humans. Based on the findings of the acute toxicological studies evaluated, the active has low to moderate oral toxicity, low dermal and inhalational toxicity, is not a skin irritant, is a moderate eye irritant, but not a skin sensitiser. Based on the findings of toxicological studies evaluated, the product has low acute oral, dermal and inhalational toxicity. It is a slight eye irritant, but not a skin irritant or skin sensitiser. Personal protective equipment for workers has been recommended based on acute and repeat dose risk assessments. As the product is to be used for seed treatment there was no need for assessing re-entry exposure.The toxicology data and other information on the product provided and considered in this assessment justify the Safety Directions established for Rancona C Seed Treatment.
 
 
NAME: Iprobenfos
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O,O-Bis(1-methylethyl) S-(phenylmethyl) phosphorothioate; Kitazin Pc. Molecular Formula is C13H21O3P. Molecular weight is Molecular. The synergistic effect of iprobenfos on malathion toxicity and alpha-naphthyl acetate (alpha-NA) esterase assay revealed that malathion resistance in the RM strain was associated with increased alpha-NA esterase activity and the synergism was mainly due to the inhibition by iprobenfos of this activity. There was no difference in alpha-NA esterase activity between the larvae and female adults in the susceptible (S) strain, but the activity in the adults was 13-fold higher than in the larvae of the RM strain
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Excessive salivation, sweating, rhinorrhea and tearing. Muscle twitching, weakness, tremor, incoordination. Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea. Respiratory depression, tightness in chest, wheezing, productive cough, fluid in lungs. Pin-point pupils, sometimes with blurred or dark vision. Severe cases: seizures, incontinence, respiratory depression, loss of consciousness. Cholinesterase inhibition.
 
 
NAME: Iprodione
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-isopropyl-2,4-dioxoimidazolidine-1-carboxamide. Belong to Dicarboximide chemical family. Iprodione is a colorless, odorless crystal. It is a dicarboximide contact fungicide used to control a wide variety of crop diseases by inhibiting the germination of spores and the growth of the fungal mat (mycelium). The primary use of iprodione as soil treatment is for control of white rot disease (Sclerotium cepivorum) of onions. Its half-life in most soils is estimated to be 14 days. Contact fungicide with protective and curative action. Inhibits germination of spores and growth of mycelium by inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis and cell division in fungi. Used for control of fungi including Botrytis, Monilinia, Sclerotinia, Alternaria, Fusarium, Helminthosporium, Phoma, Rhizoctonia, and Typhula spp., on stone fruits, grapes, ginseng, cole crops, some berry, greenhouse, vegetable, field, turf and ornamental crops. Refer to label for registered uses. Timing of application depends on factors such as crop, disease, type of formulation and environmental conditions. Refer to label for specific instructions. For application through field, aerial or orchard sprayers, put one half the required water volume in the tank, add product and add the remainder of water. Agitate thoroughly before each application and continue to agitate during spraying. Do not mix with any other pesticide, adjuvant, or fertilizer unless indicated on the label. Refer to label for complete instructions.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Mild irritant on skin. Avoid inhaling mist. Read the label for poisoning symptoms, first aid, and safety precautions. Iprodione has a 12 hour re-entry interval. Do not store near food or feed. Keep away from fire, open flame, or other heat sources. Do not let it become wet or overheated. Store flowables above 0oC. Store in tightly closed original container, out of reach of children. Do not graze the treated crops or use for feed or fodder. Do not use treated seed for feed, food or oil processing.Treated seed must be labeled according to instructions on the product label.
 
 
NAME: Iprovalicarb I
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name (IUPAC) is {2-Methyl-1-[1-(4 methylphenyl) ethylcarbonyl] propyl} -carbamic acid isopropylester. Minimum purity is 950 g/Kg (This specification has to be finalised.). Molecular formula is C18H28N2O3. Molecular mass is 320.5. Melting point is 183¡C (A), 199¡C (B), 163-165¡C (mixture). Boiling point is not measurable, decomposition > 160¡C. Appearance is white powder. Relative density is 1.11 g/cm3. Vapour pressure is 7.9 ? 10-8 Pa (isomer mix.), all extrapolated. Solubility in water in 17.8 mg/L. Solubility in organic solvents. Stable at pH 5 to 9 at 25¡C. No absorption above 281 nm. Not highly flammable. Not explosive. No maximum of absorption in the range of 290 - 400nm. No absorption above 281 nm and at environmental relevant pH ranges (pH 5 to 9). Widely distributed, highest residues in liver and GI tract; evidence suggestive of enterohepatic circulation. Parent compound and metabolites.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Non-irritant to skin and eye. Skin sensitization test method used and result is Non sensitising (M & K). Critical effects are Liver (increased serum enzyme activities, increased weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, fatty change, focal hepatocellular necrosis, fibrosis); gallbladder; kidney (decreased organ wt, increased water intake, in mice only). Limited; new active ingredient, no detrimental effects on health in workers following intensive experimental biological testing and field use.
 
 
NAME: Iprovalicarb II
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is isopropyl 2-methylethyl-1-[(1-p-tolyethyl) carbamoyl]-(S)-propylcarbamate . Belong to Carbamate group. Systemic with protective, curative and eradicative action. Lipid synthesis inhibitor. Chemical Formula is C18H28N2O3. Molecular mass is 320.5. Color is White-yellow and physical state is powder. Density is 1.11 (20 ¡C). Mixture of (S,S)- and (S,R)- diastereoisomers. Melting point is183 ¡C. Vapour pressure is 4.4 ? 10-5 (SR); 3.5 ? 10-5 (SS); 7.7 ? 10-5 (mixture). Henry constant is1.3 ? 10-6 (SR); 1.6 ? 10-6 (SS) (both Pa m3 mol-1, 20 ¡C, calc.). Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water) , logP = 3.2 ((SR)- and (SS)- diastereoisomers). Solubility in water. Minimum purity is 950 g/Kg (This specification has to be finalised.) . Relative density is 1.11 g/cm3. 17.8 mg/L (isomer mix.) independent of pH and the SR isomer is circa 2x as soluble as the SS isomer in water.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: No harmful effects on human or animal health. The Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (TMDI) for a 60 kg adult is 31.6 % of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), based on the FAO/WHO European Diet (August 1994). This intake value reflects the current limited use pattern for this active substance. Widely distributed, highest residues in liver and GI tract; evidence suggestive of enterohepatic circulation.
 
 
NAME: Irgarol
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-(tert-Butylamino)-4-(cyclopropylamino)-6-(methylthio)-s-triazine. Molecular Formula is C11H19N5S. Molecular Weight is 253.37. IRGAROL is exceptionally active towards algae, the target organism to be controlled, and is less active by a factor of typically 100 or more against animals in general. Therefore at typical use levels IRGAROL offers a large margin of safety. This makes it an environmentally acceptable and safe alternative to many other biocides. The concentration at which algae growth is reduced by 50% (EC50) is around 1?g/liter; the concentration at which no effects are observed (NOEC) is around 0.1 ?g/liter.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity data used for this risk assessment were derived primarily from unpublished studies submitted to regulatory agencies. Because Irgarol is a photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide, it is much more toxic to plants than animals. Toxicity values for animals (fish and invertebrates) were much greater than concentrations of Irgarol reported in the environment. Therefore, a conservative approach using a distribution of only plant toxicity data (EC50s for plant growth) was used to derive a 10th percentile of 136 ng/l. This plant toxicity benchmark of 136 ng/l was used for risk characterization.Risk from Irgarol exposure was low in estuaries, coastal areas, and various open-type marinas. However, 10% or more of the plant species in enclosed marinas with low flushing rates may be exposed to Irgarol concentrations that would reduce photosynthesis activity and growth during the summer. Ecological risk to these sensitive plant species in enclosed marinas will likely be moderated because of the reversibility of Irgarol's inhibition of photosynthesis and the rapid recovery potential of plant communities. The ecological significance of marinas that generally contain numerous stressors such as trace metals, tributyltin, petroleum hydrocarbons, high nutrient concentrations, and low dissolved oxygen concentrations is a management issue that needs to be addressed.
 
 
NAME: Isazophos     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Belong to Organothiophosphate. Mode of Action is Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Chemical Formula is C9H17CIN3O3PS. Chemical name is O-5-chloro-1-isopropyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate . Physical State Liquid .Formula Weight:313.74. MOL File: 42509-80-8.mol. Storing temperature is 0-6¡C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxic in contact with skin, if swallowed or inhaled. Skin sensitizer. Excessive salivation, sweating, rhinorrhea and tearing. Muscle twitching, weakness, tremor, incoordination. Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea. Respiratory depression, tightness in chest, wheezing, productive cough, fluid in lungs. Pin-point pupils, sometimes with blurred or dark vision. Severe cases: seizures, incontinence, respiratory depression, loss of consciousness. Cholinesterase inhibition.
 
 
NAME: Isobenzan 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Isobenzan (telodrin) is a highly toxic organochloride insecticide. It was produced only in the period from 1958 to 1965 and its use has been since discontinued. It is a persistent organic pollutant that can remain in soil for 2 to 7 years, and the biological half-life of isobenzan in human blood is estimated to be about 2.8 years. Chemical formula is 1,3,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-1,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-4,7-methanoisobenzofuran. Molecular Formula is C9H4Cl8O . Molecular Weight is 411.75. Percent Composition of elements are C 26.25%, H 0.98%, Cl 68.88%, O 3.89% . Melting point is mp 120-122¡.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Symptoms are Hypersensitive to stimulation, sensation of prickling, tingling or creeping on skin. Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, incoordination, tremor, mental confusion, hyperexcitable state. In severe cases: convulsions, seizures, coma and respiratory depression.
 
 
NAME: Isobornyl thiocyanoacetate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide and fish drugging agent)
 
DESCRIPTION: a yellow oily liquid C13H19N2OS with terpene-like odor used as a pediculicide, CAS Name is Thiocyanatoacetic acid exo-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl ester. Contains 82% or more of isobornyl thiocyanoacetate with other terpenes. bp0.06 95¡. Flash pt 82¡C (180¡F). d425 1.1465. Acid no. 1.19. nD25 1.512. Very sol in alcohol, benzene, chloroform, ether. Practically insol in water. Other Names such as terpinyl thiocyanoacetate. Molecular Formula is C13H19NO2S. Percentage Composition of other compounds are C 61.63%, H 7.56%, N 5.53%, O 12.63%, S 12.66%.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Ingestion of concentrated solution may lead to vomiting because of mucosal irritation. Principal systemic reaction is probably central nervous depression. Signs and symptoms of kerosene poisoning are often dominant after exposures to dilute solution od Kersene Poisoning are often dominant after exposure of dilute solution of thiocyanate insecticides. In absence of Aspiration, Death is usually due to respiratory arrest from paralysis of the medullary centers. Massive Skin contamination with solution may produce systematic poisoning as described above in additional local irritation and dermatitis. In nonfatal clases evidence of injuries to liver and kidneys may appear.
 
 
NAME: Isocarbamide 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)    
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N-(2-methylpropyl)-2-oxo-imidazolidine-1-carboxamide . Molecular Weight: 185.22. Molecular Formula: C8H15N3O2 . Synonyms are 1-Imidazolidinecarboxamide, N-(2-methylpropyl)-2-oxo-, 1-Imidazolidinecarboxamide, N-(2-methylpropyl)-2-oxo- (9CI), 1-Imidazolidinecarboxamide, N-isobutyl-2-oxo- (8CI), 1-Isobutylcarbamoyl-imidazolin-2-one, 30979-48-7, Azolamide, BAY 94871, EINECS 250-410-0, Imidazolidin-2-on-1-carbonsaeure-isobutylamid [German], Imidazolin-2-one, 1-isobutylcarbamoyl-, Imizolamid, Isocarbamid, ISOCARBAMIDE, Isolamid, Merpelan AZ, MNF 166, N-(2-Methylpropyl)-2-oxo-1-imidazolidinecarboxamide, N-Isobutyl-2-oxo-1-imidazolidinecarboxamide, N-Isobutyl-2-oxoimidazolidine-1-carboxamide, Ozolamid
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The acute toxicity of aldicarb, carbaryl, propoxur and oxamyl to three age classes of Artemia salina was evaluated. There was an increase in toxicity of the four carbamates following longer development of A. salina. The effect of the pretreatment with the non-selective muscarinic antagonist, atropine, a highly specific reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, BW284c51, an inhibitor of other serine-containing esterases, iso-OMPA and a cholinesterase-reactivating oxime, 2-PAM on carbaryl-induced lethality in the three age classes of A. salina was investigated. The lethal action of carbaryl was completely prevented by pretreatment of A. salina with atropine. Iso-OMPA when given in low concentrations (7.54Ð0.73 ?mol/l) and BW284c51 (58.1Ð0.227 ?mol/l) afforded a maximal protection about 75, 85 and 100% for A. salina 24-, 48- and 72-h old, respectively. In contrast, relatively higher concentrations of iso-OMPA pretreatment (65Ð1000 ?mol/l) showed a potentiating effect of carbaryl toxicity. The acute effect of carbaryl was enhanced by 2-PAM.
 
 
NAME: Isocarbophos
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is Isopropyl 2-[(aminomethoxyphosphinothioyl)oxy]benzoate; 2-((Amino(methoxy)phosphinothioyl)oxy)benzoic acid 1-methylethyl ester. Molecular formula is C11H16NO4PS. Molecular Weight is 289.28. Physical state is colorless crystalline flakes. Soluble in water at 20oC (mg l-1) value is 70.1 . Chronic exposure may cause seizures, incontinence, respiratory depression and loss of consciousness
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Excessive salivation, sweating, rhino rhea and tearing. Muscle twitching, weakness, tremor, in coordination. Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea. Respiratory depression, tightness in chest, wheezing, productive cough, fluid in lungs. Pin-point pupils, sometimes with blurred or dark vision. Severe cases: seizures, incontinence, respiratory depression, loss of consciousness. Cholinesterase inhibition.
 
 
NAME: Isodrin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Isodrin is highly resistant to decomposition and as a result can survive for as very long time (years) in the environment. It is broken down slowly by plants and animals. Because of this property, and its high solubility in fats, isodrin can bioaccumulate through the food chain. Its appreciable volatility and resistance to decomposition in the atmosphere means that isodrin, like the related endrin and dieldrin, has the potential to move over very long distances and affect wildlife far from the site of original use. Although not regulated as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) under UN agreements (like dieldrin and endrin) isodrin has similar properties of toxicity, persistence and tendency to bioaccumulate that characterise POPs. Formerly used as an insecticide in agriculture and control of disease-spreading insects such as malarial mosquitoes. Isodrin is a white crystalline solid with a chemical odour. It is insoluble in water but dissolves readily in organic solvents, fats and oils. It is appreciably volatile and transfer from soil to atmosphere by evaporation occurs. Chemically, it is closely related to the insecticide endrin. It is highly hazardous. It used to be commonly used as an insecticide in agriculture and to control malaria spreading mosquito's. Since isodrin is no longer manufactured or used in the European Union or the United States, its leakage to the marine environment from these countries is not expected to be significant. In water mostly adsorbs to suspended particles, organic matter, soils and sediments. It has a low tendency to evaporate and isn't easily degraded in the atmosphere, causing it to be transported over great distances. It is also stable in water and soils. It can take between 0,5 and 6 years to half the isodin concentration of a soil. Isodrin may bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms and has a tendency to biomagnify through food chains.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Isodrin is a very toxic chemical for fresh water fishes. They die when exposed to concentrations above 6 µg/l. Zooplankton and chrustations start dying when exposed to concentrations above 1 mg/l. Isodrin is highly toxic to many forms of wildlife, including fish, birds, insects and mammals. Contamination of water or soil would therefore be expected to result in significant harm to many forms of wildlife, resulting in long-term damage to populations of sensitive species.
 
 
NAME: Isofenphos         
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-(O-ethyl O-2-isopropoxycarbonylphenyl isopropylphosphoramidothioate). Trade names for products containing isofenphos include Amaze, Oftanol and Pryfon. The insecticide may also be found in formulations with the fungicide thiram. Isofenphos is an organophosphate insecticide used to control soil- dwelling insects such as white grubs, cabbage root flies, corn roundworms, and wireworms. The product is used on vegetables including maize and carrots, on soil insects in fruit crops like bananas, and on soils with turfgrass. It is a selective contact and stomach poison in insects. It is applied as a preplant or preemergence soil treatment. It is also used to control termites in and around building structures. Molecular Formula is C15H24NO4PS. Formula Weight is 345.39. Storing temperature is 0-6¡C. Colorless oil. Non corrosive. Used as an insecticide Organothiophosphates, such as ISOFENPHOS, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Isofenphos is a highly toxic insecticide that requires the signal words DANGER-POISON on its label. Typical of other organophosphate insecticides, this compound is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Cholinesterase inhibitors are a general group of enzymes that inhibit the activity of specific cells within the organisms. One typical enzyme, acetyl cholinesterase, regulates inter-cellular nerve activity. Although no mention of acute toxic effects were found in the reference material, acute effects would likely be similar to those from other organophosphates. These include increased secretions, breathing difficulty, diarrhea, urination, pupil contraction and slowness of the heart. At very high doses, convulsions and coma may ensue. Other parts of the body where cholinesterase is found include the blood stream (butrylcholinesterase) and the brain. During its use in a Japanese beetle eradication program in California, no illnesses were found attributable to the insecticide.
 
 
NAME: Isofenphos-oxon
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is propan-2-yl 2-[ethoxy-(propan-2 ylamino)phosphoryl]oxybenzoate . Molecular formula is C15H24NO5P. Formula weight is 329.33. Isofenphos, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide (known in chemicalnomenclature as 1-methylethyl 2-((ethoxy((1-methylethyl)amino)phosphinoyl)oxy)benzoate and designated as EPA case number 0105), was scheduled for a reregistration decision in 1999. Accordingly, EPA reviewed the existing database and developed preliminary human health and ecological risk assessments. In 1998, a public docket was opened and initial steps were taken to review Isofenphos along with the other organophosphate pesticides. Before EPA could complete the reregistration process, however, the basic producer of the pesticide gave official notification that they would no longer support Isofenphos through reregistration. EPA then took the necessary administrative steps to process a request to voluntarily cancel a pesticide, as discussed below in the History section. The following information is based on an abbreviated review of the existing information on Isofenphos. Because of the voluntary cancellation of the technical grade product, a final review for reregistration was not completed. The preliminary risk assessments were not revised, for example, as has been the case for the other organophosphate pesticides undergoing reregistration and tolerance reassessment.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Although the human health assessment was not completed for Isofenphos, some preliminary conclusions were reached during the toxicology review. The toxicological database is otherwise adequate to support the reregistration of Isofenphos. Acute oral toxicity studies in male and female rats indicate that, like other organophosphate pesticides, oral exposure to Isofenphos induces cholinesterase inhibition. Acute toxicity categories, which are classified as I (most toxic) through IV (least toxic), included Category I for acute oral and dermal toxicity; Category II for inhalation toxicity; Category III for acute eye irritation; and Category IV for acute dermal irritation. Isofenphos is classified as a Group E carcinogen (that is, there was no evidence of carcinogenic potential in long-term studies in rats and mice).
 
 
NAME: Isomethiozin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide))
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical Name is 6-tert-butyl-4-[(EZ)-isobutylideneamino]-3-methylthio-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one. Molecular formula is C12H20N4OS. Mocleclar weight is 268.378 g/mol. Compostion of element C 53.7 %, H 7.51 percent , N is 4% and O,S are 1%. method for the determination of the triazine-based herbicide isomethiozin by differential-pulse polarography is proposed. The reaction is performed in 0.1 M NaClO4 using a Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 1.90. Two reduction waves are obtained at Ð0.52 and Ð0.93 V and the system is irreversible and controlled mainly by diffusion. The detection limit is 1 ? 10Ð6M for the first wave with an error of less than 2%. Finally, a method is proposed for the determination of isomethiozin in soil, which can be used for the detection of levels as low as 0.04 µg gÐ1.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects. Check with your doctor if any of these most COMMON side effects persist or become bothersome when using Indomethacin: Redness, pain, or oozing at the injection site. Seek medical attention right away if any of these SEVERE side effects occur when using Indomethacin: Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); blood in vomit, stool, or urine; dark, tarry stools; decreased urination; slow heartbeat; unusual bruising or bleeding; unusual weight gain.
 
 
NAME: Isoprocarb 
 
CLASSIFICATION: PESTICIDE (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-(1-methylethyl)phenyl methylcarbamate. Empirical Formula is C11H15NO2. Molecular Weight is 193.2. Insoluble in water, Readily soluble in acetone, methanol. Melting point is 88-93¡C. Isoprocarb is a highly active, quickly knock-down effective and short-period residual insecticide with contact action. It is especially effective to control the paddy leafhoppers, black rice leafhoppers, plant hoppers. It is also active against pests of fruit and vegetable as well as cotton aphids, cotton pink bollworms, ted spiders, beet flea beetles, and can kill the paddy leaches in certain extent. Recommended application rate: 0.5 -0.75 kg a.i./ha
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Isoprocarb is a carbamate pesticide used mainly as an insecticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
 
 
NAME: Isopropalin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Scientific name is 4-isopropyl-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropylaniline. Chemical formula is C15H23N3O4. Molecular Weight is 309.36.Percentage composition of elements ARE C 58.24%, H 7.49%, N 13.58%, O 20.69%. Belong to Dinitroaniline group. Physical state is liquid.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Reduced hemoglobin concentrations, lowered hematocrits, and altered organ weights were observed at the higher doses.
 
 
NAME: Isoprothiolane
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4-isopropyl-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropylaniline. Mode of action is systemic with protective and curative action. Lipid synthesis inhibitor. Belong to Phosphorothiolate. The pure isoprothiolane is a white crystalline solid, smells a offensive, Its melt point is from 54.5?to55?, boiling point is between 167? and 169? at a pressure of 166.7Pa, its relative density is 1.044, and its vapour pressure at 25? is about 18.7MPa. This chemical is ready to dissolve into some organic solvents including bonzol, alcohols and acetone, its water solubility at 20? is 48mg/L, it shows good stability under sunshining and heating, and it also keeps stable in a solution with PH values from 3 to 10; however, this chemical in the water will became unstable to UV light, This power chemical is slight yellow crystalline solid, gives off a little stink smell, its melt point is from 50? to 51?. Available in a variety of formulations including emulsifiable concentrates, granules, wettable powders and low and ultralow volume sprays.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: This agriculture chemical is an internal absorption bactericide. It has special good affect for rice neck blast, its effect for rice leaf blast is better than that of kitazine, and it is also suitable for curing rice shoots diseases and little coccus nueleus diseases, if this chemical is applied for a large square field, it can kill some rice delphacid and Leafhopper, at the same time it has adjusting function to plant growing.
 
 
NAME: Isoproturon
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Isoproturon mainly enters the environment during its application as an agricultural herbicide, but releases may also occur during manufacture, transportation and storage. Isoproturon has a low tendency to adsorb to soils and is therefore quite able to enter in water bodies despite its rather low water solubility (70,2 mg/l). Its half-life in water is 30 days, in soils 40 days. Due to its low affinity for organic matter, it is not expected to have a high tendency towards bioaccumulation or biomagnification. Significant bioaccumulation might however occur in certain species. Isoproturon is shown to be very toxic for algae and oysters that experience acute toxicity at concentrations above 13 µg/l and 370 µg/l respectively. Long-term exposure to concentrations above 1 mg/l might affect the growth of fishes; acute toxicity occurs at concentrations above 18 mg/l. In fresh water, concentrations of 0,125 µg/l have been recorded. Isoproturon is a synthetic chemical used as an herbicide. Isoproturon is a herbicide that can be harmful to wildlife. Isoproturon is released to the environment during its application as an agricultural herbicide. Scientific Name is N,N-dimethyl-N,-[4-(1-methylethyl)phenyl]urea. Isoproturon is taken up by the roots and through absorption through the leaves of plants and owes its action to inhibition of photosynthesis. Isoproturon is used as a pre and post-emergence herbicide against grasses and broad-leaved weeds in spring and winter cereal crops. Pure Isoproturon occurs as colorless crystals, melting a 158 deg C. It is slightly soluble in water and polar organic solvents, much less so in hydrocarbons. It is stable to light and in mildly acid and alkaline solution, but hydrolyses in strong alkali and when heated. Isoproturon is released into the environment through its use as an herbicide. Releases may also occur during manufacture, transportation and storage. There are no natural sources of Isoproturon.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Isoproturon is not expected to cause environmental damage when used according to manufacturer instructions. It is however classed as very toxic to aquatic organisms and may cause long-term effects on the aquatic environment. Excessive exposure to Isoproturon may affect the blood, and may cause cancer. The Environment Agency aims to ensure that environmental exposures are too low to harm human health.
 
 
NAME: Isoxaben
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical formula is N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-1,2-oxazol-5-yl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide. Selective, disrupts root and stem development in germinating seeds. Chemical Formula is C18H24N2O4. Colourless crystalline solid or waxy powder. Often supplied as soluble concentrate that is mixed with water and used as a spray. Molecular Weight is 332.4 .   Isoxaben is a benzamizole herbicide with broad spectrum pre-emergent activity for broadleaf weeds, grasses, vines, for use around ornamental trees and shrubs. Isoxaben disrupts an enzyme (found only in plants) necessary for protein synthesis. Isoxaben is the only active ingredient (75%) in the herbicide Gallery DF. According to the product label, Gallery 75DF also contains 25% other ingredients (unspecified). The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) uses Gallery DF for pre-emergent weed control in ground cover beds. Gallery DF is also used in agriculture and urban settings. WSDOT assessed the potential risks to human, wildlife, and aquatic animals exposed to isoxaben in their Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) program. Evaluating potential risks takes into account both the toxicity of a pesticide Laboratory Testing: Before pesticides are and the characteristics of possible exposure.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Eye Effects and Irritation persisting for 7 days if high amount is used. On skin severe irritation at 72 hours. Isoxaben has moderate toxicity if it gets on the skin, and very low toxicity if eaten or inhaled. generating a hazard quotient (HQ). This number is the exposure divided by the toxicity. When the HQ is less than 1, exposures are unlikely to cause any adverse health effects. When the HQ is greater than 1, the potential for non-cancer health effects should be considered. Risk assessments for chemicals that cause cancer (carcinogens) estimate the probability of an individual developing cancer over a lifetime. Cancer risks estimated in this way are very conservative, and actual cancer risks are likely to be much lower. Cancer risk estimates of less than 1 in 100,000 are within the range considered negligible by most regulatory.
 
 
NAME: Isoxadifen-ethyl
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-1,2-oxazole-3-carboxylate. Chemical Formula is C18H17NO3. Increases the selectivity of foramsulfuron inm aize by reducing translocation. Molecular Weight is 295.34. The herbicide tembotrione is used as selective post-emergence control of grass and broadleaved weeds in corn (brit. maize). The herbicide is always applied in combination with the safener isoxadifen-ethyl to minimize the risk of crop phytotoxicity. Tembotrione is an effective inhibitor of the enzyme 4-hydroxy -phenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) and consequently blocks the pathway of prenylquinone biosynthesis in plants. Early effects, prior to the appearance of visible phytotoxicity symptoms, are decreased levels of tocopherols and plastoquinone in the plant tissue and a reduced photosynthetic yield. Indirect inhibition of phytoene desaturase as an effect of blocked plastoquinone biosynthesis leads to a decrease in carotenoid levels particularly in young, still expanding leaves. The mobility in the phloem is of particular importance, since it ensures that after post-emergence spray application the herbicide will be distributed in the stream of assimilates from the mature leaves (metabolic sources) to the developing, highly susceptible leaves (metabolic sinks) at the shoot apex. In accordance with the translocation data obtained with 14C-labeled tembotrione it can be demonstrated that after controlled foliar placement of the herbicide on susceptible weed species new shoot growth is inhibited due to phloem systemicity. 
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: photosynthetic apparatus is no longer stabilized by these pigments. Under high light intensity, excess energy is not quenched and chlorophyll molecules are destroyed.
 
 
NAME: Isoxaflutole
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 5-cyclopropyl-4-(2-methylsulfonyl-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl) isoxazole. Ground application using standard commercial sprayers. Based upon a battery of acute toxicity studies, Balance Herbicide is classified as Toxicity Category III. Isoxaflutole demonstrates developmental toxicity and has been classified as a Group B2 carcinogen (probable human carcinogen). The data available at this time indicate that isoxaflutole is very phytotoxic. Isoxaflutole is persistent and mobile, and may leach and accumulate in groundwater and through surface water.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The inclusion of this "bleaching" herbicide at 3 or 10 mg l?1 in a standard soybean embryo proliferation medium resulted in a change in tissue color from green to non-pigmented over the course of a 4-wk experiment. Although the loss in pigmentation was observed in transgenic and non-transformed control tissues, tissue growth remained unaffected. GFP expression in three different transgenic soybean clones, representing low to moderate GFP expression levels, was easily detected and quantified using image analysis following culture of the tissues on an IFT-containing medium. Quantification of GFP in tissues from the same clones cultured in the absence of IFT, however, was difficult using image analysis. After transfer of transgenic embryogenic tissue from a medium containing IFT to a medium without IFT, the growth of pigment-containing tissue resumed. The bleaching effects from this herbicide appear to be reversible and make IFT and possibly other bleaching herbicides useful in the analysis of GFP expression in tissues, where interference from chlorophyll is problematic.
 
 
NAME: Isoxathion
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Isoxathion is a molecular chemical with the molecular formula C13H16NO4PS. It is an insecticide, specifically an isoxazole organothiophosphate insecticide. Chemical name is O,O-diethyl O-5-phenyl-1,2-oxazol-3-yl phosphorothioate. Molecular Weight is 313.3092 g/mol.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Excessive salivation, sweating, rhinorrhea and tearing. Muscle twitching, weakness, tremor, incoordination. Headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea. Respiratory depression, tightness in chest, wheezing, productive cough, fluid in lungs. Pin-point pupils, sometimes with blurred or dark vision. Severe cases: seizures, incontinence, respiratory depression, loss of consciousness. Cholinesterase inhibition. Density is 1.258 g/cm3. Enthalpy of Vaporization: 64.73 kJ/mol.
 
 
NAME: Jasmolin I      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: An active insecticidal constituent of pyrethrum flowers. Chemical names are (Z)-(S)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(pent-2-enyl)cyclopent-2-enyl(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate or (Z)-(S)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(pent-2-enyl)cyclopent-2-enyl(1R)-trans-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2 methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate or (Z)-(S)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(pent-2-enyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (+)-trans-chrysanthemate. Molecular Weight is 330.46. Molecular Weight is 330.46 . Molecular Formula is C21H30O3 . An active insecticidal constituent of pyrethrum flowers.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Avoid skin and eye contact. Target organs are respiratory system, skin, central nervous system.Symotoms are Erythema, dermatitis, papules, pruritus, rhinorrhea (discharge of thin nasal mucus); sneezing; asthma.
 
 
NAME: Jasmolin II                                 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: There is no ISO common name for this substance; the name "jasmolin II" is approved in China. It is one of the components of pyrethrins. List of chemicals in the same family, including breakdown products, salts, esters, isomers, and other derivatives
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Signs and symptoms of poisoning, first aid, and links to treatment information for this chemical. Toxicity to aquatic organisms.
 
 
NAME: Jodfenphos  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O-2,5-dichloro-4-iodophenyl O,O-dimethyl phosphorothioate . Molecular Formula is Molecular Formula is C8H8Cl2IO3PS . Colourless crystals with a mild odour, Melting point:76¡C.Molecular weight: 413.0 g/mol; Vapour pressure:8 x 10-7 mmHg at 20¡C. Topological Polar Surface Area is 59.8. Heavy Atom Count 16. Complexity is 276 . Feature 3D Hydrophobe Count is 1.Hazard class is 6.1.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: This chemical may cause damage to health. It may present an immediate or delayed danger to one or more components of the environment.
 
 
NAME: Kinoprene
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Kinoprene is an insect hormone. Derivatives of this type of compound have the potential of being highly selective, and non toxic (to us and non target animals) insectisides. Research in this area may bring about a new & quot; green revolution. Kinoprene is the active ingredient in Enstar II. Enstar II can be used with Mavrik Aquaflow which has the active ingredient, tau-fluvalinate. However, just because there may be other products available that have the same active ingredient(s) does not mean that the products are compatible, even if the active ingredients work well together.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Scientific studies show that they can be used without posing unreasonable risks to people or the environment. Because of advances in scientific knowledge, the law requires that pesticides which were first registered before November 1, 1984, be reregistered to ensure that they meet today's more stringent standards. In evaluating pesticides for reregistration, EPA obtains and reviews a complete set of studies from pesticide producers, describing the human health and environmental effects of each pesticide. The Agency develops any mitigation measures or regulatory controls needed to effectively reduce each pesticide's risks.
 
 
NAME: Kresoxim-methyl           
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: White and inodorous crystal and 0.25 percent moist. Kresoxim methyl is applied as fungicide to treat pathogenic fungi belonging to the deuteromycetes, ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and oanycetes such as powdery mildew in grape/strawberry/musk melon/cucumber, rust in wheat, early and late blight in potatoes, rot in zucchini, blast in rice etc. Use in control of scab in apples and pears; powdery mildew on apples (Podosphaera leucotricha), vines (Uncinula necator), cucurbits (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) and sugar beet (Erysiphe betae); mildew (Erysiphe graminis), scald (Rhynchosporium secalis), net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) and glume blotch (Septoria nodorum) on cereals; mildew on vegetables (Leveillula taurica, Erysiphe spp., Alternaria spp.).  
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Fungicide with protective, curative, eradicative and long residual disease control; acts by inhibiting spore germination. Redistribution via the vapour phase contributes to activity.
 
 
NAME: MCPA methyl ester             
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: MCPA is a systemic phenoxy herbicide used to control annual and perennial weeds (including thistle and dock) in cereals, grasslands, trees and turf. As with some of the other phenoxy herbicides, MCPA is an acid, but it is often formulated as a salt such as diethanolamine salt. Unless otherwise indicated, this document will refer to the acid form. The herbicide works by concentrating in the actively growing regions of a plant (meristematic tissue) where it interferes with protein synthesis, cell division and ultimately the growth of the plant. This compound is a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP). Restricted Use Pesticides may be purchased and used only by certified applicators.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: MCPA carries a DANGER signal word on the label even though the acute toxicity of the product indicates that it is only slightly toxic. This is due to its potential to cause severe eye irritation. Symptoms in humans from acute toxic exposure include slurred speech, twitching, jerking and spasms, drooling, low blood pressure, and unconsciousness. The LD50 for MCPA in rats ranges from 700 mg/kg to 1,330 mg/kg and the LD50 of MCPA in the mouse ranges from 550 to 800 mg/kg. The dermal LD50 is 4,800 mg/kg in male rabbits and 3,400 mg/kg in female rabbits. The estimated human lethal oral dose is from 250 to 450 mg/kg
 
 
NAME: Methomyl
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide. It was introduced in 1966, but its use is restricted because of its high toxicity to humans. Its current primary use is on alfalfa for forage. Methomyl was introduced in 1966 as a broad spectrum insecticide. It is also used as an acaricide to control ticks and spiders. It is used for foliar treatment of vegetable, fruit and field crops, cotton, commercial ornamentals, and in and around poultry houses and dairies. It is also used as a fly bait. Methomyl is effective in two ways: (a) as a 'contact insecticide,' because it kills target insects upon direct contact, and; (b) as a 'systemic insecticide' because of its capability to cause overall 'systemic' poisoning in target insects, after it is absorbed and transported throughout the pests that feed on treated plants. It is capable of being absorbed by plants without being 'phytotoxic' or harmful, to the plant. It is one of a class of chemicals called 'carbamates' the carbamates work by inhibiting cholinesterase, an essential enzyme for proper functioning of the nervous system.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Methomyl is a highly toxic compound in EPA toxicity class I. EPA classifies it as Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP) because of its high acute toxicity to humans. The Signal Words for products containing methomyl depend upon the formulation of the product. Restricted Use Pesticides may be purchased and used only by certified applicators. Reentry periods for farm workers of 1 to 7 days are required, depending on the crop. Methomyl is highly toxic via the oral route, with reported oral LD50 values of 17 to 24 mg/kg in rats, 10 mg/kg in mice, and 15 mg/kg in guinea pigs. Symptoms of methomyl exposure are similar to those caused by other carbamates and cholinesterase inhibitors. These may include weakness, blurred vision, headache, nausea, abdominal cramps, chest discomfort, and constriction of pupils, sweating, muscle tremors, and decreased pulse. If there is severe poisoning, symptoms of twitching, giddiness, confusion, muscle incoordination, slurred speech, low blood pressure, heart irregularities, and loss of reflexes may also be experienced. Death can result from discontinued breathing, paralysis of muscles of the respiratory system, intense constriction of the openings of the lung, or all three. It is moderately toxic via inhalation with a reported 4-hour inhalation LC50 in male rats of 0.3 mg/L. Inhalation of dust or aerosol may cause irritation, lung and eye problems, with symptoms of chest tightness, blurred vision, tearing, wheezing, and headaches appearing upon exposure. Other systemic symptoms of cholinesterase inhibition may appear within a few minutes to several hours of exposure. It is slightly toxic via the dermal route, with a reported dermal LD50 of 5880 mg/kg in rabbits, and is absorbed only slowly through the skin. However, if sufficient amounts are absorbed through the skin, symptoms similar to those induced by ingestion or inhalation will develop. Within fifteen minutes to four hours of exposure, the immediate area of contact may show localized sweating and uncoordinated muscular contractions.
 
 
NAME: Mecarbam                      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Mecarbam is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It may cause excessive salivation, sweating, rhinorrhea and tearing.

Muscle twitching, weakness, tremor, incoordination are brought by it.ÊHeadache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea are also important to quote. Respiratory depression, tightness in chest, wheezing, productive cough, and fluid in lungs has been noticed. Pin-point pupils, sometimes with blurred or dark vision are the result of Mecarbam. In severe cases: seizures, incontinence, respiratory depression, loss of consciousness have been reported. Cholinesterase inhibition is one of the major toxicity.

 
 
NAME: Mecoprop methyl ester         
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Esters ofÊcarboxylic acids, the most common esters, contain the acid's carbonyl group; the carbon's fourth bond is with the alcohol's oxygen atom. Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of anÊalkaliÊ(saponification) is used to makeÊsoaps fromÊfats andÊoils. Carboxylic acid esters of low molecular weight are colourless, volatile liquids with pleasant odours; they give flavour and fragrance to fruits and flowers and are used as synthetic flavours and fragrances. Others, such as ethyl acetate and butyl acetate, are used asÊsolvents for lacquers, paints, and varnishes. CertainÊpolymers is esters, including LuciteÊ(polymethyl methacrylate) and Dacron (polyethylene terephthalate). Esters of alcohols and inorganic acids include nitrate esters (e.g.Ênitroglycerin), which are explosive; phosphate esters, including such biologically important compounds asÊnucleic acids; and others that are used as flame retardants, solvents, plasticizers, gasoline and oil additives, and insecticides It is a class of chemical compounds formed by the bonding of an alcohol and one or more organic acids, with the loss of a water molecule for each ester group formed. Fats are esters, produced by the bonding of fatty acids with the alcohol glycerol.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Ethyl ether has been used to produce surgical anesthesia in humans; the concentration that is needed to induce anesthesia in humans ranges from 100,000 to 150,000 ppm. After anesthesia has been induced, it is maintained at about 50,000 ppm because respiratory arrest may occur at higher concentrations. At 200 ppm, mild nasal irritation occurs, and at 2,000 ppm, dizziness may be experienced [ACGIH 1991; Hathaway et al. 1991]. Brief exposures of the eyes to the liquid or to high vapor concentrations produced burning but no injury. Prolonged exposure may cause temporary corneal epithelial injury [Grant 1986]. Prolonged skin contact can cause burns. Ethyl ether is also a defatting agent, and repeated exposure may cause skin drying and cracking.
 
 
NAME: Mefenacet
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Mefenacet (MN) is a kind of herbicide with low toxicity and high activity [1]. It is a cellular growing and Þssional inhibitor which stunts cockspur grass to death by inhibiting the growth and the Þssion of cell [2]. Such herbicide is used in the management of rice paddies, golf courses, landscape garden, park and other types of Þelds. It is carried into the surrounding environment by aquifers, and is widely distributed in the environment. water and soil, parent mefenacet herbicide is subjected to various biotic and abiotic In degradation processes such as photolysis and biodegradation, the main degradation products of photolysis in water are Hydroxylbenzothiazole (HBT), N-methylaniline (NMA), and 2- benzothiazoloxyacetic acid (2-BAA) which are harmful for human and animal health.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Such herbicide is used in the management of rice paddies, golf courses, landscape garden, park and other types of Þelds. It is carried into the surrounding environment by aquifers, and is widely distributed in the environment. In water and soil, parent mefenacet herbicide is subjected to various biotic and abiotic degradation processes such as photolysis and biodegradation, the main degradation products of photolysis in water are Hydroxylbenzothiazole (HBT), N-methylaniline (NMA), and 2- benzothiazoloxyacetic acid (2-BAA) which are harmful for human and animal health.
 
 
NAME: Mefluidide
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Commercial mefluidide products generally contain one or more inert ingredients. An inert ingredient is anything added to the product other than an active ingredient. Because of concern for human health and the environment, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced its policy on toxic inert ingredients in the Federal Register on April 22, 1987 (52 FR 13305). The intent of this policy is the regulation of inert ingredients. EPA's strategy for the implementation of this policy included the development of four lists of inerts based on toxicological concerns
 
HEALTH PROLEMS: Mefluidide does not cause adverse effects in soil microorganisms. Contact with non-target plants may injure or kill susceptible plants. Mefluidide is practically nontoxic to fish. It does not build up (bioaccumulate) in fish.
 
 
NAME: Mephosfolan                   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide, acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Trademarks: Cytrolane (BASF). Molecular Formula: C8H16NO3PS2. Molecular Weight: 269.32. Percent Composition: C 35.68%, H 5.99%, N 5.20%, O 17.82%, P 11.50%, S 23.81%. Yellow to amber liquid, bp0.001 120¡. nD26 1.5354. Soly in water at 25¡: 57 g/kg. Sol in acetone, ethanol, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane. Stable at neutral pH; hydrolyzed by acid or alkali. Yellow to amber liquid. Works as an insecticide and acaricide. Not registered as a pesticide in the U.S.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: MEPHOSFOLAN is highly toxic if swallowed or absorbed through the skin.
 
 
NAME: Mepanipyrim
 
CLASSIFICATION: ÊPesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Mepanipyrim is a chemical used on fruits and tomatoes to control fungal growth. Animal experiments have shown that mepanipyrim give rise to development of cancers of the liver when given to rats and mice for the greater proportion of their lives. The European CommissionÕs DG for Health and Consumer Protection has asked the EFSA Scientific Panel on Plant health, Plant protection products and their Residues (PPR Panel) to comment on the liver tumours found in rats and mice exposed to mepanipyrim and give its opinion on the question, whether a threshold mechanism of tumour formation can be assumed.Ê
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The Scientific Panel reviewed the available experimental data and concluded that the mode of action by which mepanipyrim causes tumours in rats and mice is currently unknown. However, there is convincing evidence that this mechanism does not involve toxicity to genetic material and a threshold dose level will exist below which tumors do not develop. The Scientific Panel concludes, therefore, that a safe level of human exposure can be assigned for this chemical.
 
 
NAME: Mephosfolan                   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide, acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Trademarks: Cytrolane (BASF). Molecular Formula: C8H16NO3PS2. Molecular Weight: 269.32. Percent Composition: C 35.68%, H 5.99%, N 5.20%, O 17.82%, P 11.50%, S 23.81%. Yellow to amber liquid, bp0.001 120¡. nD26 1.5354. Soly in water at 25¡: 57 g/kg. Sol in acetone, ethanol, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane. Stable at neutral pH; hydrolyzed by acid or alkali. Yellow to amber liquid. Works as an insecticide and acaricide. Not registered as a pesticide in the U.S.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: MEPHOSFOLAN is highly toxic if swallowed or absorbed through the skin.
 
 
NAME: Metalaxyl
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Metalaxyl is a phenylamide fungicide with systemic function. Its chemical name is methyl N-(methoxyacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate. It can be used to control Pythium in a number of vegetable crops, and Phytophthora in peas.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The oral LD50 in rats is 669 mg/kg and the dermal LD50 is greater than 3100 mg/kg [8], indicating slight toxicity by ingestion and dermal application. Rabbits exhibited slight eye and skin irritation, but guinea pigs displayed no sensitization after metalaxyl exposure [1]. No information was available regarding the inhalation toxicity of metalaxyl. A 90-day study of rats exposed to 0.1 to 2.5 mg/kg/day in diet, showed some cellular enlargement in the liver at the highest dose [19]. In a similar study with dogs fed diets of approximately 0.04 to 0.8 mg/kg/day for 6 months, the dogs were adversely affected by the highest dose. Manifestations included increased blood alkaline phosphatase and increased liver-to-brain weight ratio.
 
 
NAME: Metamitron 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Metamitron is a triazine herbicide with low toxicity and low residue. The photolysis of metamitron is found to be strongly dependent on solvent and oxygen, as known for other 4-amino-triazin-5(4H)-ones. No photoreaction was found in methanol, acetonitrile and hexane. Photolysis rate constants were obtained using a xenon light source by analysis of the UV-spectra and HPLC
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Three different risk assessment procedures are described that aim to protect freshwater habitats from risks of the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides metribuzin and metamitron. These procedures are (1) the first-tier approach, based on standard toxicity tests and the application of an assessment factor. (2) the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) approach, based on laboratory tests with a wider array of species and the application of a statistical model to calculate the HCx(the Hazardous Concentration forÊx% of the species), and (3) the model ecosystem approach, based on the evaluation of treatment-related effects in field enclosures.
 
 
NAME: Metasystox thiol               
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Thiols any of a class of compounds that are analogous are to alcohols and phenols but contain sulfur in place of oxygen with the general formula RSH and in the case  of those of low molecular weight have very disagreeable odors called also mercaptan the functional group SH characteristic of thiols
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Sulphur is essential to life, and thiols and disulphides play essential roles in cellular biochemistry. Such compounds are also widely distributed in the food of man and his domestic animals, and they are extensively used in industry. However, many thiols and disulphides have been shown to be toxic. Aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic compounds of this type are haemolytic agents in animals while aminothiols have been shown to induce many cytotoxic effects in vitro and the epidithiodioxopiperazine mycotoxin, sporidesmin, is a potent hepatotoxic agent. Structure-activity relationships among these compounds and factors which modulate their harmful effects are consistent with a toxic mechanism involving redox cycling between the thiol and the corresponding disulphide. Thiyl radicals and "active oxygen" species are formed in this process, and it is suggested that these substances are responsible for initiating the tissue damage provoked by thiols and disulphides.
 
 
NAME: Metconazole I                 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Metconazole I a new fungicide used to control a range of fungal infections including alternaria, rusts, fusarium and septoria diseases.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The Registration Division (RD) of OPP has requested that HED evaluate toxicology and residue chemistry data and conduct dietary and aggregate risk assessments, as needed, to estimate the risk to human health that will result from the proposed use of metconazole in/on bananas imported into the United States. A summary of the findings and an assessment of human risk resulting from the proposed use of metconazole are provided in this document. A proposed Section 18 use on soybeans is being concurrently reviewed in another risk assessment document. The hazard assessment was provided by Gregory Akerman of Toxicology Branch, the residue chemistry data review and dietary risk assessment by Nancy Dodd of RAB3, and the drinking water assessment by Amer Al-Mudallal of the Environmental Fate and Effects Division. There are currently no permanent established tolerances for metconazole in the U.S. Additionally, there are currently no U.S. products registered for metconazole and no permanent U.S. registration is proposed in this petition. This action is only for a tolerance on bananas imported into the U.S. No drinking water, residential, or occupational exposure assessment is required. However, because a Section 18 for soybean rust on soybeans is concurrently being assessed, exposure to drinking water was including in the dietary risk assessment.
 
 
NAME: Metconazole II
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: The metabolism of metconazole is elucidated in three crop groups following the foliar application of metconazole. Even though studies indicate that the main residue in cereal grain and rapeseeds is triazole alanine, the peer review decided not to include it in the residue definition. Instead, the risk assessment and enforcement residue definition was set as parent metconazole. Triazole alanine and triazole acetic acid, another compound identified in cereal metabolism, are metabolites common with other active substances belonging to the triazole chemical class. Since the triazole derivative concentrations, a specific consumer exposure assessment should be performed, taking into account the different sources of TDMs. As soon as the methodology for the risk assessment of TDMs, which is currently under development, is available, the risk assessment for the TDMs has to be performed. An adequate monitoring analytical method for the current residue definition is available to enforce the compliance of the proposed MRLs. 
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: No chronic consumer health risks were identified for any of the European diets. The total calculated exposure values ranged from 2 to 13% of the ADI. From all the crops under consideration the highest individual contribution to the total dietary intake was for sugar beet (4.57% of the ADI for UK toddler diet), wheat (2.6% of the ADI for WHO Cluster diet B) and bananas (1.8% of the ADI for SE general population). The individual contribution of other crops to the total dietary intake was insignificant.
 

NAME: Methacrifos
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide and acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Methacrifos is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: A groundbreaking ADHD study done on 1,139 children aged 8-15 years old has now proven that common Organophosphate pesticides that are routinely sprayed on food crops, sprayed in family homes and office buildings and applied directly on pets and animals to control insects and pests are causing ADHD learning disorders and other health problems in large amounts of children. This problem is widespread and for real. Even, small exposures are VERY HARMFUL TO CHILDREN! Exposure is worse in farmland areas because these pesticides are routinely sprayed onto fields and food crops only to blow on people working and playing in the spray areas. These organophosphate pesticides are also being brought into family homes in the area from open windows, from shoes and clothing of those walking around in areas that are contaminated.
 
 
NAME: Methamidophos
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: MethamidophosÊis anÊorganophosphateÊinsecticide. Crops grown with the use of Methamidophos include some Latin American rice.ÊMany nations use Methamidophos on crops, including developed nations such asÊSpain,ÊUS,ÊJapan, andÊAustralia.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The organophosphate insecticides are cholinesterase-inhibitors. They are highly toxic by all routes of exposure. When inhaled, the first effects are usually respiratory and may include bloody or runny nose, coughing, chest discomfort, difficult or short breath and wheezing due to constriction or excess fluid in the bronchial tubes. Skin contact with organophosphates may cause localized sweating and involuntary muscle contractions. Eye contact will cause pain, bleeding, tears, pupil constriction and blurred vision. Following exposure by any route, other systemic effects may begin within a few minutes or be delayed for up to 12 hours. These may include pallor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, eye pain, blurred vision, constriction or dilation of the pupils, tears, salivation, sweating and confusion. Severe poisoning will affect the central nervous system, producing incoordination, slurred speech, loss of reflexes, weakness, fatigue, involuntary muscle contractions, twitching, tremors of the tongue or eyelids, and eventually paralysis of the body extremities and the respiratory muscles. In severe cases there may also be involuntary defecation or urination, psychosis, irregular heartbeat, unconsciousness, convulsions and coma. Respiratory failure or cardiac arrest may cause death.
 
 
NAME: Methfuroxam
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms: METHFUROXAM;2,4,5-trimethyl-3-furanilide;METHFUROXAM PESTANAL;methuroxam;methfuroxam (ansi,bsi,iso);2,4,5-trimethyl-3-furanilid;2,4,5-trimethyl-n-phenyl-3-furancarboxamid;h719;trivax;ubi-2238;2,4,5-TRIMETHYL-N-PHENYL-3-FURANCARBOXAMIDE;FURAVAX;LABOTEST-BB LT00154580. This fungicide is used widely on cereal crops.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Methfuroxam is hazardous according to government and institutional sources as noted in the PAN North American database (www.pesticideinfo.org) or are World Health Organisation Class I pesticides (which are either considered Ia Extremely Hazardous or Ib Highly Hazardous).
 
 
NAME: Methidathion
 
CLASSIFICATION: insecticide
 
DESCRIPTION: MethidathionÊis anÊorganophosphateÊinsecticide. Methidathion is a highly toxic compound in EPA toxicity class I. Labels for products containing it must bear the Signal Word Methidathion is a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP), except for use in nurseries, and on safflower and sunflowers. Methidathion is a non-systemic organophosphorous insecticide and acaricide with stomach and contact action. The compound is used to control a variety of insects and mites in many crops such as fruits, vegetables, tobacco, alfalfa, and sunflowers, and also in greenhouses and on rose cultures. It is especially useful against scale insects. It works by inhibiting certain enzyme actions in the target pests. It is available in emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, and ultra-low volume (ULV) liquid.
 
HEALTH PROBLEM: This material is poisonous to humans. Its toxic effects are by action on the nervous system. Human volunteers ingesting 0.11 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks had no clinical effects. Methidathion is highly toxic via the oral route, with reported acute oral LD50 values of 25 to 54 mg/kg in the rat, and 18 to 25 mg/kg in the mouse. Other reported oral LD50 values include 25 mg/kg in guinea pigs, 80 mg/kg in rabbits, and 200 mg/kg in dogs . It is highly toxic via the dermal route as well, with reported dermal LD50 values of 85 to 94 mg/kg in the rat . Methidathion is only a mild skin irritant and is nonirritating to the eyes (in rabbits). Via the inhalation route, it may be slightly toxic, with a reported 4-hour inhalation LC50 of 3.6 mg/L in rats. Effects due to acute methidathion exposures are similar to those caused by other organophosphate pesticides, and may include nausea, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea, salivation, headache, dizziness, muscle twitching, difficulty breathing, blurred vision, and tightness in the chest . High acute exposure may cause intense breathing problems, including paralysis of the respiratory muscles. Beagle dogs fed small doses of the compound for 2 years experienced no compound related effects at or below the dose of 0.10 mg/kg/day . At doses of 0.4 mg/kg/day and above, the dogs experienced enzymatic changes and liver alterations. Inhibition of red blood cell cholinesterase, an enzyme, was observed only at the highest dose tested (1.6 mg/kg/day). Rats also have a low tolerance for the compound. Compound related effects were first noted in the rats at doses of 2 mg/kg and above and included cholinesterase inhibition in the blood and brain and some nerve related effects. At the highest dose of 5 mg/kg, the rats ate more food but had less body weight gain. They also developed skin lesions and foam in their lungs. Rhesus monkeys fed small amounts of the compound developed changes in blood cholinesterase activity at doses of 1 mg/kg/day and above. Humans ingesting very small amounts of the compound at doses of 0.11 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks had no noticeable clinical effects. A study of exposure levels of mixer/loaders of methidathion (Supracide applications) in California showed that the greatest exposure potential to the compound was through the skin (dermal).
 
 

NAME: Methiocarb

 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, molluscicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: MethiocarbÊis a chemical mainly used as a bird repellent, as an insecticide and as molluscicide. It is toxic to humans, not listed as a carcinogen.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: High Toxicity Carbamate Pesticides: Malaise, muscle weakness, dizziness, and sweating. It also causes headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Miosis with blurred vision, incoordination, muscle twitching and slurred speech has also been noticed. In more severe cases: Central nervous system depression (coma, seizures and hypotonicity), hypertension and cardiorespiratory depression. Also dyspnea, bronchospasms and bronchorrhea with eventual pulmonary edema is reported.
 
 
NAME: Methiocarb sulfone            
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide, molluscicide) 
 
DESCRIPTION: It is extensively metabolized to phenolic derivatives by vleavage of the carbamate and the phenolic derivatives to sulfoxides and sulfones.A minor metabolic path involves hydrolaxation of the carbamate methyl group and oxidation to the correspondinf sulfoxide.The analytical methods determine methiocarb,methiocarb sulfoxide,and methiocarb sulfone.The current drfinition of the residue is Òthe sum of methiocarb,methiocarb sulfoxide and methiocarb sulfoe. Methiocarb, an insecticide, acaricide, molluscicide and bird repellent, was first reviewed by the Meeting in 1981. Since then it was evaluated in 1983, 1984 (toxicology), 1985 (toxicology), 1986 (residue), 1987 and 1988 (residue). It was reviewed under the Periodic Review Program in 1998 for toxicology and in 1999 for residue. The 1998 JMPR allocated a new ADI of 0?0.02 mg/kg body ght and ARfD of 0.02 mg/kg body weight. It noted that methiocarb sulfoxide, as well as weimethiocarb, is of acute dietary concern.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The acute oral toxicity, repellency, and hazard potential of 998 chemicals to one or more of 68 species of wild and domestic birds was determined by standardized testing procedures. Red winged blackbirds were the most sensitive of the bird species tested on a large number of chemicals, and an index based on redwing toxicity and repellency may provide an appropriate indication of the probability of acute avian poisoning episodes. Avian repellency and toxicity were not positively correlated (i.e.Êtoxicity varied independently with repellency).
 
 
NAME: Methiocarb sulfoxide          
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide, molluscicide) 
 
DESCRIPTION: It is extensively metabolized to phenolic derivatives by vleavage of the carbamate and the phenolic derivatives to sulfoxides and sulfones.A minor metabolic path involves hydrolaxation of the carbamate methyl group and oxidation to the correspondinf sulfoxide.The analytical methods determine methiocarb,methiocarb sulfoxide,and methiocarb sulfone.The current drfinition of the residue is Òthe sum of methiocarb,methiocarb sulfoxide and methiocarb sulfoe.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Methiocarb is highly toxic to bees, birds and highly toxic to slightly toxic to fish. The International Estimated Dietary Intakes (IEDIs) were calculated for the five GEMS/Food regional diets using STMR for vegetables, cereals, oil seeds and hazelnuts estimated by the current Meeting and the STMR for strawberry estimated by the 1999 JMPR (Annex 3). The maximum ADI is0.02 mg/kg and the calculated IEDIs were 0Ð2% of the maximum ADI. The Meeting concluded that the intake of residues of methiocarb resulting from the uses considered by the current JMPR was unlikely to present a public health concern. The results are shown in Annex 3 of the 2005 JMPR Report. The International Estimated Short-Term Intakes (IESTIs) of methiocarb by the general population and by children were calculated for commodities for which STMRs or STMR-Ps estimated by the current Meeting where information on consumption was available. An HR of 0.83 mg/kg was estimated for strawberry on a basis of data submitted to and reviewed by the 1999 JMPR (Annex 4). The ARfD is 0.02 mg/kg and the calculated IESTIs for children up to 6 years range from 0 to 70% and those for general population from 0 to 50% of the ARfD. The Meeting concluded that the short-term intake of residues of methiocarb from uses considered by the current Meeting was unlikely to present a public health concern. The results are shown in Annex 4 of the 2005 JMPR Report.
 
 
NAME: Methomyl
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide. It was introduced in 1966, but its use is restricted because of its high toxicity to humans. Its current primary use is on alfalfa for forage. Methomyl was introduced in 1966 as a broad spectrum insecticide. It is also used as an acaricide to control ticks and spiders. It is used for foliar treatment of vegetable, fruit and field crops, cotton, commercial ornamentals, and in and around poultry houses and dairies. It is also used as a fly bait. Methomyl is effective in two ways: (a) as a 'contact insecticide,' because it kills target insects upon direct contact, and; (b) as a 'systemic insecticide' because of its capability to cause overall 'systemic' poisoning in target insects, after it is absorbed and transported throughout the pests that feed on treated plants. It is capable of being absorbed by plants without being 'phytotoxic' or harmful, to the plant. It is one of a class of chemicals called 'carbamates' the carbamates work by inhibiting cholinesterase, an essential enzyme for proper functioning of the nervous system.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Methomyl is a highly toxic compound in EPA toxicity class I. EPA classifies it as Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP) because of its high acute toxicity to humans. The Signal Words for products containing methomyl depend upon the formulation of the product. Restricted Use Pesticides may be purchased and used only by certified applicators. Reentry periods for farm workers of 1 to 7 days are required, depending on the crop. Methomyl is highly toxic via the oral route, with reported oral LD50 values of 17 to 24 mg/kg in rats, 10 mg/kg in mice, and 15 mg/kg in guinea pigs. Symptoms of methomyl exposure are similar to those caused by other carbamates and cholinesterase inhibitors. These may include weakness, blurred vision, headache, nausea, abdominal cramps, chest discomfort, and constriction of pupils, sweating, muscle tremors, and decreased pulse. If there is severe poisoning, symptoms of twitching, giddiness, confusion, muscle incoordination, slurred speech, low blood pressure, heart irregularities, and loss of reflexes may also be experienced. Death can result from discontinued breathing, paralysis of muscles of the respiratory system, intense constriction of the openings of the lung, or all three. It is moderately toxic via inhalation with a reported 4-hour inhalation LC50 in male rats of 0.3 mg/L. Inhalation of dust or aerosol may cause irritation, lung and eye problems, with symptoms of chest tightness, blurred vision, tearing, wheezing, and headaches appearing upon exposure. Other systemic symptoms of cholinesterase inhibition may appear within a few minutes to several hours of exposure. It is slightly toxic via the dermal route, with a reported dermal LD50 of 5880 mg/kg in rabbits, and is absorbed only slowly through the skin. However, if sufficient amounts are absorbed through the skin, symptoms similar to those induced by ingestion or inhalation will develop. Within fifteen minutes to four hours of exposure, the immediate area of contact may show localized sweating and uncoordinated muscular contractions.
 
 
NAME: Methoprene II
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Methoprene is referred to as an insect growth regulator because it interferes with the maturation stages through which an insect goes: from egg, larvae, and pupa, to adult. Growth regulators make it impossible for insects to mature to the adult stage of development. Methoprene is considered a biochemical pesticide because rather than controlling target pests through direct toxicity, it interferes with the insects' life cycle and prevents them from reaching maturity or reproducing In order to be effective, it is essential that this growth inhibitor be administered at the proper stage of the target pest's life cycle .Methoprene is not toxic to the pupal or adult stages. Treated larvae will pupate but adults do not emerge from the pupal stage. Methoprene is also considered a larvicide since it is effective in controlling the larval stage of insects. Methoprene is used in the production of a number of foods including meat, milk, eggs, mushrooms, peanuts, rice and cereals. It is also used in aquatic areas to control mosquitoes and several types of ants, flies, lice, moths, beetles and fleas It is available in liquid, solid and aerosol formulations
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Methoprene is relatively non-toxic when ingested or inhaled and slightly toxic by dermal absorption. No overt signs of poisoning have been reported in incidents involving accidental human exposure to methoprene .Methoprene is not an eye or skin irritant and it is not a skin sensitizer. It poses very little hazard to humans or other nontarget species with the exception of estuarine invertebrates.
 
 
NAME: Methoprotryne
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Methoprotryne is herbicide used post emergence for the control of weed grasses in winter-sown cereals at 1.5-2.0 Kg active ingredienthectare. Other names: 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4-diamine, N-(3-methoxypropyl)-N'-(1-methylethyl)-6-(methylthio)-; s-Triazine, 2-(isopropylamino)-4-[(3-methoxypropyl)amino]-6-(methylthio)-; G 36393; Gesaran 25; Methoproptryne; Methoprothryne; Methoprotryn; Methoprotyne; Methotryne; Metoprotrine; Metoprotryn; Gesaran; 2-Isopropylamino-4-(3-methoxypropylamino)-6-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine; 4-Isopropylamino-6-(3'-methoxypropylamino)-2-methythio-1,3,5-triazine; 2-Isopropylamino-4-(3-methoxypropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-triazine; Metoprotryne; Methoproteryne. colorless crystallization temperature of 68 to 70 ¡ C. 20 ¡ C when the vapor pressure of 0.037mPa. Room temperature in the water solubility of 320mg / L, most soluble in organic solvents, usually in a stable condition, no corrosion. Acute oral LD50> 5000mg/kg, low toxicity to fish. Preparation of a 25% wettable powder. After Bud herbicide. By cyanuric chloride with 2-Propanol and 3-methoxy-n-propyl amine tied in the presence of acid dose response and subsequent formation of a mercaptan.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Human overdose information is limited. Triazine and triazine-related herbicides inhibit aliphatic amino acid synthesis in plants. This pathway does not exis in mammalian species, and this class of herbicides generally has a low degree of mammalian toxicity in animal studies. These herbicides are marketed in a wide   variety of liquid and granular formulations. The toxicity of the formulated products may be largely determined by ingredients other than the triazine.
 
 
NAME: Methoxychlor
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Methoxychlor is used to protect crops, ornamentals, livestock, and pets against fleas, mosquitoes, cockroaches, and other insects. It has been used to some degree as a replacement forÊDDTÊas it is metabolized faster and does not lead to bioaccumulation.The amount of methoxychlor in theÊenvironment changes seasonally due to its use in farming and foresting. It does not dissolve readily in water, so it is mixed with a petroleum-based fluid and sprayed, or used as a dust. Sprayed methoxychlor settles on the ground or in aquatic ecosystems, where it can be found in sediments. Its degradation may take many months. Methoxychlor is ingested and absorbed by living organisms, but it is readily released, and does not accumulate in the food chain. Some metabolites may have unwanted side effects.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Available evidence suggests that high doses of technical methoxychlor (88 to 90% pure) or its metabolites may have estrogenic or reproductive effects. In rats, dietary doses of about 125 mg/kg/day reduced mating, and many did not produce litters. Rats fed doses of about 50 mg/kg/day had normal fertility and fecundity, but their offspring had abnormal reproductive functioning. Male and female weanling rats fed methoxychlor through puberty and mating had normal fertility overall, but female rats had reduced fertility when paired with untreated males. In mice, 200 mg/kg/day administered on days 6 to 15 of pregnancy decreased fertility and birthweight. Testicular atrophy was observed in rats at levels of approximately 500 mg/kg/day over an unspecified period, but not in dogs at doses of 100 mg/kg/day. Wistar rats given 100 mg/kg/day for 14 (females) to 70 (males) days showed pathological changes in reproductive tissues. It is unlikely that methoxychlor will cause reproductive effects in humans at expected exposure levels.
 
 
Contaminant Facts: Pesticides
 
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