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Pesticides (Fe - Im)

Flua | Fluo | Flus | H | I
 

NAME: Fenthion  

 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, avicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O,O-dimethyl O-4-methylthio-m-tolyl phosphorothioate. Pure fenthion is a colorless liquid while technical fenthion is a yellow or brown oily liquid with a weak garlic odor. Fenthion was primarily an organophosphate insecticide, but was also an avacide and acaricide. It was used extensively preharvest on sugar cane, rice, field corn, beets, pome and stone fruits, citrus fruits, pistachio, cotton, olives, coffee, cocoa, vegetables, and vines. However, fenthion no longer has Food and Drug Administration approval because of an excess number of poisoning-related deaths (ATSDR). It is also applied to control pests on livestock. An insecticide, fenthion is used to control adult mosquitos in Florida only and dragonfly larvae in contained ornamental fish production ponds in Arkansas, Florida, and Missouri only. Annual domestic use is low-- use data from 1990 to 1998 indicate an average of about 246,100 a.i. was used domestically per year (up to 343,100 lbs a.i./year maximum). The average amount used for mosquito control was about 96,500 lbs a.i./year
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Fenthion can cause cholinesterase inhibition in humans; that is, it can overstimulate the nervous system causing nausea, dizziness, confusion, and at very high exposures (e.g., accidents or major spills), respiratory paralysis and death          
 
 
 
NAME: Fenthion sulfoxide  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are mesulfenos;MESULFENFOS;fensulfoxide;MPP SULFOXIDE; FENTHION-SULFOXIDE;FENTHION-SULPHOXIDE;fenthionsulfoxide solution; FENTHIONSULFOXIDE PESTANAL;FENTHIONSULFOXIDE PESTANAL 100 MG; Fenthionsulfoxide100ug/mlinMethylenechloride Molecular Formula is C10H15O4PS2. Formula Weight is 294.33. Flash point is 2 ¡C. Storing temperature is Approx4¡C. The oxidizing activity to fenthion sulfoxide was also inhibited by ?-naphthylthiourea. Several cytochrome P450 isoforms and flavin-containing monooxygenase 1 exhibited these oxidase activities. Fenthion sulfoxide was reduced to fenthion with liver cytosol of the fish and rats upon addition of 2-hydroxypyrimidine,N1-methylnicotinamide, or butyraldehyde, each of which is an electron donor of aldehyde oxidase, under anaerobic conditions. The activity was inhibited by menadione, ?-estradiol, and chlorpromazine, which are inhibitors of aldehyde oxidase. The activities in the fish livers were similar to those of rat liver. Aldehyde oxidase purified from the livers of sea bream and rats exhibited the reducing activity. Thus, fenthion and fenthion sulfoxide are interconvertible in fish and rats through the activities of cytochrome P450, flavin-containing monooxygenase, and aldehyde oxidase.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Poison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of POx and SOx.         
 
 
 
NAME: Fenthion-sulfone   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C10H15O5PS2. Formula Weight is 310.33. Storing temperature is 2 to 8C. Synonymous are fenthionesulfone;o,o-dimethylo-((4-methylthio)-m-tolyl) phosphorothioatesulfone; o,o-dimethylo-(4-(methylsulfonyl)-m-tolyl) phosphorothioate; phosphorothioicacid,o,o-dimethylo-(3-methyl-4-(methylsulfonyl )phenyl)este; phosphorothioicacid,o,o-dimethylo-(4-(methylsulfonyl)-m-tolyl)ester;FENTHION-SULFONE; MPP SULFONE;FENTHION-SULFONE PESTANAL, 10 MG.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:   Fenthion inhibits acetylcholine esterase and is thought to be a safe pesticide because it is not easily converted to the possibly highly toxic oxon derivative in animal species. However, toxic effects such as ultrastructural change in testes of gobiid fish, reduction in larval production in sand fiddler crabs, chronic toxicity in hens, acute toxicity in birds, reptiles, and fish, and decreases in muscarinic receptor function in rat retina have been reported       

          

 
 
NAME: Fenuron
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1,1-dimethyl-3-phenylurea. Molecular Formula is C9H12N2O. Molecular Weight is 164.20. Percent Composition are C 65.83%, H 7.37%, N 17.06%, O 9.74%. Crystals. Melting point is 131-133¡C. Sparingly soluble in water (0.29% at 24¡); in hydrocarbons. International Chemical Identifier is (InChI) InChI=1/C9H12N2O/c1-11(2)9(12)10-8-6-4-3-5-7-8/h3-7H,1-2H3,(H,10,12). A white compound, C9H12N2O, used as a herbicide. Heavy Atom Count is 12. Complexity is 151. Flash point is 2C. Storing temperature is approx is 4C. Insoluble alkanes. Stability in the air. Non-corrosive. Encountered strong acid, alkali particular case is the decomposition failure. For the prevention and treatment of cotton, soybeans, corn, wheat Tanaka annual monocotyledons, dicotyledonous weeds and non-crop land in the bush. For a small dose of selective weeding, higher doses for destuctive weeding. Low-toxic, harmless to fish, the use of safety. By isocyanate phenylcarbamate trimethylamine role with two or aniline and Dimethylamino A chloride role in the system.  
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:    Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 7500 mg/kg (Bailey, White)      
 
 
 
NAME: Fenvalerate I        
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is [(RS)-?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (RS)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutyrate] (I). White glassy solid . Primary Target is protein phosphatase 2B. Primary Target is IC50 2-4 nM .Molar mass is 419.9. Purity ³99% by GC. Chemical formula is C25H22ClNO3. Storage at +2¡C to +8¡C. Fenvalerate is a yellow-brown viscous liquid that is practically soluble in water (INCHEM). It is stable to moderate heat and light and is rapidly hydrolysed in basic environments (above pH 8). Fenvalerate is a contact and sytemic pyrethroid insecticide that is used to control insects on numerous leaves and fruits, on feed and cotton production, to control flies and ticks for livestock and in stables. Fenvalerate is a non-leaching non-volatile chemical. The half-life of fenvalerate varies from 6 weeks to 60 days depending upon the soil type
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxic if swallowed. Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Fenvalerate is moderately toxic to mammals. Based on fenvalerate similarities with Deltamethrin, toxicity is probably due to effects on both peripheral and central nervous system caused by interference with sodium ion permeability in stimulated nerve membranes.

       

        

 
NAME: Fenvalerate II
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Fenvalerate (? cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl ?-(4-chlorophenyl)isovalerate, CAS N¼ 51630-58-1) is a synthetic type II pyrethroid insecticide presenting two chiral centres giving four optical isomers: 22% of [2S, ?S] isomer ((S)-?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-isovalerate); 28% of [2S, ?R] isomer; 22% of [2R, ?R] isomer; and 28% of [2R, ?S] isomer. The diastereoisomer ratio is 44/56 minimum, expressed on the ratio of the sum (S-S) plus (R-R) enantiomers to the sum of (S-R) plus (R-S) enantiomers. The SS enantiomer provided nearly all the insecticidal activity. Fenvalerate may be considered as a type II pyrethroid by virtue of the presence of the ?-cyano group although no description of the spectrum of behavioural effects characteristic of type II pyrethroids has been provided. Similarly, it may be assumed that fenvalerate, in common with other members of this class of compounds, exerts its toxic effects in insects and mammals by changes in the permeability of sodium channels of nerve membranes, leading to prolonged depolarisation and activation, followed by block of the nerve action potentia
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The acute toxicity of fenvalerate has been studied in the hamster, rat, mouse, rabbit, domestic fowl, pheasant, partridge and trout, following oral, intravenous and dermal application. The oral toxicity was dependent on the vehicle used and the LD50 in rat ranged from 310 to more than 3200 mg/kg bw depending on the vehicle used. Precise comparisons are not possible because of the different vehicles used, but oral toxicities in the hamster and mouse were of the same order as in the rat. Fenvalerate was more toxic by the intravenous route (LD50 in mouse 65 mg/kg bw) and less toxic when applied dermally (LD50 more than 5000 mg/kg bw in rat and mouse and more than 2500 mg/kg bw in rabbit). No information was provided on acute toxicity of fenvalerate administered orally in a suitable lipophilic vehicle (e.g. corn oil).          
 
 
NAME: Fepropimorph    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is cis-4-[(RS)-3-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-2-methylpropyl]-2,6-dimethylmorpholine. Molecular Formula is C20H33NO. Molecular Weight is 303.48. Flash point is greater than 100C. Fenpropimorph is a systemic morpholine fungicide which controls Sigatoka diseases (Mycosphaerella spp.) in bananas and plantains imported into the U.S. Fenpropimorph provides protectant and eradicant activity by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis. Vapour pressure is 3.5 x 10-3 Pa at 20?C (BASF, 1988a). Boiling point is 120?C (at 0.067 mbar). Colorless liquid.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Harmful if swallowed. Irritating to skin. Toxic to aquatic organisms. May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Possible risk of harm to the unborn child.      

 

 
NAME: Fipronil
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-?,?,?-trifluoro-p-tolyl)-4-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl]pyrazole-3-carbonitrile. Fipronil is a broad use insecticide that belongs to the phenylpyrazole chemical family. Fipronil is used to control ants, beetles, cockroaches,fleas, ticks, termites, mole crickets, thrips, rootworms, weevils, and other insects. Fipronil is a white powder with a moldy odor. Fipronil is used in a wide variety of pesticide products, including granular products for grass, gel baits, spot-on pet care products, liquid termite control products, and products for agriculture. There are more than 50 registered products that contain fipronil. Fipronil kills insects when they eat it or come in contact with it. Fipronil works by disrupting the normal function of the central nervous system in insects. Fipronil is more toxic to insects than people and pets because it is more likely to bind to insect nerve endings.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Health effects from a brief exposure to fipronil depend on how someone is exposed to the chemical. Direct, shortterm contact with skin can result in slight skin irritation. When individuals have eaten fipronil, reported health effects included sweating, nausea, vomiting, headache, stomach pain, dizziness, weakness, and seizures. Signs and symptoms from a brief exposure to fipronil generally improve and clear up without treatment.  

      

 
NAME: Fipronil-sulfide         
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are 1h-pyrazole-3-carbonitrile,5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)s;5-Amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)thio) pyrazole-3-carbonitrile;1H-Pyrazole-3-carbonitrile, 5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)thio). Molecular Formula is C12H4Cl2F6N4S. Formula Weight is 421.152. Convenient procedure for the synthesis of fipronil sulfide, one of several active metabolites identified from the insecticide fipronil, has been developed. Reduction of fipronil with trifluoroacetic anhydrideÐsodium iodide in acetone, followed by flash chromatography afforded fipronil sulfide in 60% yield and >99.9 percent purity. This represents the first direct synthesis of this key metabolite from fipronil.

 

HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity was determined as the LD50 for organisms 24 h after treatment. The test compound was administered topically to adult female houseflies and i.p. to mice as above using acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively, as the carrier vehicles . Piperonyl butoxide, when used, was applied to the houseflies at 250 ?g/g 1 h before the toxicant.

 
 
NAME: Fipronil-Desulfinyl
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C12H4Cl2F6N4. Formula Weight is 389.08. Numerous studies were performed with fipronil-desulfinyl, one of two photodegradation products of fipronil which can be formed in the presence of sunlight and could potentially be produced in the environment or on treated surfaces. Neither is a mammalian metabolite of fipronil. The available information indicates that, of the two, only fipronil-desulfinyl is highly toxic after either single-dose or long-term exposure, and is therefore of toxicological concern.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:    In a 28-day study of toxicity in which fipronil-desulfinyl was administered in the diet to mice at doses of 0, 0.5, 3, 30, or 60 ppm, mortality, neurotoxic signs (increased motor activity, excessive jumping, irritability to touch, compulsive biting, and evidence of convulsions), decreased body-weight gain and food consumption, and an increased incidence of centrilobular hypertrophy of the liver were observed in animals of each sex at doses of 30 ppm and above. The NOAEL was 3 ppm, equal to 0.49 mg/kg bw per day.      
 
 
NAME: Flamprop-isopropyl            
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is isopropyl N-benzoyl-N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-DL-alaninate. This substance is a derivative of flamprop. Synonyms are Barnon; Gunner; wl29762; EF-5702;Commando;WL 29762;Power flame;Power flamprop;FLAMPROP-ISOPROPYL; Flufenprop-isopropyl. Molecular Formula is C19H19ClFNO3. Formula Weight is 363.81. Flash point is 241.9. Boiling Point is 476.4oC at 760 mmHg. Index of Refraction is 1.571.Molar Volume is 289.7 cm3. Surface Tension is 45.2 dyne/cm. Enthalpy of Vaporization is 74.02 kJ/mol. Vapour Pressure: 3.05E-09 mmHg at 25oC When Flamprop is used as an ester or a salt, its identity should be stated, for example flamprop-isopropyl [52756-22-6], flamprop-methyl [52756-25-9].The D-isomer of this substance has the ISO common name flamprop-M.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:   Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin contact. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic vapors of NOx, F?, and Cl?.       
 
 
NAME: Flamprop-methyl     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is methyl N-benzoyl-N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-DL-alaninate. This substance is a derivative of flamprop. Empirical Formula (Hill Notation) is C17H15ClFNO3 Molecular Weight is 335.76. Flash point is greater than 100C. The metabolism of the wild oat herbicide flamprop-methyl, methyl (±)-2-[N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)benzamido]propionate, in spring wheat grown to maturity has been studied under glasshouse and outdoor conditions. [14C]-Flamprop-methyl labelled separately in the halophenyl ring and the carbonyl of the benzoyl group was used. The major metabolite formed in plants was the corresponding carboxylic acid, II, which also occurred as conjugates. Other minor metabolites detected under glasshouse conditions only were the 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoyl analogues of flamprop-methyl and 3?-chloro-4?-fluorobenzanilide. The soil in which the plants were grown contained residues comprising mainly flamprop-methyl and II together with smaller amounts of unidentified polar material.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet.          

 

 
NAME: Fluacrypyrim   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is methyl (E)-2-{?-[2-isopropoxy-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-4-yloxy]-o-tolyl}-3-methoxyacrylate.Molecular Formula is C20H21F3N2O5. Formula Weight is 426.39. Density is 1.258. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Inhibits mitochondrial electron transport at Complex III of the respiratory chain. White powder. small molecule fluacrypyrim (FAPM) inhibits the growth of leukemia cells by a predominant G1 arrest with significant decrease of the protein and mRNA levels of cyclin D1. As cyclin D1 is transcriptionally regulated by STAT3, FAPM is then shown to markedly inhibit the STAT3 phosphorylation with marginal effect on the other signal transducers and activators of transcription, and without effect on phosphoinositide-3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: acute toxicity, irritation, sensitization, subacute toxicity, chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, toxicity to reproduction, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, and pharmacological actions. Long-term maximum non-toxic levels were judged to be 5.9 mg/kg/day for rat and 10 mg/kg/day for dog. It was believed that the new insecticide did not affect subsequent generations, teratogenicity, and mutagenecity. Safe use standards based on the results were formulated.         

       

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NAME: Fluazifop-p-butyl      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is butyl (R)-2-{4-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy] phenoxy} propionate. This substance is a derivative of fluazifop-P. Molecular formula: C19H20F3NO4. Light yellow liquid. Melting point is 5 C. Boiling point is 164 C at 0.02 mm Hg. Melting point is 5C. Vapour density is 0.054 mPa at 20 C. Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Solubility in water is1 mg/l. Solubility in other solvents is soluble in most organic solvents. Fluazifop-p-butyl breaks down rapidly in moist soils. Its half- life in moist conditions is generally less than a week . The major degradation product of fluazifop-p-butyl will also break down fairly rapidly. Its half-life is around three weeks. Fluazifop-p-butyl is a selective phenoxy herbicide used for postemergence control of annual and perennial grass weeds. It is used on soybeans and other broad-leaved crops such as carrots, spinach, potatoes, and ornamentals. Fluazifop-p-butyl is a general use pesticide.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Skin, eye and respiratory irritant. May be harmful by ingestion or inhalation. Fluazifop-p-butyl is slightly to practically nontoxic via the oral route. The reported acute oral LD50 values for technical fluazifop-p-butyl are 3680 to 4096 mg/kg in male rats, and 2451 to 2721 mg/kg [5] in female rats. The reported acute oral LD50 values for one formulated product (Fusilade DX) are higher, indicating practically no toxicity via the oral route.        
 
 
NAME: Fluazinam
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 3-chloro-N-(3-chloro-5-trifluoromethyl-2-pyridyl)-?,?,?-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-p-toluidine. Molecular Formula is C13H4Cl2F6N4O4. Molecular Weight is 465.09. Flash point is 2C. Storing temperature is 2 to 8C. Foliar spray applied at 150 Ð 750 g a.i. / ha, control; late blight , tuber blight and sclerotinia rot on potatoes. Gray mold and drowny mildew on grapr vines. Scab and Alternaria blotch on apples. Gray mold, melanose (Diaporth) and mites on citrus. Sclerotinia rot and southern blight on peanuts. White root and violet roots on fruit trees. Fluazinam had multi-site mode of action that disrupts in energy production in the fungus. Fungicide with protective action. This has little curative or systemic activity, but good residual effect and rain fastness.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:    Toxic by inhalation. Risk of serious damage to the eyes. May cause sensitization by skin contact. Very toxic to aquatic organisms. May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.

    

 
NAME: Fluazolate     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is isopropyl 5-[4-bromo-1-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazol-3-yl]-2-chloro-4-fluorobenzoate. Chemical Formula is C15H12BrClF4N2O2. Chemical name is 443.62. Potential groundwater contaminant. A labelled active ingredient formulation to prepare agrochemicals and drugs in amorphous form. Synonyms are 5-[4-Bromo-1-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-2-chloro-4-fluoro- benzoic Acid 1-Methylethyl Ester; Isopropazol; Isopropyl 5-[4-bromo-1-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-2-chloro-4-fluorobenzoate; JV 485; MON 48500; Twin-Agro. The name ÒisopropazolÓ has been used in the literature, but it has no official status.  
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: May cause toxicity to improper application or genotype sensitivity.  
 
 
NAME: Flubenzimine        
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemcal name is (2Z,4E,5Z)-N2,3-diphenyl-N4,N5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4,5-triimine. Molecular Formula is C17H10F6N4S. Molecular Weight is 416.34. Percent Composition of compounds are C 49.04%, H 2.42%, F 27.38%, N 13.46%, S 7.70%. Yellow crystals from methanol, Melting point is 118-119¡. Vapor pressure at 20¡: 1 ? 10-5 mm Hg. Solibility in water at 20¡: 30 mg/l. Reduces mycelial growth by intracellular destruction
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: LD50 orally in rats: 3750 mg/kg (Bluett, Wainwright). Moderately harmful
 
 
NAME: Fluchloralin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N-(2-chloroethyl)-2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-4-(trifluoromethyl) aniline or N-(2-chloroethyl)-?,?,?-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-p-toluidine. Molecular Formula is C12H13ClF3N3O4. Molecular Weight: 355.70. Percent Composition is a compounds are C 40.52%, H 3.68%, Cl 9.97%, F 16.02%, N 11.81%, O 17.99%. Orange-yellow cryst solid, mp 42-43¡. Solubility in water: 10 ppm. Vapour pressure is 3 x 10 -5 mmHg. Melting point is 43C. Synonyms are Benzenamine, N-(2-chloroethyl)-2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-;p-Toluidine,N-(2-chloroethyl)-ÇalphaÈ,ÇalphaÈ,ÇalphaÈ-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-;Basalin; BAS 392 H;BAS 3921;BAS 3921 H;BAS 3924H;p-Toluidine, N-(2-chloroethyl)-2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-ÇalphaÈ,ÇalphaÈ,ÇalphaÈ-trifluoro-;BAS 3920;BAS 3922;N-(2-Chloroethyl)-2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Moderately to highly toxic to Fish. Highly Toxic to Molluscs. Very Highly Toxic to Zooplankton. Persistent in soil.         
 
 
NAME: Flucythrinate I         
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (S)-2-(4-difluoromethoxyphenyl)-3-methylbutyrate. Dark amber viscous liquid. Stable in neutral and acidic conditions. Soluble in most organic solvents (acetone, xylene, etc.). Water solubility is 60
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Adverse effects are Ataxia , Body Weight Decrease, Bone, Brain, Potential for tumor promotion . Emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder. Hazard to humans, domestic animals. Avoid eye, skin, clothing contact. Causes eye damage. May be fatal if swallowed or absorbed through skin; harmful if inhaled. Use with adequate ventilation; avoid breathing vapor or mist. Wash thoroughly after handling. Do not contaminate water, food, or feed by storage.
 
 
NAME: Fludioxonil  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-4-yl)-1H-pyrrole-3 carbonitrile. The activity of fludioxonil, a phenylpyrrole fungicide, is elevated by coapplication of the aspirin/salicylic acid metabolite, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA). Fludioxonil activity is potentiated through a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that regulates osmotic/oxidative stress-responses. 2,5-DHBA disrupts cellular GSH (reduced glutathione)/GSSG (oxidized glutathione) homeostasis, further stressing the oxidative stress-response system. This stress enhances fludioxonil activity. 2,5-DHBA treatment also prevents tolerance of MAPK mutants resistant to fludioxonil.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:    Fludioxonil is not acutely toxic via oral, dermal and inhalation route (LD50>5000 mg/kg bw, LD50 >2000 mg/kg bw and LC50 >2.6 mg/L, respectively). It is not a skin and eye irritant. The RMS considered that fludioxonil is not a skin sensitiser. Some Member States commented with regard to the study in guinea pigs, using a challenge concentration of 10% in Vaseline. The concentration was regarded to be too low. The RMS considered the study acceptable, but the OECD guideline was not fulfilled referring to the levels of doses selected. This might partially invalidate the study. However, a study is available with a formulation containing the active substance only, showing negative results. The RMS accepted this study as well. Taking into account all evidences, the meeting concluded that no sensitising potential is expected.  
 
 
NAME: Flufenacet
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4?-fluoro-N-isopropyl-2-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yloxy]acetanilide. The name ÒfluthiamideÓ has been used in the literature, but it has no official status. Molecular Formula is C14H13F4N3O2S. Molecular Weight is 363.33. Storage temperature is 0 to 6C. Selective with meristematic activity. Inhibition of mitosis and cell division. White to tan coloured solid. Residual soil activity by flufenacet will normally be maintained for approximately 21 days after application. Flufenacet is absorbed through shoots (primarily coleoptile) and roots of germinating grasses and broadleaf weeds. Metabolized by tolerant species. Vapors pressure is 2 á 10-6 Pa at 25¡C (N-isomer). Partition coefficient is (n-octanol/water log Po/w): 3.2 at 24¡C and pH 7.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Potential liver, spleen and thyroid toxicant, May cause skin sensitization. Harmful if swallowed. May cause sensitization by skin contact. Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.         
 
 
NAME: Flumetralin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Plant Growth Regulator
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N-[(2-Chloro-6-fluorophenyl)methyl]-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4 . Molecular Formula is C16H12ClF4N3O4. Molecular Weight is 421.73. Synonymous are (trifluoromethyl)aniline; 2-Chloro-6-fluoro-N-(2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-N ethylbenzenemethanamine. Melting point is 101 to 103C. Has local systemic effect, contact action, phytotoxic. Yellow crystalline solid. Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate. The active ingredient flumetralin is a contact-type growth regulator used as a topical treatment for the control of sucker growth on flue-cured, burley, dark fire-cured, maryland and cigar tobacco. It has to penetrate into the axils and wet the axillary buds(suckers) in order to be effective. However, it does not burn the suckers, nor the axils, but causes a slight yellowing and a cessation of growth, which suggest a very local systemic activity. One application of Flumetralin EC will provide full season control of excessive sucker development in tobacco. It requires only 2 hours dry weather after application(rain waiting period).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:   Low toxic.
 
 
NAME:Flumiclorac-pentyl   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: The name Ò????Ó ("FLUMICLORAC PENTYL") is approved in China for flumiclorac and for flumiclorac-pentyl. The Chinese name Ò??????Ó ("Flumiclorac-pentyl") has also been used in the literature, but it has no official status. Flumiclorac pentyl (active ingredient number 128724) is a postemergence herbicide used on field corn, soybeans and non-crop areas, such as: industrial sites, airports, military installations, roadsides and associated rights-of-way, and other similar areas to control a selected group of broadleaf weeds, specifically morning-glory and velvet leaf. Although there are no labeled residential homeowner uses, there is potential risk for non-occupational exposure from other treated areas, such as golf courses, athletic fields, recreational areas, schools, apartment buildings, etc.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: EPA has determined that risk from exposure to flumiclorac pentyl is within its own Òrisk cup.Ó In other words, EPA is able to conclude today that the tolerances for flumiclorac pentyl meet the FQPA safety standards. In reaching this determination, the Agency has considered the available information on the potential sensitivity of infants and children, as well as the chronic and acute food exposure. However, an endpoint of concern attributable to a single dose was not identified for this chemical; therefore, an acute reference dose (RfD) was not established and an acute dietary assessment was not conducted. An aggregate assessment was conducted for exposures through food, residential uses, and drinking water. Results of this aggregate assessment indicate that the human health risks from these combined exposures are considered to be within acceptable levels; that is, combined risks from all exposures to flumiclorac pentyl ÒfitÓ within the individual risk cup for this chemical. EPAÕs Tier 1 chronic dietary risk assessment indicates that dietary risk from flumiclorac pentyl residues in food and drinking water are low and not of concern. The resulting chronic dietary exposure estimates using the DEEM-FCID model were less than 0.01% of the chronic Population Adjusted Dose (cPAD) for the U.S. general population and all population subgroups; including the most highly exposed population subgroup (Children, 3 to 5 years old). Estimated chronic exposures using the Lifeline model were consistent with the DEEM-FCID results (<0.01% of the cPAD for the U.S. general population and all population subgroups). Therefore, no mitigation measures are necessary to address dietary risks from food and drinking water.
 
 
NAME: Flumioxazin 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N-(7-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-4-prop-2-ynyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl)cyclohex-1-ene-1,2-dicarboxamide. Flumioxazin is a member of the protox inhibitor type of herbicides (Group 14), which offers management options for weeds resistant to Group 2 and Group 5 herbicides. Flumioxazin provides residual weed control and burndown when tank mixed with glyphosate. Flumioxazin works by inhibiting production of an enzyme important in the synthesis of chlorophyll. Chateau provides residual weed control in orchards (pome fruit & stone fruit), grapes, strawberries, highbush blueberries, potatoes, asparagus and dry bulb onions.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: This product contains crystalline silica. Repeated inhalation of the dust may cause insidious lung injury and possibly silicosis. The signs and symptoms may include cough, shortness of breath, difficulty in breathing, and loss of weight. IARC classifies crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. The California Proposition 65 list of known carcinogens includes crystalline silica. Users of this product should confirm that their operating, storage, and distribution facilities comply with OHSA 29CFR1910.1200 for all material containing over 0.1 percent crystalline silica.         
 
 
NAME: Fluometuron    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ,1-dimethyl-3-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)urea. Molecular weight is 232.23. Water Solubility is105 mg/L @ 20 C. Melting Point is163-164 C. Vapor Pressure is 0.067 mPa at 20 C. Partition Coefficient is 2.2330. Adsorption Coefficient: 100 [19] Inhibition of photosynthesis and bleaching and inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis. Fluometuron is applied by broadcast sprayer, band sprayer, aircraft, or via ground/soil incorporation. It can be applied in broadcast sprays, banding treatments, low volume sprays, directed sprays, basal sprays, or incorporated directly into the soil. About 80% of fluometuron application is by ground.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity assessments are designed to predict whether a pesticide could cause adverse health effects in humans (including short-term or acute effects such as skin or eye damage, and lifetime or chronic effects such as cancer, developmental effects, or reproductive effects), and the level or dose at which such effects might occur. The Agency has reviewed all toxicity studies submitted for fluometuron and has determined that the toxicological database is complete, reliable, and sufficient for reregistration. For more details on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of fluometuron, see Fluometuron: Revised HED Risk Assessment for Phase III of the Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) dated February 1, 2005, which is available under docket number OPP-2004-0372.           
 
 
NAME: Fluoranthene
 
CLASSIFICATION:
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C16H10. Molecular Weight is 202.26. Yellow to green crystalline powder. Melting point is105 C. Boling point is 380 - 384 C. Specific gravity is 1.252.   Specific gravity is 1.252. VAPOR DENSITY 5.32. Flash point is 210C. Stability under ordinary conditions . Insoluble (Soluble in hot alcohol). Fluoranthene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). It exists as pale yellow needles or plates. Fluoranthene can be produced by the pyrolysis at high temperatures of organic raw materials such as coal and petroleum. It is also known to to be produced by certain plants. Fluoranthene is a constituent of coal tar and petroleum-derived asphalt. Currently, there is no known production or use of this compound
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: TOXICITY Oral rat LD50: 2 gm/kg.
 
 
NAME: Fluorene    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms: 9H-fluorene, o-biphenylmethane, diphenylmethane, 2,3-benzindene Molecular formula is C13H10. Molecular weight is 166.22. Occur in white crystals state. Melting point is 116 C. Boiling point is 295 C. Specific gravity is 1.203. Flash point is 151 C. Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. White leaflets. Sublimes easily under a vacuum. Fluorescent when impure. Insoluble in water. Vigorous reactions, sometimes amounting to explosions, can result from the contact between aromatic hydrocarbons, such as Fluorene, and strong oxidizing agents. They can react exothermically with bases and with diazo compounds. Substitution at the benzene nucleus occurs by halogenation (acid catalyst), nitration, sulfonation, and the Friedel-Crafts reaction. Most of the PAHs are used to conduct research. Like most PAHs, fluorene is used to make dyes, plastics and pesticides.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Skin, eye and respiratory irritant. Shows evidence in laboratory animals of mutagenic properties. ATSDR minimal risk level ORL 0.4 mg/kg/day. Toxicological properties not fully investigated.      
 
 
NAME: Fluorodifen 
 
CLASSIFICATION:   Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4-nitrophenyl ?,?,?-trifluoro-2-nitro-p-tolyl ether. Molecular Formula is C13H7F3N2O5. Formula Weight is 328.2. Synonyms are Soyex;C 6989;C 6929; Preferan;Preforan;Fluordifen;Flurodifen;PREFORAN(R);FLUORODIFEN;Fluoridifene. Inhibits non-cyclic electron transport. Yellow crystalline solid. Fluoride is found in many common household products, including toothpaste (eg, sodium monofluorophosphate), vitamins, dietary supplements (eg, sodium fluoride), glass-etching or chrome-cleaning agents (eg, ammonium bifluoride), and insecticides and rodenticides (eg, sodium fluoride).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Highly toxic to fish. cases of fluoride toxicity have followed accidental ingestion of insecticides or rodenticides. Fluorine intake of 20-40 mg/day can inhibit the important enzyme phosphatase. Phosphatase is needed for calcium utilization.          
 
 
NAME: Fluoroglycofen-ethyl     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl O-[5-(2-chloro-?,?,?-trifluoro-p-tolyloxy)-2-nitrobenzoyl] glycolate. This substance is a derivative of fluoroglycofen. Molecular Weight is 447.75. Molecular Formula is C18H13ClF3NO7. Synonyms are ;Fluroglycofen; Fluoroglyofene; Fluoroglycofen ethyl ester;Ethoxy-2-oxoethyl (5-2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)-2-nitrobenzoate;Ethoxycarbonylmethyl-5-(2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-2-nitrobenzoate;O-[5-(2-chloro-?,?,?-trifluoro-p-tolyloxy)-2-nitrobenzoyl] acid. A fluoroglycofen ethyl-degrading bacterium, MBWY-1, was isolated from the soil of an herbicide factory. This isolated strain was identified as Mycobacterium phocaicum based on analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence and its morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Potential toxic to humans and animal. TOXICITY: Tech (Rat): Oral LD50 1480 mg/kg (male); 1590 mg/kg (female). (Rabbit): Dermal >5000 mg/kg.          

    

 
NAME: Fluoroimide    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2,3-dichloro-N-4-fluorophenylmaleimide. Molecular Formula is C10H4Cl2FNO2. Formula Weight is 260.05. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Flash Point is 150.2¡C.Boiling Point is 324.7¡Cat760mmHg. Density is 1.63g/cm3. Synonyms are mk23;Spatcide;spartcide;Sparticide;FLUOROIMIDE;Brn 1534427;fluoroimide (jmaf); FLUOROIMIDE STANDARD;OTAVA-BB BB7014250005;n-p-fluorophenyl-2,3-dichloromaleimide. Molecular weight:260.1; Physical form:Pale yellow crystals. Density:1.59; Melting point:240.5-241.8 ¡C; Vapour pressure:3.4 mPa (25 ¡C); 8.1 mPa (40 ¡C); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = 2.3; Solubility:In water 5.9 mg/l (20 ¡C). In acetone 19.2 g/l (20 ¡C).; Stability:Stable to 120 ¡C; under u.v. and sunlight; on hydrolysis, DT50 52.9 min ( pH 3), 7.5 min ( pH 7) and 1.4 min ( pH 9).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:    Low toxicity to human and animal. TYPE OF TEST: LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill.
 
 
NAME: Fluotrimazole
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1-(3-trifluoromethyltrityl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole. Colourless crystalline solid. Molecular formula is C22H16F3N3. Molecular weight is 379.38. Synonymous are FLUOTRIMAZOL;FLUOTRIMAZOLE;1-[(3 TRIFLUOROPHENYL) DIPHENYLMETHYL]-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE;1-[Diphenyl[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole;4-triazole,1-(alpha,alpha-diphenyl-m-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)-1h-2;4-triazole,1-(diphenyl-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)methyl)-1h-2;b6660;persulon. The pure article is colorless crystal powder. Melt point 132¡C. At 20¡C, solubility in water 1.5mg/L, in dichloromethane 400g/kg, in cyclohetone 200g/kg, in toluene 100g/kg.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Levels of disease control were related to dose rates, making it impracticable to lessen toxicity to mushrooms by reducing the dose rate. Fluotrimazole was less active than chlorothalonil against M. perniciosa and was more toxic to mushrooms.
 
 
NAME: Fluoxastrobin cis-        
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (E)-(2-{[6-(2-chlorophenoxy)-5-fluoro-4-pyrimi- (ACD) dinyl] oxy}phenyl) (5,6-dihydro-1,4,2 dioxazin- 3-yl) methanone O-methyloxime. Molecular formula: C21H16ClFN4O5. Molecular mass is 458.83 g/mol. White crystalline solid. Melting point is 103 - 108 ¡C. Boiling point is not measurable but 497 ¡C is estimated. Vapour pressure at (Pa at 20 ¡C) is 6 ? 10Ð10 (extrapolated). Leaf-systemic broad-spectrum fungicide for use in cereal and food crops; member of methoxyimiodihydro-dioxazines.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity data: LD50 in rats, bobwhite quail (mg/kg): >2500, >2000 orally; LC50 (96 hr) rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, carp (mg/l): 0.44, 0.97, 0.57 (Breuer)         

   

 
NAME: Fluquinconazole       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-6-fluoro-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one. Molecular Formula is C16H8Cl2FN5O. Formula Weight is 376.17. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Systemic with protectant and eradicant activity. Disrupts membrane function. Cream to white crystalline solid depending upon purity. Often supplied as a soluble concentrate which is mixed with water and applied as a spray. Other formulations include those specific for seed treatments.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:    methyl-cellulose solution at dose levels of 10, 50 or 250 mg/kg bw. Animals were killes and necropsied after a 14-day observation period. Five males and 5 females at the 250 mg/kg bw dose were killed in a moribund condition one day after treatment. There were no mortalities in either sex at dose levels of ? 50 mg/kg bw. The signs of intoxication prior to death were very severely reduced activity and reduced muscle tone, severe hunched posture and slight to moderate ataxia... The acute oral LD 50 of fluquinconazole in the rat was 112 mg/kg bw in both sexes. Fluquinconazole is classified with R25 Toxic if swallowed under current EC criteria.

  

 
NAME: Flurenol-butyl ester     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Plant Growth Regulators (morphactins)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonymous are Fluorene-9-carboxylicacid, 9-hydroxy-, butyl ester (7CI,8CI);9-Hydroxy-9H-fluorene-9-carboxylicacid butyl ester;9-Hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid butyl ester;Butyl9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylate;Butyl 9-hydroxyfluorenyl-9-carboxylate;Butylflurenol; Butyl morphactin;EMD 7311W;EMD IT 3233;Flurecol-butyl;Flurenolbutyl ester; Flurenol ester; Flurenol-butyl; IT 3233;Morphactin IT 3233;TH407-H; Density is1.222g/cm3. Boiling Point is 379.4 ¡C at 760 mmHg. Flash Point is 132.8 ¡C. Molecular Formula is C17H16O2. Formula Weight is 252.31. The white powder. The temperature of 125 ¡ C and 169 ¡ C (Anhydrous). Soluble in chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water-soluble.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute Toxicity Data: LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill. Route of Exposure       : Oral. Species Observed        : Rodent Ð rat. Dose/Duration           : >10 gm/kg
 
 
NAME: Flurenol-methylester      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Plant Growth Regulators
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C15H12O3. Formula Weight is 240.25. Melting point is158-163¡C. Boling point is 336.2C. Flash point is 100C. Storing temperature 0-6¡C. Synonmous are FLURENOL-METHYL;Flurecol-methyl;FLURENOL-METHYL ESTE;Flurecol methyl ester;FLURENOL-METHYL ESTER;flurenol-methyl(bsi,iso);Flurenol-methyl ester standard;FLURENOL-METHYL ESTER PESTANAL, 250 MG;METHYL 9-HYDROXYFLUORENE-9-CARBOXYLATE;METHYL 9-HYDROXYFLUOROENE-9-CARBOXYLATE. It can react with acetyl chloride to produce 9-acetoxy-fluorene-9-carboxylic acid methyl ester. This reaction will need reagent CH2Cl2. And the yield is about 85%. Index of Refraction is 1.651. Molar Refractivity is 66.24 cm3. Polarizability is 26.26?10-24cm3. Surface Tension is 59.3 dyne/cm.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute oral toxicity. Metabolism. Mutagenicity. Tumorigenic potential. Skin and Eye Irritation. 

         

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NAME: Fluridone   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1-Methyl-3-phenyl-5-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone. Molecular Formula is C19H14F3NO. Molecular Weight is 329.32. Melting point is 154 to 155C. Fluridone is used to manage aquatic vegetation in fresh water ponds, lakes, reservoirs, canals and rivers (Cockreham, pers. comm.). It is absorbed from the water by the shoots of submerged plants and from the hydrosoil by the roots of aquatic vascular plants. The effectiveness of fluridone depends on the degree to which the herbicide maintains contact with plants. The liquid suspension may be applied as a spray to the water surface, subsurface or along the bottom of the water body using specialized equipment.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxic to aquatic organisms.May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Fluridone was administered to rats and mice as a single dose given either orally or subcutaneously. Dogs and cats received a single oral dose administered in capsules. The acute toxicity of an aqueous suspension formulation containing 45 percent fluridone was evaluated by administering a single application of the material to the skin or eyes of rabbits.
      
 
NAME: Flurochloridone I    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: A mixture of the enantiomeric pairs (3RS,4RS;3RS,4SR)-3-chloro-4-chloromethyl-1-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-2-pyrrolidone (isomers in the ratio 3:1). Molecular weight is 312.1. Brown-beige, waxy solid. Density is 1.19 (20 ¡C). A mixture of cis- and trans- isomers in the ratio 1:3. Melting point is 40.9 ¡C (eutectic); 69.5 ¡C (trans- isomer). Vapour pressure is 0.44 mPa (25 ¡C). Henry constant is 3.9 ? 10-3 Pa m3 mol-1 ( calc.). Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water) is logP = 3.36. Solubility in water 35.1 (distilled), 20.4 ( pH 9) (both in mg/l, 25 ¡C). In ethanol 100, kerosene <5 (both in g/l, 20 ¡C). Readily soluble in acetone, chlorobenzene, and xylene.; Stability:Stable to hydrolysis at pH 5, 7 and 9 (25 ¡C); in acidic media and at elevated temperatures, decomposition occurs; DT50 138 d (100 ¡C), 15 d (120 ¡C). DT50 (60 ¡C) 7 d PH. Bleaching inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis at the phytoene desaturase step (PDS). Preemergence control for cotton, potatoes, winter rye, winter wheat, and sunflowers.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: : (Rat): LD50 4000 mg/kg (male); 3650 (female). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) >0.121 mg/l air. (Rabbit): Dermal LD50 >5000 mg/kg.   
 
 
NAME: Fluroxypyr-1-methylheptyl
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1-Methylheptyl ((4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-fluoropyridin-2-yl)oxy)acetate. Herbicide for post-emergence foliar application used to control broad-leaved weeds in small grain crops. Fluroxypyr is normally used as a salt or an ester, the identity of which should be stated, for example fluroxypyr-butoxypropyl . Yellow liquid with aromatic odor. Unstable at elevated temperatures. Polymerization will not occur. Exposure to elevated temperatures can cause product to decompose.Generation of gas during decomposition can cause pressure in closed systems.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. May cause allergic skin reaction. May cause eye irritation. Isolate area.Toxic fumes may be released in fire situations.      
 
 
NAME: Flurprimidol
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Plant growth regulator)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-2-methyl-1-pyrimidin-5-yl-1-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl) propan-1-ol. Molecular formula is C15H15F3N2O2.Molecular weight is 312.19. Not corrosive to low density polyethylene films and high density polyethylene containers. No positive results were obtained in 10 repetitive drops at 20 inches with an eight pound hammer. End-use formulation is a plant growth regulator which reduces internode and leaf elongation in cool and warm season. Non-volatile white crystals, Melting point is 94-96¡C. Solubility in acetone, ethanol, methanol, DMSO, diethyl ether. Growth retardant for grasses. Percent Composition are C 57.69%, H 4.84%, F 18.25%, N 8.97%, O 10.25%.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:   Acute Oral Toxicity: Toxicity Category III; Rat: LD50 914 mg/kg(male); LD50 709
mg/kg (female). Prolonged exposure may cause slight skin irritation. May cause slight eye irritation with corneal injury.

  

 
NAME: Flurtamone
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (2RS)-5-methylamino-2-phenyl-4-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)furan-3(2H)-one. Molecular Formula is C18H14F3NO2. Formula Weight is 333.3. Synonyms are BACARA;RE-40885;benchmark;Flutamone;FLURTAMONE;(+-)-3(2h)-furanon;Flurtamone [iso:ansi:bsi];flurtamone (bsi, ansi, draft e-iso);FLURTAMONE <)>97 % (HPLC, EFFEKTIV);5-(METHYLAMINO)-2-PHENYL-4-(3TRIFLUOROMETHYLPHENYL) -3(2H). Soil herbicide, early post-emergence application. Inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis at the phytoene desaturase step (PDS). Vapor pressure is 7.0 á 10-10 Pa at 20¡C. Partition coefficient is (n-octanol/water log Po/w) is 3.24 at 21¡C. For use on cotton, winter cereals (barley, wheat), spring crops (sunflower, peas). Controls some grasses and broadleaf weeds. Bacara*, Carat*, Ingot* for use on cereals; Cline*, Nikeyl* for use on spring crops. Light yellow, powdery solid. Melting point 148.5¡C. Low potential leaching based on water solubility and octanol/water partition coefficient. Low to intermediate mobility.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: TOXICITY: (Rat): Oral LD50 >5000 mg/kg. (Rabbit): Dermal LD50 >5000 mg/kg. Nonirritating to eyes, skin.          
 
 
NAME: Flusilazole    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are bis(4-fluorophenyl)(methyl)(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)silane or1-{[bis(4-fluorophenyl)(methyl)silyl]methyl}-1H-1,2,4-triazole. Molecular formula is C16H15F2N3Si. Molecular weight is 315.4. Flusilazole (DPX-H6573) is an organosilicon fungicide invented by DuPont, which is used to control fungal infections on a variety of fruit and vegetable crops.[1][2][3] It is moderately toxic to animals and has been shown to produce birth defects and embryotoxicity at high doses
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: OralAcute oral LD50for male rats 1100, female rats 674 mg/kg.Skin and eyeAcute percutaneous LD50for rabbits >2000 mg/kg; a mild irritant to skin and eyes, but not a skin sensitiser.InhalationLC50for male rats 27, female rats 3.7 mg/l air.NOEL(2 y) for rats 10 mg/kg diet; (1 y) for dogs 5 mg/kg diet; (1.5 y) for mice 25 mg/kg diet.ADI(JMPR) 0.001 mg/kg b.w. [1995].OtherNot mutagenic.Toxicity classWHO (a.i.) III         
 
 

NAME: Fluthiacet-methyl             

CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Herbicides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is methyl {2-chloro-4-fluoro-5-[(EZ)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3-oxo-1H,3H-[1,3,4]thiadiazolo[3,4-a]pyridazin-1-ylideneamino]phenylthio}acetate. Molecular formula is C15H15ClFN3O3S2. This substance is a derivative of fluthiacet. Molecular weight is 403.9. White powder. Density is 0.43 (bulk, 20 ¡C). Melting point is105.0-106.5 ¡C ( OECD 102). Vapour pressure is 4.41 <?10-4 mPa (25 ¡C). Henry constant is 2.1 ? 10-4 Pa m3 mol-1 ( calc.). Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water) is logP = 3.77 (25 ¡C). Solubility in water 0.85 (distilled), 0.78 ( pH 5 & 7), 0.22 ( pH 9) mg/l (25 ¡C). In methanol 4.41, acetone 101, toluene 84, n-octanol 1.86, acetonitrile 68.7, ethyl acetate 73.5, dichloromethane 9 . Inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:    Likely to be Carcinogenic to Humans. Non-irritant to skin and slightly irritant to eyes (rabbits). Toxicity: (Rat): Oral LD50 >5000 mg/kg; Dermal LD50 >2000 mg/kg; Inhalation LC50 5.05 mg/l.      

            

 
NAME: Flutolanil 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ?,?,?-trifluoro-3?-isopropoxy-o-toluanilide. Synonyms are MONCUT;NNF 136;MONCUT(R);FLUTOLANIL;Flutalanil;FLUTOLANIL STANDARD; FLUTOLANIL, 250MG, NEAT;Flutolanil 250mg [66332-96-5];flutolanil (bsi,draft e-iso,draft f-iso);3'-Isopropoxy-2-trifluoromethylbenzanilide. Molecular Formula is C17H16F3NO2. Formula Weight is 323.31. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Causes moderate eye irritation, especially under condition of prolonged eye contact, Harmful if absorb through skin. Wettable viscous suspension liquid. Un-transparent white milky color. Density is 1.162 at 20C. No characteristic odor. pH is 7.15 at 20C. 
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral : RatLD50 > 2,000 mg/kg(low toxicity). Inhalation is Rat LD50 > 4.5 mg/L (4hrs Ð Technical). Eye Irritation Rabbit: Moderate eye irritation.     
 
 
NAME: Flutriafol  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-2,4?-difluoro-?-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)benzhydryl alcohol. Molecular Formula is C16H13F2N3O. Molecular weight is 301.2907. Biochemistry Inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis (steroid demethylation inhibitor), causing fungal cell wall collapse and inhibition of hyphal growth. Mode of action Contact and systemic fungicide with eradicant and protective action. Absorbed by the foliage, with translocation acropetally in the xylem. Uses Control of a broad spectrum of leaf and ear diseases (including Erysiphe graminis, Rhynchosporium secalis, and Septoria, Puccinia, and Helminthosporium spp.) in cereals, at 125 g a.i./ha. Also used in non-mercurial seed treatment formulations to control the major soil-borne and seed -borne diseases of cereals. Formulation types SC. Selected tradenames: 'Impact' (Cheminova); mixtures: 'Vincit' (+ imazalil+ thiabendazole) (Cheminova).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral Acute oral LD50 for male rats 1140, female rats 1480 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >1000, rabbits >2000 mg/kg. Mild eye irritant; non-irritating to skin (rabbits). Not a skin sensitiser. Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >3.5 mg/l. NOEL In 90 d feeding trials, rats receiving 2 mg/kg diet, and dogs receiving 5 mg/kg daily showed no ill-effects. Non-teratogenic in rats and rabbits. Other Non-cytogenic in in vivo studies. Non-mutagenic in the Ames assay. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) III; EPA (formulation) III EC hazard (Xn; R20/21/22| R52, R53)        
 
 
NAME: Fluvalinate-tau-I        
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Fluvalinate (trade names include Apistan, Klartan, Minadox) is a synthetic pyrethroid commonly used to control varroa mites in honey bee colonies. Fluvalinate is a synthetic pyrethroid which is used as a broad spectrum insecticide against moths, beetles and Hemipteran insect pests on cotton, cereal, grape, potato, fruit tree, vegetable and plantation crops, fleas, turf and ornamental insects. It has both stomach and contact activity in target insects and is available in emulsifiable concentrate and flowable formulations. Fluvalinate is a stable, non-volatile, fat-soluble compound. Fluvalinate effectiveness was demonstrated in France and Israel. Although the compound may be found in drones, a study has found honey samples virtually absent of fluvalinate, on account of its affinity to beeswax. Tau-fluvalinate (?-fluvalinate) is the trivial name for (2R)-fluvalinate.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Adverse Effects are Ataxia, Body Weight Decrease, Bone, Dermal, Breast, Testicular, Fetotoxic, Teratogen and Tremors. It is moderately irritating to the eye and it is a mild skin irritant. Fluvalinate does not cause allergic skin reactions. Some formulated products, including Mavrik 2E, can cause skin irritation and are corrosive to the eyes. Workers exposed to fluvalinate have reported coughing, sneezing, throat irritation, itching or burning sensations on the arms or face with or without a rash, headache and nausea

         

 
NAME: Fluvalinate-tau-II
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: This is a synthetic pyrethroid which is used as a broad spectrum insecticide against moths, beetles and Hemipteran insect pests on cotton, cereal, grape, potato, fruit tree, vegetable and plantation crops, fleas, turf and ornamental insects. It has both stomach and contact activity in target insects and is available in emulsifiable concentrate and flowable formulations.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:    Fluvalinate-tau-II is moderately irritating to the eye and it is a mild skin irritant. Fluvalinate does not cause allergic skin reactions.    
 
 
NAME: Folpet
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are N-(trichloromethylthio)phthalimide or N-(trichloromethanesulfenyl)phthalimide. Molecular formula is C9H4Cl3NO2S. Molecular Weight is 296.6. Practically insoluble in water (1); 1 mg/l water. Slightly soluble in organic solvents, e.g. 3-4% in alphatic ketones and 0.1-1 % in hydrocarbons. In chloroform 8.7, benzene 2.2, isopropanol 1.25 (all in g/100 ml at 20 degrees C). Melting Point is177-180 degrees C (1, 223); 351 degrees F (317). Vapor Pressure is <1.3 x 10 to the minus 9 mbar at 20 degrees C. Folpet is a protective leaf-fungicide. Its mode of action inhibits normal cell division of a broad spectrum of microorganisms. It is used to control cherry leaf spot, rose mildew, rose black spot, and apple scab. Used on berries, flowers, ornamentals, fruits and vegetables, and for seed- and plant-bed treatment. Also used as a fungicide in paints and plastics, and for treatment of internal and external structural surfaces of buildings (1). Incompatible with strongly alkaline preparations, such as lime sulfur (1). The Signal Word for products containing folpet is "Warning".
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Exacerbation of asthma.At high doses, laboratory animals exhibit hypothermia, irritability, listlessness, anorexia, hyporeflexia, and oliguria , the latter with glycosuria and hematuria.    

      

 
NAME: Fonofos
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-(O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate). Fonofos is a soil organophosphate insecticide primarily used on corn. It is also used on sugar cane, peanuts, tobacco, turf, and some vegetable crops. It controls aphids, corn borer, corn rootworm, corn wireworm, cutworms, white grubs, and some maggots. Fonofos (O-ethyl- S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) is a soil insecticide used to control pests such as corn rootworms, cutworms, symphylans (garden centipedes), wireworms. Agricultural crop uses include asparagus, beans, beets, corn, onions, peppers, tomatoes, cole crops, sweet potatoes, peanuts, peas, peppermint, plantains, sorghum, soybeans, spearmint, strawberries, sugarcane, and sugar beets, white (Irish) potatoes, and tobacco. Most of the product has been used on field corn in recent years. Fonofos is applied mainly with ground equipment. Aerial applications are made to hybrid seed corn.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: This highly toxic chemical interferes with the nervous system by inhibiting an enzyme, cholinesterase, and is labeled with a DANGER signal word. Symptoms of fonofos exposure may be delayed from a few minutes to up to twelve hours after exposure. Early symptoms include blurred vision, headache, and dizziness. Skin contact often brings about sweating and muscle twitching. Eye contact causes tearing, pain, and blurring. Ingestion may cause nausea, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Deaths resulting from high exposures are often due to respiratory arrest.        

    

 
NAME: Formothion
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is S-[formyl(methyl)carbamoylmethyl] O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate or 2-dimethoxyphosphinothioylthio-N-formyl-N-methylacetamide. Molecular Formula is C6H12NO4PS2. Molecular weight is 257.27. Flash point is 25 ¡C. Storing temperature is 2-8¡C. Synonyms are S-[2-(FORMYLMETHYLAMINO)-2-OXOETHYL] O,O-DIMETHYL DITHIOPHOSPHATE;S-[2-(FORMYLMETHYLAMINO)-2-OXOETHYL]-O,O-DIMETHYL-PHOSPHORODITHIONATE;O,O-DIMETHYL S-(N-FORMYL-N-METHYL-CARBAMOYLMETHYL)PHOSPHORODITHIOATE;Acetamide, N-formyl-2-mercapto-N-methyl-, S-ester with O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate;acetamide,n-formyl-2-mercapto-n-methyl-,s-esterwitho,o-dimethylphosphoro;acetamide,n-formyl-2-mercapto-n-methyl-,s-esterwitho,o-dimethylphosphorodi;afliz(sandoz);Anthio 25. Viscous yellow oil or a crystalline mass. Used as an insecticide and acaricide on crops and ornamentals. Not presently produced commercially in the U.S. hydrolyzed by water especially under alkaline conditions. Organophosphates, such as FORMOTHION, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: FORMOTHION is one of the least toxic systemic organophosphates. FORMOTHION is a compound of low to moderate toxicity. It causes the depression of cholinesterase, leading to accumulation of acetylcholine in the nervous system, which is believed to be responsible for the symptoms.          

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NAME: Fosthiazate I  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (nematicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-[S-(RS)-sec-butyl O-ethyl 2-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-ylphosphonothioate] or (3RS)-3-[(RS)-sec-butylthio(ethoxy)phosphinoyl]-1,3-thiazolidin-2-one. Technical fosthiazate is a light gold liquid with a boiling point of 198o C at 0.5 mm Hg, a low vapor pressure of 2.7 x 10-6 at 25o C, and a log Pow of 1.752. Fosthiazate has a solubility of 9.85 g/L in water, 15.14 g/L in n-hexane, and is soluble in Ðmethyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), isopropyl alcohol, and xylene.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:    Fosthiazate has moderate toxicity via the dermal (toxicity category II) and oral (toxicity category II) routes of exposure and slight toxicity via the inhalation (toxicity category III) route of exposure. It is moderately irritating to the eyes (toxicity category II), and moderately irritating to the skin (toxicity category IV). Fosthiazate is classified as a dermal sensitizer. In accordance with the EPA Draft Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (July, 1999), and based on lack of evidence for carcinogenicity in mice and rats, the Agency has classified fosthiazate as Ònot likely to be carcinogenic to humans.Ó There is no concern for mutagenicity resulting from exposure to fosthiazate. 

      

 
NAME: Fuberidazole  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-(2-furyl)benzimidazole. Molecular Formula is C11H8N2O. Formula Weight is 184.19. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Systemic with specific action against Fusarium spp. Inhibition of mitosis and cell division. Light brown to colourless crystalline powder. Chemical Formula is C11H8N2O . Molecular Mass is (g mol-1) 184.19. Usually supplied as a flowable concentrate. Negligible risk of exposure considering patterns of use. Crystalline powder. Used in cereal seed dressing and fungicidal non-mercurial seed dressing with special action against fusarium. FUBERIDAZOLE is a benzimidazole and behaves as an amine. Amines are chemical bases. They neutralize acids to form salts plus water. These acid-base reactions are exothermic. The amount of heat that is evolved per mole of amine in a neutralization is largely independent of the strength of the amine as a base. Amines may be incompatible with isocyanates, halogenated organics, peroxides, phenols (acidic), epoxides, anhydrides, and acid halides. Flammable gaseous hydrogen is generated by amines in combination with strong reducing agents, such as hydrides. When heated to decomposition, FUBERIDAZOLE emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:      Moderately toxic, May cause skin sensitization. FUBERIDAZOLE is classified as moderately toxic. Its probable oral lethal dose in humans is 0.5-5 g/kg or between 1 ounce and 1 pint for a150 lb. person.

   

 
NAME: Furalaxyl
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are a5430;fongani;fonganil;cga38140;FONGARID; FURALAXYL; furalaxyl (bsi,iso);TRIMETHYLTIN CHLORIDE PESTANAL, 250 MG;FURALAXYL PESTANAL (METHYL N-(2-FU- ROYL;Methyl N-(2-furoyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)alaminate. Molecular Formula is C17H19NO4. Molecular weight is 301.34. Etridiazole and furalaxyl inhibited growth of Pythium irregulare in agar at 0.1 and 1 mg l-1, respectively, but sporulation was not inhibited by 10 and 5 mg I-'. In stationary hydroponic nutrients, recovery of P. irregulare declined with increasing concentrations of etridiazole and furalaxyl above 10 mg l-1 and with increasing duration of exposure to concentrations below 10 mg l-1. Zoospores of Phytophthora cryptogea were dispersed throughout recirculating nutrient film (NFT) systems, but few were recovered by plating nutrients sampled 1 h after inoculation.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: SIGNAL WORD: CAUTION. TOXICITY CLASS: III. TOXICITY: (Rat): Oral LD50 940 mg/kg. Dermal >3100 mg/kg.
 
 
NAME: Furathiocarb                
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is butyl 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl N,N?-dimethyl-N,N?-thiodicarbamate. Molecular Formula is C18H26N2O5S. Molecular Weight is 382.47. Density is 1.208 g/cm3. Flash Point is 232 ¡C. Boiling Point is 460.1 ¡C at 760 mmHg. Vapour Pressure is 1.2E-08 mmHg at 25¡C. Enthalpy of Vaporization is 72.07 kJ/mol. Storage temperature is 0-6¡C. Furathiocarb (CAS NO.65907-30-4) can be used as thiocarbamate insecticide. It can control of soil-dwelling insects in maize, oilseed rape, sorghum, sugar beet, sunflowers, and vegetables. It applied as a foliar, soil, or seed treatment. Systemic with contact and stomach action. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Severe Marine Pollutant. Yellow viscous liquid.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Symptoms of an overdose could include any or more of the following: Blurred Vision, disturbances of accommodation, Retrobulbar pain, constriction of pupils, Salivation, Profuse sweating, Lassitude, Muscle in-coordination, Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Epigastric pain, Tightness in chest.

       

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NAME: Furilazole
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide safeners)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-3-dichloroacetyl-5-(2-furanyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidine. Synonyms are MON13900;Oxazolidine, 3-(dichloroacetyl)-5-(2-furanyl)-2,2-dimethyl- Molecular weight is C11H13Cl2NO3. Molecular mass is 278.14. Beige coloured powder. Density is 1.32 g/cm3 . Flash Point is 181.7 ¡C. Boiling Point is 376.8 ¡C at 760 mmHg. Vapour Pressure is 7.07E-06 mmHg at 25¡C. Enthalpy of Vaporization is 62.45 kJ/mol.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: May cause decreases in body weight,May cause haematological and histopathological effects, Liver and Kidney toxicant. Moderately toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact. Experimental reproductive effects. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic vapors of NOx and Cl?.        
 
 
NAME: Furmecyclox
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: This is effective against stem canker of beans. A carpet cleaning composition including a fungicide to prevent the growth of fungi on a carpeted surface during an extraction process, particularly during a dry-down period after extraction process wherein residual carpet cleaning solution remains on the carpeted surface. The fungicide is active while the composition is in the liquid state and becomes inactive and friable when the composition is dry. The fungicide bonds to a film that is formed on the carpet fibers to prevent fungi growth on the film. A method of extraction carpet cleaning comprises the steps of depositing the carpet cleaning composition on the carpet, extracting a portion of the cleaning composition with suction leaving on at least some of the carpet fibers an aqueous film that includes the fungicide, and drying the film.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The effects of "indoor pollution" on health are complex and symptoms are not specific. Many pollutants may be responsible for the same disease. Besides, each individual may react differently to the same conditions (genetic susceptibility, genetic polymorphism of detoxification enzymes). Discomfort and stress created may also intervene. The effects of indoor pollution on health are only partially known: indeed, the links between exposure to pollutants and the development of a disease or symptom has not yet been sufficiently studied, and in many cases, the contribution of indoor air quality in certain diseases remains to be identified and evaluated
 
 
NAME: Halfenprox   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-(4-bromodifluoromethoxyphenyl)-2-methylpropyl 3-phenoxybenzyl ether. Chemical Formula is C24H23BrF2O3.Mocecular weight is 477.338426. Broad spectrum with contact action and some residual effects. Sodium channel modulator. Exist in colourless liquid . Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate or concentrated solution.   
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Repeated exposure to hexachlorophene may have deleterious effects to health. Chronic dermal exposure may lead to dermatitis. The substance may also have negative effects on the nervous system, and animal tests have shown that it may cause developmental defects
 
 
NAME:Haloxyfop-methyl              
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is methyl (RS)-2-{4-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]phenoxy}propionate. This substance is a derivative of haloxyfop [69806-34-4]. Molecular Formula is C16H13ClF3NO4. Molecular Weight is 375.73. Melting point is 55-57 ¼C. Haloxyfop-P-methyl is a selective herbicide, absorbed by the foliage and roots, and hydrolysed to haloxyfop-P, which is translocated to meristematic tissues, and inhibits their growth. Light brown ropy liquid. Vapour Pressure is 2.6?10 -5 hPa at 20¡C. Stability is very stable to heat. No decomposition after 88. hours at 200¡C. Haloxyfop-P-methyl is used post-emergence for control of annual and perennial grasses in sugar beet, fodder beet, oilseed rape, potatoes, leaf vegetables, onions, flax, sunflowers, soya beans, vines, strawberries, and other crops. Applied at 52-104 g a.e./ha.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The oral Reference Dose (RfD) is based on the assumption that thresholds exist for certain toxic effects such as cellular necrosis. It is expressed in units of mg/kg-day. In general, the RfD is an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a daily exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. Adverse effect include Body Weight Decrease ,Bone, Probable Human Carcinogen Ð LIVER, Cholesterol, Testicular, Thyroid, Heart, Kidney and Liver.
 
 
NAME: Heptachlor
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Heptachlor is an organochlorine compound that was used as an insecticide. Usually sold as a white or tan powder, heptachlor is one of the cyclodiene insecticides. In 1962, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring questioned the safety of heptachlor and other chlorinated insecticides. Due to its highly stable structure, heptachlor can persist in the environment for decades. The US EPA has limited the sale of heptachlor products to the specific application of fire ant control in underground transformers. The amount that can be present in different foods is regulated. Analogous to the synthesis of other cyclodienes, heptachlor is produced via the Diels-Alder reaction of hexachlorocyclopentadiene and cyclopentadiene. The resulting adduct is brominated followed by treatment with hydrogen chloride in nitromethane in the presence of aluminum trichloride or with iodine monochloride. Heptachlor is persistent organic pollutant (POP). It has a half life of ~1.3-4.2 days (air),~0.03-0.11 years (water),~0.11-0.34 years (soil). One study described its half life to be 2 years and claimed that its residues could be found in soil 14 years after its initial application. Like other POPs, heptachlor is lipophilic and poorly soluble in water (0.056 mg/L at 25 ¡C), thus it tends to accumulate in the body fat of humans and animals. Heptachlor epoxide is more likely to be found in the environment than its parent compound. The epoxide also dissolves more easily in water than its parent compound and is more persistent. Heptachlor and its epoxide absorb to soil particles and evaporate.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Heptachlor is highly to moderately toxic compound via the oral route, with reported oral LD50 values of 100 to 220 mg/kg in rats, 30 to 68 mg/kg in mice, 116 mg/kg in guinea pigs, 100 mg/kg in hamsters, and 62 mg/kg in chickens It is moderately toxic via the dermal route as well, with reported dermal LD50 values of 119 to 320 mg/kg in rats, and greater than 2000 mg/kg in rabbits .It is reported not to be a skin or eye irritant . Heptachlor, like many organochlorines, may interfere with nerve transmission, and may also cause an increase in activity of the enzymes involved in the breakdown of foreign chemicals . This may lead to serious toxicities from drugs taken for medical reasons. The acute toxicity of heptachlor epoxide, the main and most persistent of heptachlor's metabolites (see below), may be greater. Effects due to heptachlor exposure may include hyperexcitation of the central nervous system, liver damage, lethargy, incoordination, tremors, convulsions, stomach cramps or pain, and coma . In humans exposed to chlordane, a closely-related organochlorine insecticide which usually contains 10% heptachlor, signs of neurotoxicity such as irritability, salivation, lethargy, dizziness, labored respiration, muscle tremors, and convulsions have been observed . In severe cases, death may occur due to respiratory failure. Persons with underlying convulsive disorders or liver damage are at increased risk from exposure . Prior to it being banned in the U.S. and in many other countries, the main routes of human exposure to heptachlor were via ingestion of residues in food or via inhalation in homes treated for termite control, especially where applications were done improperly.
 
 
NAME: Heptachlor exo-epoxide isomer
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is HCE;hepox;hydro-;C14327;IsomerB;xahydro-;ent25,584;ENT 25,584;2-b)oxirene;Heptepoxide. Molecular Formula is C10H5Cl7O. Formula Weight is 389.32. Storage temperature is 4¡C approximately. Appearance is powder form. Melting point is 157 - 161 C . Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxic if swallowed. May cause cumulative harm. Possible carcinogen. Very toxic to aquatic organisms - may cause long-term environmental damage.
 
 
NAME: Heptenophos
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 7-chlorobicyclo[3.2.0]hepta-2,6-dien-6-yl dimethyl phosphate. Molecular formula is C9H12ClO4P.Molecular weight is 250.62. Storing temperature is approximately 4¡C. Belong to Organophosphate chemical group. Mode of action includes systemic with stomach, contact and respiratory action, is an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. Color is light brown and in liquid state. Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate. Soluble in most organic solvents. Pure active soluble at 22¡C. Boiling point 64¡C at 0.1 mbar.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: TOXICITY: (Rat): Oral LD50 96-121 mg/kg. Dermal LD50 >2000 mg/kg. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
 
 
NAME: Hexabromobenzene
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are Hexabromobenzene;Benzene hexabromide;Perbromobenzene;1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexabromobenzene Molecular formula is C6Br6. Apearance is white crystalline powder. Melting Point is 327 C.Molecular Weight is 551.52 . Insoluble in water. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. HEXABROMOBENZENE is very unreactive. Reactivity generally decreases with increased degree of substitution of halogen for hydrogen atoms. Materials in this group may be incompatible with strong oxidizing and reducing agents. Also, they may be incompatible with many amines, nitrides, azo/diazo compounds, alkali metals, and epoxides. The Velsicol Chemical Corp. siteÊis located in Gratiot County, Michigan. From 1936 until 1978, Velsicol (formerly Michigan Chemical Corp.) produced various chemical compounds and products at its fifty-four acreÊmain plant site in St. Louis, Michigan, such as hexabromobenzene (HBB), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), and tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (tris). In 1982, a Consent Judgment was entered into by Velsicol, U.S. EPA and the State of Michigan, under which Velsicol agreed to construct a slurry wall aroundÊand aÊclay cap over the fifty-four acre main plant site. In return, Velsicol received a broad covenant not to sue from U.S. EPA and the State of Michigan. The Pine River, which borders the main plant site on three sides and was known to contain significant levels of DDT and PBB, was notÊrequired to be remediated byÊthe 1982 Consent Judgment. The Pine River contamination was addressed at the timeÊby the State of Michigan with a no-consumption advisory for all species of fish. The fish advisory continues to remain in effect. Hexachlorobenzene is a white crystalline solid. This compound does not occur naturally. It is formed as a by-product during the manufacture of chemicals used as solvents (substances used to dissolve other substances), other chlorine-containing compounds, and pesticides. Small amounts of hexachlorobenzene can also be produced during combustion processes such as burning of citywastes. It may also be produced as a by-product in waste streams of chlor-alkali and woodpreserving plants. Hexachlorobenzene was widely used as a pesticide until 1965. It was also used to make fireworks, ammunition, and synthetic rubber. Currently, the substance is not used commercially in the United States.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Skin, eye and respiratory irritant. People in Turkey who, over a long time, ate grain that was accidentally contaminated with hexachlorobenzene suffered from a liver disease called porphyria cutanea tarda. The main effect of porphyria is slowed or stopped formation of heme, the oxygen-carrying part of the hemoglobin molecule found in red blood cells and an important chemical in the body. Porphyria is identified by elevation of heme precursors called porphyrins in the blood, urine, and stool. This disease can cause red-colored urine, skin sores, change in skin color, arthritis, and problems of the liver, nervous system, and stomach. Studies in animals also show that eating hexachlorobenzene for a long time can harm mostly the liver, thyroid, and nervous systems; the studies in animals also show that eating hexachlorobenzene for months or years can damage bones, kidneys, and blood, and the immune, endocrine (hormone-releasing), and nervous systems. Unborn children and young children may be more sensitive to these effects than adults.
 
 
NAME: Hexachlorobenzene
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Hexachlorobenzene, or perchlorobenzene, is a chlorocarbon with the molecular formula C6Cl6. It is a fungicide formerly used as a seed treatment, especially on wheat to control the fungal disease bunt. It has been banned globally under the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. HCB is a white crystalline solid that has negligible solubility in water. It is soluble in diethyl ether, benzene, ethanol and chloroform. Its vapour pressure is 1.09?10?5 mmHg (1.45 mPa) at 20 ¡C. Its flash point is 242 ¡C and it sublimes at 322 ¡C. Hexachlorobenzene is a white crystalline solid which is not very soluble in water. The odor threshold for hexachlorobenzene is not available.The chemical formula for hexachlorobenzene is C6Cl6, and the molecular weight is 284.8 g/mol. The vapor pressure for hexachlorobenzene is 1.09 ? 10-5 mm Hg at 20 ¡C, and it has a log octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) of 6.18. Melting point (pure) is 230¡C. Boiling point (pure) is 332¡C. Specific gravity is 2.044. Vapour density is 9.83. Hexachlorobenzene has a very low chemical and biochemical reactivity. This is reflected in its long persistence in the environment. HCB is combustible and decomposes to produce toxic fumes at high temperatures. It reacts violently with dimethyl formamide above 65¡C. There are currently no commercial uses of HCB in Australia. HCB has been widely used as a pesticide to protect the seeds of onions and sorghum, wheat, and other grains against fungus, but is no longer registered for this use in Australia. It was also used in the production of fireworks, ammunition, rubber, aluminium and dyes, and in wood preservation. Sources include the aerospace industry, sanitary services, agricultural chemicals manufacturers; industries involved in the manufacture of solvents, other chlorine-containing compounds and pesticides; wood-preserving plants; and municipal waste incinerators.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral LD50 (rat): 10,000 mg/kg. Oral LD50 (mice): 4,000 mg/kg. Inhalation LC50 (rat): 3600 mg/m3. Material has relatively low acute toxicity but is toxic because of its persistent and cumulative nature in body tissues in rich lipid content. Hexachlorobenzene, when administered orally, has been shown to induce tumors of the liver, thyroid, and kidney in several animal species. The health effects caused by breathing HCB-contaminated particles or by getting HCB on your skin are not known. Porphyria-induced skin disorders have been reported in humans following the ingestion of bread prepared from grain containing HCB. There is evidence that HCB is toxic to young children; offspring nursing from HCB exposed mothers are exposed through the milk. HCB has been found to decrease the survival rates of young children. Therefore, nursing infants may be particularly susceptible due to the transfer of HCB through maternal milk. This has been confirmed by experiments on animals. Other animal studies show that ingestion of HCB on a long-term basis can harm the liver, immune system, kidneys and blood and can produce eruptions and pigmentations of the skin. Studies in animals also suggest that ingestion of enough HCB on a long-term basis can lead to cancer of the liver and thyroid.
 
 
NAME: Hexachlorophene     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide, bactericide, acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Hexachlorophene, also known as Nabac, is a disinfectant. The compound occurs as a white to light-tan crystalline powder, which either is odorless or produces a slightly phenolic odor. In medicine, hexachlorophene is very useful as a topical anti-infective, anti-bacterial agent, often used in soaps and toothpaste. It is also used in agriculture as a soil fungicide, plant bactericide, and acaricide. Hexachlorophene can be lethal from percutaneous (through the skin) absorption. Children may be specifically susceptible. Hexachlorophene (6.3%) was added to Òbaby powderÓ in France due to a manufacturing error. It caused encephalopathy and ulcerative skin lesions. 36 of 204 exposed children died within a few days of exposure. Cleansing skin and preventing the spread of infection. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.Hexachlorophene is a topical antibacterial cleanser. It works like a detergent to cleanse skin and prevents the growth of certain bacteria.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Do not apply Hexachlorophene to skin that is burned, broken, or has any kind of rash or sores. Doing so increases the risk of toxicity from the medicine, which may result in irritability or seizures. Hexachlorophene may be harmful if swallowed. If you may have taken Hexachlorophene by mouth, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately.
 
 
NAME: Hexaconazole
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)hexan-2-ol. Molecular formula is C14H17Cl2N3O. Hexaconazole is a systemic fungicide used for the control of many fungi particularly Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes.. Mol. wt. 314.2. Exisit in White, crystalline solid.M.p. is 110-112 ¼C. V.p. is 0.018 mPa (20 ¼C) . S.g./density is 1.29 g/cm3 (25 ¼C) . Solubility in water 0.017 g/l (20 ¼C). In dichloromethane 336, methanol 246, acetone 164, ethyl acetate 120, toluene 59, hexane 0.8 (all in g/l, 20 ¼C). Stable for at least 6 years at ambient temperatures. Stable to hydrolysis and photolysis in water. Formulations stable in sales containers for 6 months at 50 ¼C, and 2 years at ambient temperature. Systemic fungicide with protective and curative action.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral Acute oral LD50 for male rats 2189, female rats 6071 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >2000 mg/kg. Mild irritant to eyes; non-irritating to skin (rabbits). Moderate skin sensitiser (guinea pigs). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >5.9 mg/l. NOEL (90 d) for rats 5, rabbits 50 mg/kg daily. ADI (JMPR) 0.005 mg/kg b.w. [1990]. Other Non-mutagenic. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) III (Table 5); EPA (formulation) IV EC hazard Xi; R43| N; R51, R53.
 
 
NAME: Hexazinone
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Hexazinone is a non-selective broad spectrum herbicide of the triazine class. It is manufactured by DuPont and sold under the trade name Velpar. It is used to control grasses and broadleaf and woody plants. Approximately 33% is used on alfalfa, 31% in forestry, 29% in industrial areas, 4% on rangeland and pastures, and < 2% on sugarcane. In 1989, hexazinone was deliberately used in an act of vandalism to poison the Treaty Oak in Austin, Texas.Hexazinone is a known and pervasive groundwater contaminant, due to its high water solubility. non-selective, kills everything in the upper root zone. Almost entirely root absorbed, acts like a soil sterilant. Non-volatile but liquid formulation can lose its solvent by evaporation. Available from agricultural supply stores. Hexazinone is very soluble in water (29,800 ppm at 25_C), and has a low average organic carbon adsorption coefficient (Koc=610 ) and a low octanol/water coefficient (Kow=15.0). These numbers suggest that hexazinone is mobile in the environment and partitions into water more than to soil, or biota. In Linders et al. (1994) hexazinone is classified as moderately mobile in soil. Bouchard and Lavy (1985a) found that hexazinone is weakly adsorbed by soil, in fact, less adsorbed by soil and more mobile than atrazine. Also, hexazinone is the most water-soluble triazine herbicide. Compared to more basic triazines, protonation and adsorption-desorption by cation exchange would occur less readily for hexazinone due to its weak basicity. Therefore little charged hexazinone would exist in soil and is adsorbed by soil through non-polar mechanisms (Bouchard and Lavy, 1985a). With the moderate to long half-life and moderate mobility, hexazinone can potentially move off-site with water in run-off and in base flow. Hexazinone is a contact and residual herbicide, readily absorbed by the leaves and roots. Since hexazinone is tolerated by conifers, it is a very effective herbicide for reducing competition from broad leaf trees and bushes, as well as annual and perennial weeds.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Hexazinone is of relatively low toxicity to birds and mammals. The oral LD50 for rats is 1,690 mg/kg and 2,258 mg/kg for bobwhite quail (WSSA 1994). Higher application rates can produce residues that exceed EPAÕs Level of Concern for small mammals. In a study of rat metabolism of hexazinone, at least 93.3% of the radio-labelled hexazinone was excreted by the animals and none of the compound was detected in the rats after 72 hours. Low toxicity to animals. Long term soil residue, and very soluble, moves with soil water so can kill plants off-site after rain. Apply with care. Replant sites only after seedlings appear naturally.
 
 
NAME: Hexestrol
 
CLASSIFICATION: A synthetic estrogen. Chemical name is 4-[4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hexan- 3-yl]phenol .Molecular weight is 270.37484. Molecular Formula is C18H22O2. Purity is >99% . A synthetic analogue of female sex hormones in the form of a hormonal preparation used in the treatment of gynecologic and prostatic diseases. Storing temperature is 20? and duration is 2 years. Hexestrol(Bibenzyl) is a novel type of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, AKR1C1and AKR1C2 potent inhibitor with IC50 of 0.8, 9.5, 2.8 µM, respectively and exhibits strong affinity for estrogen receptors. It is a synthetic estrogen that has been used as a hormonal antineoplastic agent. Rat liver contains two cytosolic enzymes (TBER1 and TBER2). TBER1 represents a novel type of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with unique catalytic properties and tissue distribution.. The recombinant TBER1 efficiently oxidized 17?-hydroxysteroids and xenobiotic alicyclic alcohols using NAD+ as the preferred coenzyme at pH 7.4, and showed low activity towards 20?- and 3?-hydroxysteroids, and 9-hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme was potently inhibited by diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol and zearalenone. Rat 17HSD5 differed from TBER1 in inhibitor sensitivity. The inhibitory potencies of diethylstilbestrol (IC50 = 7.5 µM), hexestrol (IC50 = 30 µM), and zearalenone (IC50 = 36 µM) for 17HSD5 were lower than those for TBER1 (the respective IC50 values were 1.7, 0.8 and 7.5 µM). Estrogen compound used to treat menstrual irregularities and menopausal symptoms and to prevent pregnancy.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value. It is tentatively concluded that there is a mediating or co-operative pituitary influence involved in the significant hepatic, uterine and adrenal weight gains caused by hexoestrol.
 
 
NAME: Hydroprene 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl (E,E)-(RS)-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,4-dienoate. Hydroprene is not an adulticide (insecticide) but is a growth regulator that inhibits the maturity and growth of certain insect pests in their immature stages. Hydroprene is a yellowish-brown liquid that is water soluble and flammable under heat or pressure. Under normal storage conditions, hydroprene remains stable for 3 years plus. Insecticides containing hyrdoprene should be used indoors only. Hydroprene is most often used as an active ingredient in pesticides known as IGRs (Insect Growth Regulators) targeting roaches, drain flies, fruit flies, bedbugs, and stored product pests. Even adult roaches are affected and might be seen with wrinkled of deformed wings.The use of Hydroprene (in many cases) drastically reduces the need for contact insecticides or eliminates the need for insecticide sprays. This has been a great asset for pest control professionals that implement integrated pest management programs in schools, nursing homes, hospitals, restaurants and other sensitive environments.This IGR is the active ingredient used in Gentrol products such as Gentrol, Gentrol Point Source, Gentrol Aerosol. Hydroprene is not photostable and is for indoor use, only. A new item from Whitmire that contains Hydroprene is BP100-Plus, a ready to use fogging solution. Active ingredients - Pyrethrins and Hydroprene. BP100-Plus fogging solution is a very clean product labeled for commercial food handling and homes. Indoor electric fog machines (fogger) work great for this fogging solution. Use this IGR when eliminating, controlling or preventing cockroaches (roaches) and many pantry pests. Cigarette Beetles are a pantry pest that is not affected by Hydroprene; use Methoprene instead. Can be tank mixed with adulticides (insecticides) or used alone. Gentrol (previously called Gencor IGR) is usually tank mixed with Cypermethrin, Acephate or Deltamethrin concentrates for existing roach infestations. Available in liquid concentrate, aerosol and in solid dispensers.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: While it is excellently effective against insect pests, Hydroprene has a very low toxic level to humans and pets. To insure safety, always be sure to read all instructions on the pest control product label before use. Minimal eye irritation. Respiratory irritation.
 
 
NAME: Imazalil 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicides)     
 
DESCRIPTION: Enilconazole (synonyms imazalil, chloramizole) is a fungicide widely used in agriculture, particularly in the growing of citrus fruits.[1] Trade names include Freshgard, Fungaflor, and Nuzone. It is also used in veterinary medicine as a topical antimycotic. When this substance is used as a salt, its identity should be stated, for example imazalil nitrate [33586-66-2], imazalil sulfate [58594-72-2]. Imazalil is a systemic imidazole fungicide used to control a wide range of fungi on fruit, vegetables and ornamentals, including powdery mildew on cucumber and black spot on roses. Imazalil is also used as a seed dressing and for postharvest treatment of citrus, banana and other fruit to control storage decay. Under natural conditions it is less likely that resistant strains of fungi will develop with imazalil than with some of the other fungicides
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Imazalil is classified as a moderately toxic compound and carries the signal word WARNING on the label. Test animals have experienced symptoms, including goose flesh (or goose bumps), due to the excitation of hair folicles, muscle incoordination, reduced arterial tension, tremors, and vomiting. Contact dermatitis has been noted in some cases in sensitive individuals. Imazalil has an oral LD50 of 227 mg/kg for females rat and 343 for males. The LC50 in dogs is greater than 640 mg/kg . The dermal LD50 for rats is 4,200 to 4,880 mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is greater than 16 g/m3.
 
 
NAME: Imazamethabenz-methyl I
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide ( herbicides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 6-[(RS)-4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl]-m-toluate and methyl 2-[(RS)-4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl]. This substance is a derivative of imazamethabenz. Selective, systemic absorbed through roots and leaves. Chemical Formula is C15H18N2O3 . Off-white color and in powder form. Usually supplied as a liquid concentrate or as soluble granules. An evaluation of available scientific information found that under the revised conditions of use, products containing imazamethabenz-methyl have value in the food and crop industry and do not present unacceptable risks to human health or the environment. As a condition of the continued registration of imazamethabenz-methyl, new risk-reduction measures must be included on the labels of all products. No additional data are required at this time.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Potential exposure to imazamethabenz-methyl may occur through diet (food and water), when handling and applying the product or by prematurely entering treated sites. When assessing health risks, two key factors are considered: the levels at which health effects occur in animal testing and the levels to which people may be exposed. The dose levels used to assess risks are established to protect the most sensitive human population (e.g. children and nursing mothers). Only uses for which the exposure is well below levels that cause no effects in animal testing are considered acceptable for registration. Toxicology studies in laboratory animals describe potential health effects from varying levels of exposure to a chemical and identify the dose where no effects are observed. The health effects noted in animals occur at doses more than 100-times higher (and often much higher) than levels to which humans are normally exposed, when imazamethabenz-methyl products are used according to label directions. Imazamethabenz-methyl was slightly irritating to the eyes, but was not irritating to the skin of rabbits nor was it a sensitizer in guinea pigs. Consequently, no hazard statements are required on the label of the technical class product. Imazamethabenz-methyl did not cause cancer in animals, was not genotoxic or teratogenic and showed no signs of neurotoxicity. The liver was the main target of toxicity in rats. The first signs of toxicity in dogs given daily doses of imazamethabenz-methyl over longer periods of time were slight changes in haematology, along with effects on organ weights and decreased body weight. In mice, effects on organ weights were also noted at high doses. When imazamethabenz-methyl was given to pregnant animals, effects on the developing fetus were observed at doses that were toxic to the mother, indicating that the fetus is not more sensitive to imazamethabenz-methyl than the adult animal. The risk assessment protects against these effects, by ensuring that the level of human exposure is well below the lowest dose at which these effects occurred in animal tests.
 
 
Contaminant Facts: Pesticides
 
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