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Pesticides (Do - Fe)

E | Ep | Eu | F | Feno
 
NAME: Drazoxolon
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (EZ)-4-(2-chlorophenylhydrazono)-3-methyl-1,2-oxazol-5(4H)-one or (EZ)-4-(2-chlorophenylhydrazono)-3-methylisoxazol-5(4H)-one. Molecular Weight is 237.64. Molecular Formula is C10H8ClN3O2. Percent Composition are C 50.54%, H 3.39%, Cl 14.92%, N 17.68%, O 13.47%. Yellow crystals, possessing faint odor, from methanol-benzene, Melting point is 168¡C. Boling point is 322C.Flash point is 148C.Practically insoluble in water, acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soluble in alkali, aromatic hydrocarbons (4%), chloroform (about 10%), ethanol (1%), ketones (5%). Stable to dilute acids and forms stable salts with alkalies.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: data: LD50 orally in female rats, mice: 126, 129 mg/kg (Clark, McElligott).
 
 
 
NAME: Edifenphos         
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)  
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical Name is O-ethyl S,S-diphenyl phosphorodithioate. Molecular Formula is C14H15O2PS2. Molecular Weight is 310.4. Melting point is less than 25 C. Solubility is 56 mg/L in water ( 20¡C ) and soluble in acetone and xylene. Vapor pressure is 2.7E-007 mmHg at 25¡C. Edifenphos is an Inhibitor of Phosphatidylcholine, can be used preventively to control rice blast disease . Active Ingredient is 80% min. Light yellow to brown liquid. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Phospholipid biosynthesis inhibition, foliar applied with protective and curative action. Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate or dustable powder. Insoluble in water, soluble in acetone and xylene.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute oral LD50 150-340 mg/kg (rat). Harmful if swallowed or inhaled. Skin sensitizer.
 
NAME: Endosulfan (alpha isomer)     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C9H6Cl6O3S. Formula Weight is 406.93. Density is 1.94. Flash point is -26 ¡C. Storing temperature is approx 4C. Alpha isomer is 109.2C . Brown crystals. Insoluble in water. Slowly hydrolyzes to form sulfur dioxide and diol; hydrolyzes more rapidly under basic or acidic conditions. Endosulfan I is an organochlorine, cyclodiene derivative. Also a sulfite ester. Incompatible with strong oxidizing and reducing agents. Also incompatible with many amines, nitrides, azo/diazo compounds, alkali metals, and epoxides. As an ester Endosulfan I will hydrolyze to form sulfur dioxide and a diol; reaction is more rapid under basic conditions. Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Highly toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption. There are toxicity and ecotoxicity data available for both endosulfan isomers and several metabolites. Endosulfan is a very toxic chemical for many kinds of animals. Metabolism occurs rapidly, but the oxidized metabolite endosulfan sulfate shows an acute toxicity similar to that of the parent compound. Endosulfan has the potential to cause endocrine disruption in both terrestrial and aquatic species. Endosulfan causes neurotoxicity, haematological effects and nephrotoxicity but shows no carcinogenic or mutagenic properties. Studies vary on the conclusion for teratogenic effects.
 
 
NAME: Endosulfan (beta isomer)
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C9H6Cl6O3S. Formula Weight is 406.9. 3Beta isomer is 213.3 C. Flash point is 11 C. Storing temperature is approx 4¡C. Brown crystals. Melting point 208-210¡C. Used as an insecticide. Insoluble in water. Reacts slowly with water to generate sulfur dioxide. BETA-ENDOSULFAN is a sulfite ester of a chlorinated cyclic diol. Decomposed rapidly by alkali to generate sulfur dioxide. Decomposed by acid. Incompatible with strong oxidizing and reducing agents. may be incompatible with many amines, nitrides, azo/diazo compounds, alkali metals, and epoxides. Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Highly toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption.
 
 
NAME: Endosulfan ether
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C9H6Cl6O. Formula Weight is 342.86. Flash point is greater than 100C. Endosulfan is rapidly absorbed from the intestinal tract and about 30 % of a lethal dose is eliminated during 24 hours in the rat. Leaves from apple trees sprayed with endosulfan contained an ultraviolet irradiation product equal in toxicity to, and more persistent than, the parent compound (Harrison, 1967). Endosulfan given to mice in single doses or repeated daily for 49 days was found in the tissues as the sulfate. When endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, the diol, or the ether were fed to mice, a metabolite considered to be the diol appeared in the urine. Oral doses of the isomers were partly excreted in the faeces unchanged, along with endosulfan sulfate and the diol. No residue was found in blood or brain, but traces of the sulfate appeared in kidney and muscle.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Relative toxicity of endosulfan, its isomers, and formulated products to the freshwater fish Labeo rohita was tested. The 96-h LC50 values showed that toxicity decreased in the following order: isomer A, 35% emulsifiable concentrate, technical endosulfan, 4% dust, and isomer B. The principal method of detoxification was by formation of endosulfan ether in the liver
 
 
NAME: Endosulfan lactone
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are ma-lactone;endolacton;Brn 1322148;CUMENE PESTANAL;ENDOSULFAN-LACTON;ENDOSULFAN LACTONE;ENDOSULFAN LACTONE, 50MG, NEAT;1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-norbornene-2-carboxylcacigam;3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,5,6,7,8,8-hexachloro-4,7-methanoisobenzofuran-1(3h)-o;4,5,6,7,8,8-Hexachloro-4,7-methano1,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydroisobenzofuran-1-one Molecular Formula is C9H4Cl6O2. Formula Weight is 356.84. Endosulfan is a widely used broad-spectrum organochlorine pesticide, which acts as a contact and stomach poison. Nontarget species, such as cattle, fish, birds, and even humans, are also affected. Studies on the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of endosulfan have been inconsistent and nothing is known about the genotoxicity of its metabolites. In the present study, endosulfan (as a commercial isomeric mixture and as the alpha- and beta-isomers), and metabolites of endosulfan (the sulfate, lactone, ether, hydroxyether, and diol derivatives) were assayed for their ability to induce DNA damage in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human lymphocytes using the Comet assay and were assayed for their mutagenicity using the Salmonella reversion assay (Ames test with TA98, TA97a, TA102, TA104, and TA100, with and without S9 activation).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Relative toxicity of endosulfan, its isomers, and formulated products to the freshwater fish Labeo rohita was tested. The 96-h LC50 values showed that toxicity decreased in the following order: isomer A, 35% emulsifiable concentrate, technical endosulfan, 4% dust, and isomer B. The principal method of detoxification was by formation of endosulfan ether in the liver.
 
 
NAME: Endosulfan sulfate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Endosulfan sulphate is a prominent residue found in aquatic bodies, drinking water, food, plants and atmosphere near the area of application. These residues are found only at surface levels ( i.e. only on the surface level of the water, or the top portion of the soil). This is due to its low solubility in water and low binding ability with the soil. But it is soluble in most of the organic solvents. Endosulfan is mainly used on the crops like cotton , cashew , coffee . tea, tobacco ( beware smokers, Endosulfan can blow you away! ) , timber and in some vegetables. Hope you have seen small helicopters or planes flying over agricultural fields about just 2 to 5 metres height above the crop. This is called the Ariel spraying . Endosulfan is mainly applied to agricultural fields by this method. Its spraying also might have contributed a lot to the growth of this pesticide as a danger to the nearby civilians and organisms. It is a broad spectrum pesticide - effective against a large species of pests.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It acts as a contact poison (poisoning when insects comes in contact with the pesticide) .But poison of this compound have created a lot of problems to nature and human beings. Promoting economic crops by putting life in danger definitely make no sense (at least there should be someone to eat the cashew you made!). So we should keep a healthy thought it's alternatives.
 
 
NAME: Endrin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1R,4S,4aS,5S,6S,7R,8R,8aR)-1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-6,7-epoxy-1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene or 1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-exo-1,4-exo-5,8-dimethanonaphthalene. Endrin is a solid, white, almost odorless substance that was used as a pesticide to control insects, rodents, and birds. Endrin does not dissolve very well in water. It has been found in groundwater and surface water, but only at very low levels. It is more likely to cling to the bottom sediments of rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water. Endrin is generally not found in the air except when it was applied to fields during agricultural applications. The persistence of Endrin in the environment depends highly on local conditions. Some estimates indicate that Endrin can stay in soil for over 10 years. Endrin may also be broken down by exposure to high temperatures or light to form primarily Endrin ketone and Endrin aldehyde. It is not known what happens to Endrin aldehyde or Endrin ketone once they are released to the environment. However, the amount of Endrin broken down to Endrin aldehyde or Endrin ketone is very small.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Swallowing large amounts of Endrin can cause convulsions and lead to death within a few minutes or hours. Less serious exposure to Endrin can result in headaches, dizziness, confusion, nervousness, nausea, or vomiting. Long-term effects have not been noted in laborers who have been exposed to Endrin through inhalation or dermal contact (ToxFAQs).The EPA does not classify Endrin as a carcinogen, citing that not enough information is available to deem the substance cancer causing.

              

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NAME: Endrin aldehyde             
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Weight is 381.9 g/mol. Solid. Melting point is 145 Ð 149¼C. Kow is 3.146, 4.7, 5.6. Koc is 4.80. Vapor Pressure (25¼C) 2.0x10-7 mm Hg . ENDRIN ALDEHYDE is a chlorinated aldehyde derivative. Aldehydes are frequently involved in self-condensation or polymerization reactions. These reactions are exothermic; they are often catalyzed by acid. Aldehydes are readily oxidized to give carboxylic acids. Flammable and/or toxic gases are generated by the combination of aldehydes with azo, diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, nitrides, and strong reducing agents. Aldehydes can react with air to give first peroxo acids, and ultimately carboxylic acids. These autoxidation reactions are activated by light, catalyzed by salts of transition metals, and are autocatalytic (catalyzed by the products of the reaction). The addition of stabilizers (antioxidants) to shipments of aldehydes retards autoxidation. ENDRIN ALDEHYDE is a chlorinated aldehyde derivative. Aldehydes are frequently involved in self-condensation or polymerization reactions. These reactions are exothermic; they are often catalyzed by acid. Aldehydes are readily oxidized to give carboxylic acids. Flammable and/or toxic gases are generated by the combination of aldehydes with azo, diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, nitrides, and strong reducing agents. Aldehydes can react with air to give first peroxo acids, and ultimately carboxylic acids. These autoxidation reactions are activated by light, catalyzed by salts of transition metals, and are autocatalytic (catalyzed by the products of the reaction). The addition of stabilizers (antioxidants) to shipments of aldehydes retards autoxidation. Some may burn but none ignite readily. Containers may explode when heated. Some may be transported hot.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Inhalation of material may be harmful. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Inhalation of Asbestos dust may have a damaging effect on the lungs. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Some liquids produce vapors that may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.
 
 
NAME: Endrin ketone       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular formula is C12H8Cl6O. Molecular weight is 380.91. Solubility at 20 to 25C is 0.86. Flash point is 2C. Storing temperature is 2 to 8C. Endrin is a solid, white, almost odorless substance that was used as a pesticide to control insects, rodents, and birds. Exposure to endrin can cause various harmful effects including death and severe central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) injury. Swallowing large amounts of endrin may cause convulsions and kill you in a few minutes or hours.Symptoms that may result from endrin poisoning are headaches, dizziness, nervousness, confusion, nausea, vomiting, and convulsions.No long-term health effects have been noted in workers who have been exposed to endrin by breathing or touching it.Studies in animals confirm that endrin's main target is the nervous system.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Exposure to endrin can cause various harmful effects including death and severe central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) injury. Swallowing large amounts of endrin may cause convulsions and kill you in a few minutes or hours.Symptoms that may result from endrin poisoning are headaches, dizziness, nervousness, confusion, nausea, vomiting, and convulsions.No long-term health effects have been noted in workers who have been exposed to endrin by breathing or touching it.Studies in animals confirm that endrin's main target is the nervous system.
 

NAME: EPN
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C14H14NO4PS. Formula Weight is 323.3. Flash point is 2C. Storing temperature is approximately 4C. Light yellow crystalline powder with an aromatic odor. Used as an insecticide for cotton and an acaricide. Insoluble in water. Hydrolyzed by alkali. Organophosphates, such as EPN, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides. Non-Specific -- Organophosphorus Pesticide, n.o.s.) EPN may burn but does not ignite readily. Container may explode in heat of fire. Fire and runoff from fire control water may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Avoid strong oxidizers. Hydrolyzed by alkali. INSECTICIDE FOR COTTON FORMER USEÊNON-SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDE & ACARICIDE FORMER USEÊExcellent insecticide and acaricide for orchard pests, including apple flea weevil, plum curculio,Êand coddling moth, and for some soil insects. Former useÊEFFECTIVE AGAINST WIDE RANGE OF PESTS, INCL APHIDS, MITES, SCALEÊINSECTS, EUROPEAN CORN BORER, MOSQUITO LARVAE, BOLL WEEVIL, PINKÊBOLLWORM, CODLING MOTH, PLUM CURCULIO & OTHERS. FORMER USEÊEffective at 0.5-1.0 kg ai/hectare against a wide range of lepidopterous larvae, especiallyÊbollworms (Heliothis species and Pectinophora gossypiella) an Alabama argillacea on cotton, riceÊstem borers and other leaf-eating larvae on fruit and vegetables. Former useÊFor tobacco budworm. Former useÊControl of lepidopterous and other leaf-eating larvae on cotton, rice, vegetables, tobacco, fruit,Ênuts, beans, tomatoes, sugar beet, and maize.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: EPN may be fatal if swallowed. It is poisonous if inhaled and extremely hazardous by skin contact. Repeated exposure may, without symptoms, be increasingly hazardous. The estimated fatal oral dose is 0.3 grams for a 150 lb. (70 kg) person. ENP can include convulsions, headaches, dizziness, sweating, unconsciousness, wheezing, muscle cramps. If ENP is ingested, symptoms can extend to abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (PAN Pesticides Database). High levels of ingestion could potentially cause death. PN is expected to be released to the environment primarily during aerial and groundÊspraying of various agricultural crops. If released to soil or water, breakdown of EPN is expectedÊto proceed primarily through hydrolysis and oxidation to phenylphosphonic acid. OtherÊdegradation products are EPN-oxon, desethyl EPN-oxon, O-ethylÊS-methylphenylphosphonothiolate, p-nitrophenol, O-ethyl O-methylphenylphosphonate, andÊO-ethylphenylphosphonate. The half-life of EPN in soil under field conditions has been found toÊrange from about 2 weeks to 1 month. EPN is expected to be relatively immobile in soil. ThisÊcompound is not expected to volatilize significantly from dry soil surfaces. In water, adsorption toÊsuspended solids and sediments may be an important fate process. Significant bioaccumulation inaquatic organisms is expected only when continuous exposure to this compound occurs.ÊVolatilization should not be a significant fate process. Based on a vapor pressure of 9.45X10-7Êmm Hg at 25 deg C, EPN is expected to exist partly in the vapor phase and partly in theÊparticulate phase in the atmosphere. EPN vapor is expected to react rapidly with photochemicallyÊgenerated hydroxyl radicals (half-life 5 hours). Particulate phase EPN may be removed from theÊatmosphere by wet or dry deposition. In addition, EPN has the potential to undergo directÊphotolysis. Workers involved in the manufacturer or use of the pesticide EPN are exposed to thisÊcompound primarily by inhalation and dermal contact.
 
 
NAME: Epoxiconazole
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (2RS,3SR)-1-[3-(2-chlorophenyl)-2,3-epoxy-2-(4-fluorophenyl)propyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole. Chemical name is C17H13ClFN3O. Molecular weight is 329.8. Colourless crystals. Melting point is 136.2 ¼C. Vapor pressure is less than 0.01 mPa at 20 C. KOW logP is 3.44 (pH 7). Henry constant is 4.71 « 10-4 Pa m3 mol-1 (calc.). Density is 1.384 (room temperature). Solubility in water is 6.63 « 10-4 g/100 ml (20 ¼C). In acetone is 14.4, dichloromethane 29.1, heptane 0.04 (all in g/100 ml). No hydrolysis at pH 5 and pH 7 within 12 days. World food supply is projected to face additional stress in the future; within the next decade cereal demands in Europe alone are expected to increase by 21%, while production is projected to increase by only 7% At the same time, two main cereal diseases, leaf blotch (Septoria tritici) and rust (Puccinia triticina), are responsible for up to 30% yield losses. Failure to adequately control these diseases would affect both food availability and food quality.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats >5000 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >2000 mg/kg. Non-irritating to eyes and skin of rabbits. Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >5.3 mg/l air. NOEL (carcinogenicity) for mice 0.81 mg/kg b.w. ADI 0.0032 mg/kg daily.
 
 
NAME: EPTC
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is S-ethyl dipropyl (thiocarbamate). Specific gravity is 0.960 at 25/25C. H20 solubility is 0.375% at 25C. Solubility in other solvents: Miscible with common organic solvents such as acetone, ethyl alcohol, kerosene, MIBK and xylene. Boiling point is 127C. Flashpoint is 112C. Vapor pressure is 4.7 at 25C. EPTC is a pale to dark yellow liquid with an aromatic odor characteristic of the thiocarbamates. EPTC is hydrolyzed by warm strong acids . EPTC is stable under normal temperatures and pressures, but it may pose a slight fire hazard if exposed to heat or flame. Thermal decomposition may release toxic oxides of nitrogen and sulfur Thiocarbamate herbicide EPTC is a selective herbicide used for control of annual grassy weeds, perennial weeds, and some broadleaf weeds in beans, forage legumes, potatoes, corn, and sweet potatoes. It is usually applied pre-emergence, that is before weed seeds germinate, and it is most effective against newly germinated seedlings. EPTC is usually incorporated into the soil immediately after application either mechanically or by overhead irrigation . EPTC is available as emulsifiable concentrates and granular formulations.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: EPTC is slightly toxic via ingestion, with reported oral LD50 values of 1632 mg/kg in rats, 3160 mg/kg in mice, 112 mg/kg in cats, and 2460 mg/kg in rabbits . It is slightly toxic via the dermal route as well, with reported dermal LD50 values of 5000 mg/kg in rabbits and 3200 mg/kg in rats . The reported 1-hour inhalation LC50 in rats of 31.56 mg/L indicates slight toxicity by this route. It is a mild to moderate skin irritant in rabbits, a weak skin sensitizer in guinea pigs, and a mild eye irritant in rabbits . EPTC is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Early symptoms of cholinesterase inhibition are blurred vision, fatigue, headache, vertigo, nausea, pupil contraction, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Severe inhibition of cholinesterase may cause excessive sweating, tearing, slowed heartbeat, giddiness, slurred speech, confusion, excessive fluid in the lungs, convulsions, and coma. Workers subjected to inhalation exposure to EPTC experienced headaches, nausea, general malaise, and impaired working capacity. Animals poisoned in experimental tests displayed excitement, salivation, tearing, spasmodic winking, and depression.
 
 
NAME: Erbon
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)ethyl 2,2-dichloropropanoate. Chemical formula is C11H9Cl5O3. Molecular weight is 366.45g/mol. Exist in solid form. Melting point is 50C. Boling point is 162.5C. Denisty is 1.55g/cm3. Insoluble in water. DEnisty is 1.55g/cm3.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: - Irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Inhalation may cause burning sensation in nasopharynx and chest, coughing, and/or dizziness. Headache, vomiting, diarrhea. Confusion, bizarre or aggressive behavior. Kidney failure, increased heart rate. Metabolic acidosis resulting in peculiar odor on breath.
 
 
NAME: Esfenvalerate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (?S)-?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (2S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutyrate . The unresolved isomeric mixture of this substance has the common name fenvalerate. Molecular weight is 419.9. The pure compound exists as colorless crystals; the technical product as an amber liquid. Melting Point is 59-60 C. Esfenvalerate has replaced the compound fenvalerate for use in the United States. Much of the data for esfenvalerate is closely applicable to the pesticide fenvalerate because the two compounds contain the same components. The only difference in the two products is the relative proportions of the four separate constituents (isomers). Esfenvalerate has become the principal compound of the two because it results in lower application rates than fenvalerate, is less chronically toxic, and is a more powerful insecticide. The compound contains a much higher percentage of the one insecticidally active isomer (84% for esfenvalerate and 22% for fenvalerate). Esfenvalerate is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide which is used on a wide range of pests such as moths, flies, beetles, and other insects. It is used on vegetable crops, tree fruits, and nut crops. It may be mixed with a wide variety of other types of pesticides such as carbamate compounds or organophosphates.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Esfenvalerate is a moderately toxic compound via the oral route. The reported oral LD50 of esfenvalerate is 458 mg/kg in rats. It is slightly toxic via the dermal route, with a reported dermal LD50 of 2500 mg/kg in rabbits. It is practically non-toxic via inhalation, with a reported inhalation LC50 of greater than 2.93 mg/L in rats [2,12]. Because esfenvalerate is a relatively new compound it has little usage history. The bulk of evidence related to acute poisonings in humans due to esfenvalerate comes from incidents in India. Nearly 600 individual cases of poisoning were reported between 1982 and 1988. These cases were due to improper handling of the pesticide. Acute toxic effects were observed in workers and among the general public. Symptoms of acute poisoning included dizziness, burning and itching (which was worsened by sweating and washing). Severe cases of direct contact caused blurred vision, tightness in the chest, and convulsions (2). The changes appear to be reversible. In rats, high acute exposure to esfenvalerate produced muscle incoordination, tremors, convulsions, nerve damage, and weight loss. The compound may produce nausea, vomiting, headache, temporary nervous system effects such as weakness, tremors, and incoordination at acute exposure levels in humans. Esfenvalerate is a strong eye irritant, producing tearing or blurring of vision.
 
 
NAME: Esprocarb
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is S-benzyl (RS)-1,2-dimethylpropyl(ethyl)thiocarbamate. Molecular Formula is C15H23NOS. Formula Weight is 265.41. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Liquid. Density is 1.0353. Vapour pressure is10.1 mPa (25 ¡C). Henry constant is 5.47 ? 10-1 Pa m3 mol-1 ( calc., 20 ¡C). Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water) is logP = 4.6. Solubility in water is 4.9 mg/l (20 ¡C). In ethanol, chlorobenzene, xylene, acetone, acetonitrile >1 g/ kg (25 ¡C). Stable at 120 ¡C. Inhibits lipid synthesis
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: May be irritating to skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Some may be weak inhibitors of cholinesterase, causing headache, dizziness, and nausea.

  

 
NAME: Etaconazole
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1-[(2RS,4RS;2RS,4SR)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-ethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-ylmethyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole. Molecular Formula is C14H15Cl2N3O2. Formula Weight is 328.19. Sterol biosynthesis inhibition. Colourless crystalline solid.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: TOXICITY: Tech (Rat): Oral LD50 1343 mg/kg. Dermal >3100 mg/kg.
 
 
NAME: Ethalfluralin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N-ethyl-?,?,?-trifluoro-N-(2-methylallyl)-2,6-dinitro-p-toluidine.Molecular weight is 333.3. Avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing. Avoid breathing spray mist and vapours. Occupational exposure to this product may be hazardous to your health. When handling, mixing or applying pesticides workers are subject to potential dermal (skin) exposure. Occupational exposure studies have shown that with the proper use of protective clothing much of the potential exposure to ethalfluralin manufacturing concentrate can be reduced.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: To avoid potential injury to future wheat rotational crops, to minimize the potential for carryover and accumulation of soil residues and to reduce the selection and spread of trifluralin resistant green foxtail, it is recommended that growers avoid applying trifluralin and/or ethalfluralin on the same land for two consecutive years.

The blended fertilizer must be spread with a properly calibrated applicator that will result in uniform distribution on the soil surface. Dribble spreaders must be calibrated with the blended fertilizer mixture since the flow pattern will generally be slower than the straight dry fertilizer.

Spin spreaders are not recommended.

 
 
NAME: Ethidimuron
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1-(5-ethylsulfonyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,3-dimethylurea. The name ÒsulfodiazoleÓ has been used in the literature, but it has no official status. Molecular weight is 264.33. Molecular Formula is C7H12N4O3S2. Flash point is greater than 100C. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II. Ethidimuron was formerly used as a non-selective herbicide in non-crop areas.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Skin sensitizer
 
 
NAME: Ethiofencarb
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ?-ethylthio-o-tolyl methylcarbamate. Molecular formula is C11H15NO2S. Molecular weight is 225.31. Storing temperature is approximately 4C. Ethiofencarb undergoes rapid degradation under UV or natural sunlight either on silica gel plates or in a bi-distilled water solution. The half life on silica gel irradiated with sunlight simulating fluorescent tubes was found to be 3 days.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity/symptoms: muscle weakness, dizziness, sweating, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle twitching, slurred speech, coma, seizures, hypertension
 
 
NAME: Ethiolate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is S-ethyl diethyl(thiocarbamate). Molecular formula is C7H15ONS. Molecular weight is 161.27. A yellow liquid with a boiling point of 206¡C; used as a preemergence herbicide for corn. Density is 0.99 g/mL at 20 ¡C. Storing temperature is APPROX 4¡C. A selective herbicide before planting. By Ethanethiol with phosgene generated Ethylthio-A chloride, alkali again in the presence of triethylamine and the two reacted products. China used to control weeds in corn, and often mix with cyproterone Tianjin. Flash point is 84.2C. Refrative index is 1.481. Extinguish with water spray, carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder or appropriate foam. Wear self-contained breathing apparatus and protective clothing to prevent contact with skin and eyes.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Material may be irritating to mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. May be harmful if inhaled. May cause irritation. May be harmful if absorbed through the skin. If swallowed, wash out mouth with water provided person is conscious. Call a physician. If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. In case of contact, immediately wash skin with soap and copious amounts of water. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Call a physician.
 
 
NAME: Ethion
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O,O,O?,O?-tetraethyl S,S?-methylene bis(phosphorodithioate) . Ethion is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill aphids, mites, scales, thrips, leafhoppers, maggots and foliar feeding larvae. Ethion is a clear to yellowish liquid with an unpleasant sulfur-like smell . It may be used on a wide variety of food, fiber and ornamental crops, including greenhouse crops, lawns and turf. Ethion is often used on citrus and apples . It is mixed with oil and sprayed on dormant trees to kill eggs and scales. Ethion may also be used on cattle. It is available in dust, emulsifiable concentrate, emulsifiable solution, granular and wettable powder formulations. Products containing ethion must bear the signal word "WarningÓ. EPA has established re-entry intervals of from 2 to 30 days, depending on the crop, for ethion. Ethion is one of a class of insecticides referred to as organophosphates. These chemicals act by interfering with the activities of cholinesterase, an enzyme that is essential for the proper working of the nervous systems of both humans and insects. Please refer to the Toxicology Information Brief on cholinesterase-inhibition for a more detailed description of this topic.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Ethion affects the nervous system as do other Organophosphates and its primary mechanism is inhibition of cholinesterase with resulting symptoms such as nausea, sweating, diarrhea, loss of bladder control, blurring or dimness of vision, muscle tremors, and labored breathing
 
 
NAME: Ethofenprox
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C25H28O3. Molecular Weight is 376.49. Storing temperature is 0-6¡C. Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Flash point is 165.1C. Boling point is 481.6C.

Ethofenprox (pesticide) exhibits a relatively strong fluorescence in the UV region. Its fluorescence properties were investigated in aqueous solution, organic solvents, and micellar media. The fluorescence intensity of Ethofenprox was enhanced by a factor of 1.2 to 2.7 in the presence of surfactants and by 1.4 in pure organic solvents without significant shift of the excitation and emission wavelengths. The conditions for solid-phase extraction of Ethofenprox from water samples were examined. Among the solid-phase extraction cartridges studied, a Sep Pak C8 with weak sorption ability was found to be the most useful due to the extremely high hydrophobicity of Ethofenprox. For the complete elution of Ethofenprox from the sorbent, an addition of 40%v/v methanol to the sample water was necessary and effective to eliminate the fluorescent impurities of the matrix. The calibration graph obtained was linear over the range of 0.03 to 2.4 mg L(-1) in 100 mL sample. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Ethofenprox in tap, well, and river waters with recoveries of 93.2-95.7%.

 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Ethofenprox is a pesticide of broad-spectrum, highly effective, low toxic, with less residual effect.

  

 
NAME: Ethofumesate 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Chemical name is (RS)-2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethylbenzofuran-5-yl methanesulfonate. Molecular Formula is C13H18O5S. Molecular Weight is 286.34. Flash point is 100C. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Melting point is 69. Boling point is 409. Stable at normal temperatures and pressures. Strong oxidizing agents. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Percent Composition are C 54.53%, H 6.34%, O 27.94%, S 11.20%.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Material may be irritating to mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. May be harmful if inhaled. May cause skin irritation. Harmful if absorbed through skin. May cause eye irritation. Harmful if swallowed. Emits toxic fumes under fire conditions.
 
 
NAME: Ethofumesate, 2-Keto   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C11H12O5S. Formula Weight is 256.277. The intended use of ethofumesate in the crops concerned is not critical with regard to residues in rotational crops. In addition, the possible transfer of residues from treated crops to livestock is not of relevance and therefore no considerations regarding the setting of MRLs for food of animal origin are necessary. Boling point is 167 ¡C/10 mmHg. Density 1.496 g/mL at 25 ¡C. Flash point is 170C. Endosulfan insecticide is a polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects; it is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. Preemergence and early postemergence herbicide agaist the dreaded poa annua (and some others). Bayer's Prograss is the poster child and commonly cited in research and literature. It is very expensive at some $450+ for a 2.5 gal bottle. However, other ethofumesate concentrates are available. UPI makes Poa Constrictor (gotta love the name!) and Bayer also has another sister product to Prograss called Nortron SC. There is supposedly a generic version made by AgValue, but I could not find a source for it. Norton SC is primarily labeled for sugarbeets. However, if you look at the label (see link below), buried in the text is labeling for grass seed crops, namely ryegrass, tall fescue, bentgrass and KBG. Looking at the MSDS, it is apparent the formulation is more closely related to UPI's Poa Constrictor than it is to Prograss. A 2.5 gal bottle of Poa Constrictor or Nortron has 4lb of etho--that is in contrast to 1.5lb in Prograss. That means application rate is more than halfed--9/16 oz/1000 sq.ft. for KBG!!! When you factor in that 2.5 gal of Nortron is half the cost of 2.5 gal of Prograss, the cost savings is 4x!!! An additional benefit of Nortron or Poa Constrictor is that their products are non-flammable. Prograss is highly flammable (inert ingredients: petroleum distillates) and will need special shipping arrangements accordingly.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: This compound is extremely toxic to most fish and can cause massive mortalities. In fish, it causes marked changes in Na and K concentrations, decrease in blood Ca2+ and Mg levels and inhibits Na, K and Mg-dependent ATPase. Short-term repeat dose oral studies in rat, mouse and dog showed that ethofumesate was very well tolerated and that the principle target organs were the liver and kidney. In these sub-chronic studies, no effect levels of c. 200 mg/kg/day, c. 1200 mg/kg/day and 250 mg/kg/day were established in the rat, mouse and dog, respectively. No effects whatsoever were seen in a sub-acute dermal toxicity in the rabbit at the dose limit of 1000 mg/kg/day. No evidence of oncogenicity was observed in carcinogenicity studies in the rat and hamster. Chronic toxicity studies performed on the rat and dog confirmed that the material well tolerated. In these studies the liver was the major target organ and no effect levels were established at 135 (m) and 164 (f) mg/kg/day in rat and 118 (m) and 109 (f) mg/kg/day in dog. Ethofumesate did not affect reproduction in a multi-generation study in the rat. No evidence of embryotoxicity or developmental toxicity was seen in either the rat or the rabbit.
 
 
NAME: Ethoprophos
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (nematicides, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemcial name is O-ethyl S,S-dipropyl phosphorodithioate. Chemical formula is C8H19O2PS2 . Molecular weight is 242.3.Density is 1.094. Ethoprophos is very stable in acid aqueous medium up to 100 ¡C,but is rapidly hydrolysed in alkaline media at 25 ¡C and above. In water, 750 mg/L (at 25 ¡C) very soluble in organic solvents. Ethorop is one of a family of organophosphorus pesticides. It is combustible though it may require some effort to ignite. It is very toxic by skin absorption and inhalation. It may or may not be water soluble. Container may explode in heat of fire. Fire and runoff from fire control water may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Stable in water. Organothiophosphates, such as ETHOPROPHOS, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides. colourless clear liquid, odour not assessed. Melting point is -70C. Boiling point is 86 to 90C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: This material is extremely toxic; the probable oral lethal dose for humans is 5-50 mg/kg, or between 7 drops and 1 teaspoonful for a 150 lb. person. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor which affects the nervous system.
 
 
NAME: Ethoxyfen-ethyl   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl O-[2-chloro-5-(2-chloro-?,?,?-trifluoro-p-tolyloxy) benzoyl]-L-lactate. Molecular formula is C19H15Cl2F3O5. This substance is a derivative of ethoxyfen. Brown thick liquid. ethoxyfen-ethyl ester can eliminate grassy weed in the soybean field and broadleaves, and weeds can be controlled during the whole growth season by using the pesticide once. Furthermore, mixture of the two substances verified through test represents obvious synergy with good effect of eliminating grassy weed and broadleaves compared with the single dosage and lower use level.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Ethoxyfen-ethyl caused certain injury on soybean,the injury increased with application rate increased,soybean could recover safely from injury,few soybean applied by ethoxyfen-ethyl with high concentrate(100,120 mL a.i.áha-1)was dead,injury was similar to that of acifluorfen.Ethoxyfen-ethyl had no residue in soil and it is safe to succeeding crop such as maize(Zea mays L)and wheat(Triticum aestivum L.).Ethoxyfen-ethyl applied with methylated vegetable oil provided a dramatic increase in weeds control efficacy.Concern of both control efficacy and injury, the optimal application rate of ethoxyfen-ethyl 30% aqueous solution is 20~30 mL a.i.áha-1 applied in soybean,and ethoxyfen-ethyl should be applied with 0.5% spray volume methylated vegetable oil.
 
 
NAME: Ethoxyquin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Food preservative
 
DESCRIPTION: Ethoxyquin is registered for use as an antioxidant to control scald (browning) in pears. It is applied post-harvest by spraying/drenching, paper wrapping, or a combination thereof. While Ethoxyquin cannot be used in human foods, it continues to be used in many pet food brands. Ethoxyquin has been found to promote kidney carcinogenesis and significantly increase the incidence of stomach tumors and enhanced bladder carcinogesis. For human consumption, Ethoxyquin is permitted in certain spices to prevent loss of color. Ethoxyquin is permitted in pet foods, fats and oils at levels not exceeding 0.915% in the finished product (e.g. 0.015% as fed basis). It is readily absorbed, metabolized and excreted in urine and feces, with residual levels in liver, gastrointestinal tract and adipose liver. is aÊquinoline-basedÊantioxidantÊused as aÊfood preservativeÊ(E324) and aÊpesticideÊ(under commercial names such as "Stop-Scald"). It is commonly used as a preservative in pet foods to prevent theÊrancidificationÊof fats.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The Ethoxyquin risk assessment was done using a streamlined process for lower risk/ exposure pesticide chemicals. Although the Ethoxyquin toxicology database is not complete, the toxicology database provides adequate information for evaluating and characterizing the risks under FIFRA and FQPA for the limited use of this chemical. Ethoxyquin has low to moderate acute toxicity by the oral (Category III), dermal (Category III), and inhalation (Category III) exposure routes. It is not an eye irritant (Category IV), and it produces minimal irritation to the skin (Category IV). Tests in animals show it to have a weak sensitizing potential, and extensive human experience from the use of this chemical showed strong association with contact dermatitis that ceased upon discontinuation of working in an ethoxyquin environment. The primary target organs affected by ethoxyquin in experimental animals are the liver and the kidneys, and studies indicate that ethoxyquin is not a teratogen or a developmental toxicant in rats or rabbits. There is low concern (and no residual uncertainty) for pre- and/or postnatal toxicity resulting from exposure to ethoxyquin. Ethoxyquin has not been tested for its carcinogenic potential, though a closely related chemical, 1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline, showed some evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats. Here has been some speculation that Ethoxyquin in pet foods might be responsible for multiple health problems. To date, theÊU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationÊ(FDA) has only found a verifiable connection between Ethoxyquin and buildup ofÊprotoporphyrin IXÊin the liver, as well as elevations in liver-related enzymes in some animals, but there are no known health consequences from these effects.ÊUntil further evidence is reported, the FDA has asked pet food manufacturers to voluntarily limit ethoxyquin levels to 75Êppm. However, most pet foods that contain Ethoxyquin have never exceeded this amount.
 
 
NAME: Ethylenethiourea 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular formula is C3H6N2S. Molecular Weight is 102.17. Solid. Melting Point is 203 to 204 ¡C. Soluble in water (20 g/L at 30 ¡C), ethanol, methanol, ethylene glycol and pyridine; slightly soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide; insoluble in acetone, benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether and ligroin ( Ethylenethiourea (ETU) is a metabolite and decomposition product of the ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) (EBDC) fungicides. It was first evaluated in 1974, and MRLs have been established to reflect maximum residue levels in raw agricultural commodities at harvest; they do not include ETU formed from ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) residues during processing. Ethylenethiourea is used mainly in the rubber industry as an accelerator for the vulcanization of polychloroprene (neoprene) and other rubbers. The use of thioureas is decreasing, and it is supplied preferably as polymer-bound granulates, which effectively prevent exposure to and inhalation of thiourea dust
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Ethylene thiourea is an animal teratogen and carcinogen [3,4]. Extra care must be taken to avoid inhalation, ingestion or skin contact. Keep ETU in a bottle labelled "animal carcinogen" and place the bottle in a resealable thick-walled plastic bag in locked storage.
 
 
NAME: Etoxazole 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-5-tert-butyl-2-[2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1,3-oxazol-4-yl]phenetole. Molecular formula is C21H23F2NO2 .Molecular weight is 359.41. Storing temperature is 0 to 6 C. The mode of action of the 2,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazoline acaricide/insecticide etoxazole has been argued to be moulting inhibition, but experimental results supporting this hypothesis are lacking. This study investigated the effect of etoxazole on chitin biosynthesis in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Etoxazole induced moulting defects in fall armyworm larvae similar, if not identical, to those caused by benzoylphenylureas, a well-known class of insecticidal chitin biosynthesis inhibitors. Furthermore, in contrast to untreated larvae, the chitin content in the integuments of larvae several days after treatment did not differ from that in freshly ecdysed individuals, thus suggesting strong chitin biosynthesis inhibition in vivo.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: DPR found the submitted toxicology studies adequate to satisfy the data requirements of the Birth Defects Prevention Act (Food and Agricultural Code section 13121 et. al.). A possible adverse health effect was observed in the mouse lymphoma assay for genotoxicity. A neurotoxicity study is not required at this time. DPR has not yet prioritized etoxazole for risk assessment. DPR prioritizes pesticide active ingredients for risk assessment based on the nature of the potential adverse health effects, number of potential adverse health effects, number of species affected, NOELs, potential for human exposure, use patterns, and similar factors.

   

 
NAME: Etridiazole   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl 3-trichloromethyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl ether. Molecular Formula is C5H5Cl3N2OS. Molecular Weight is 247.53. Flash point is 154.5 ¡C. Storage temperature is 0-6¡C. Melting point si 22C. Boling point is 113C. Very weak base. Not explosive or oxidizing. Etridiazole is a fungicide used to control damping-off, root rot and stem rot caused by Pythium and Phytophthora. It is used on golf course turf, cotton and nursery ornamentals, non-bearing citrus, non-bearing coffee, and mixed with potting soil for greenhouse use. It is also used as a seed treatment on barley, beans, corn, cotton, peanuts, peas, sorghum, soybeans, safflower and wheat. Seven states hold special local need registrations for use in tobacco transplant floatbeds.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Contact with protective and curative action. Lipid synthesis inhibitor. Skin sensitizer. Possible liver toxicant. Etridiazole generally has been shown to have low to moderate acute oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity. It is an eye irritant and a skin sensitizer. Toxicity Categories, which range from I (most toxic) to IV (least toxic), were III or IV for etridiazole. As the result of acute exposure from a single dose, etridiazole has been shown to cause reduced fetal body weights, decreased viability and external and skeletal malformations in rabbit fetuses. These effects were seen at the same dose at which maternal toxicity occurred, indicating no increased susceptibility among developing fetuses over that of the parent. On a chronic basis, the organ most sensitive to toxicity is the liver, which can result in, among other things, increased liver weight, cellular changes, and tumor formation.
 

NAME: Etrimfos      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O-6-ethoxy-2-ethylpyrimidin-4-yl O,O-dimethyl phosphorothioate. Molecular Formula is C10H17N2O4PS. Formula Weight is 292.29. Flash point is 100 ¡C. Storing temperature is APPROX 4¡C. Percent Composition are C 41.09%, H 5.86%, N 9.58%, O 21.90%, P 10.60%, S 10.97%. Colorless oil, slight characteristic odor. Melting point is 3.35C. Density is 1.195. Vapor pressure at 20¡ is 6.5 « 10-5 mm Hg. Soluble in water at 23-24¡C is 40 ppm. Miscible with ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethyl acetate, acetone, ether, chloroform, xylene, hexane. Etrimfos is rapidly degraded to water-soluble metabolites, mainly desmethyletrimfos (II) and EEHP (III), when incubated with rat or mouse liver subcellular fractions. The oxygen-analogue of etrimfos could not be found. Glutathione-transferases and to a lesser extent mixed-function oxidases are the main groups of enzymes responsible for etrimfos metabolism
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Moderately toxic. Toxicity data: LD50 in male rats, mice (mg/kg): 1800, 437 orally; LC50 in carp (mg/l): 13.6 (48 hr); 13.3 (96 hr) (Knutti)
 
   

NAME: Eugenol 

 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insect attractants)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol There is no ISO common name for this substance; the trivial name ÒeugenolÓ. Chemical name is CH2CH2CH2C6H3(OCH3)OH.   Molecular Weight is 164.20. Physical state clear to pale yellow oily liquid. Melting point is -9 C. Boling Point is 254 C. Specific gravity is 1.066. Solubility in water is less than 1 mg/ml Miscible in alcohol, ether, Chloroform; Soluble in acetic acid, alkali hydroxide solutions. Eugenol, allyl chain-substituted guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol), is a clear to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil and cinnamon. It is very slightly soluble in water and soluble in organic solvents. It has a spicy odor and taste of clove. Eugenol is used in perfumeries, flavorings, essential oils and in medicine (local antiseptic and analgesic). It is used in the production of isoeugenol for the manufacture of vanillin. Eugenol has wide application in dentistry for analgesic and antiseptic properties. Eugenol derivatives or methoxyphenol derivatives in wider classification are used in perfumery and flavoring. They are used in formulating insect attractants and UV absorbers, analgesics, biocides and antiseptics. They are also used in manufacturing stabilizers and antioxidants for plastics and rubbers.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Harmful if swallowed. May cause sensitization by skin contact or if inhaled. Respiratory, skin and eye irritant.
 
 
NAME: Exaltolide [15-Pentadecanol
 
CLASSIFICATION: Use as a fixative in perfumery
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular formula is C15H28O2. Molecular Weight is 240.38. Boiling Point is 137 ¡ C. Temperature is 34-36 C. Melting point is 32C. Refractive index of 1.4633 (41 ¡ C). With very delicate Ambergris the aroma of musk. Angelica dahurica exists in oil. This is an extremely valuable spices. Preparation for the High Flavor. Synthesis of 11 acid can be used as raw material through a series of reaction course and obtained. Percent Composition are C 74.95%, H 11.74%, O 13.31%. Thick oil. Odor of amber and musk. Index of refraction is nD20 1.4708.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: May be irritating to the skin and eyes. Prolonged contact, as with clothing wetted with material, may cause more severe irritation and discomfort. Vapors or mist, in excess of permissible concentration, or in unusually high concentration generated from spraying, heating the material or as from exposure in poorly ventilated areas or confined spaces, may cause irritation of the throat and nose, headache, nausea and drowsiness.
 
 
NAME: Famoxadon           
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-3-anilino-5-methyl-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione. Molecular Formula is C22H18N2O4. Molecular Weight is 374.39. Melting point is141.3Ð142.3C. Vapor pressure is 6.4?10?7 Pam3 mol?1 at 20 ?C.Solubility in water is 52 ?gL?1 at 20C. Readily soluble in most organic solvents. Stability Stable in acidic aqueous solution. Unstable in neutral to basic conditions. Stable in most organic solvents such as acetone, acetonitrile, and ethyl acetate. The oxazolidinedione ring is unstable in aqueous basic solution; the NÐN bond is also susceptible to cleavage when attacked by hydroxyl radicals. Use pattern Famoxadone is an oxazolidinedione fungicide acknowledged for effective preventive effects and broad fungicidal spectrum. Famoxadone is used to control.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:      Famoxadone caused some toxicity in subchronic animal feeding studies. In a subchronic oral toxicity study with famoxadone in rats, mild hemolytic anemia in males and females was reported at 13.0 milligrams per kilogram body weight per day (mg/kg/day) and 16.6 mg/kg/day, respectively. The respective no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) were 3.3 and 4.2 mg/kg/day. In mice, mild hemolytic anemia and hepatotoxicity occurred at 534 mg/kg/day in males and 757 mg/kg/day in females, with respective NOELs of 62.4 and 79.7 mg/kg/day. In dogs, an increased incidence of cataracts was observed in males at 10 mg/kg/day, but not at 1.3 mg/kg/day. In females, this effect occurred at the lowest dose tested, which was 1.4 mg/kg/day.    
 
 
NAME: Famphur    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are O-4-dimethylsulfamoylphenyl O,O-dimethyl phosphorothioate or 4-dimethoxyphosphinothioyloxy-N,N-dimethylbenzenesulfonamide. Molecular Formula is C10H16NO5PS2. Formula Weight is 325.34. Flash point is greater than 100C. Storing temperature is approximately 4C. Crystalline powder. Very toxic. Cholinesterase inhibitor. Restricted use as insecticide. Slightly soluble in water. Organothiophosphates, such as FAMPHUR, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:          Differences in toxicity of organophosphorus compounds among species is often associated with differential degradation rates, pathways, and metabolites. Although injections of famphur were equally toxic to mice (Mus sp. ), the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), and the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus), famphur was rapidly degraded by mice (91.7% degraded within 1 h after injection) and the cockroach (81.5% in 1 h); however, the milkweed bug degraded only 15.4% during a similar period (O'Brien et al. 1965). The variations in degradation rate among mice and cockroaches were relatively small, about 1.9 times. Despite the great similarity in famphur toxicity to mice and cockroaches, net famoxon production-like famphur persistence--was very low in the mouse but 10 times higher in the milkweed bug. The cholinesterase activity in the milkweed bug was 32 times more resistant to inhibition by famoxon than either mouse or cockroach cholinesterase, and this could account for the comparatively slow breakdown of famphur by the milkweed bug
 
 
NAME: Fenamidone     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (S)-1-anilino-4-methyl-2-methylthio-4-phenylimidazolin-5-one. Molecular Formula is C17H17N3OS. Formula Weight is 311.4. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Protective and curative action. Respiration inhibitor. Often available as a soluble concentrate that is diluted with water and used as a spray. Vapour pressure is 3.4 á 10-7 hPa at 25¡C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Possible liver and thyroid toxicant        
 
 
NAME: Fenamiphos sulfoxide 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are BAY-68138 sulfoxide; Fenamiphos Sulfoxide; Enamiphos Sulphoxide; Fenamiphos-Sulfoxid Pestanal, 100 MG;Fenamiphos sulfoxide 50mg [31972-43-7];N-Isopropylphosporamidic acid ethyl 4-(methylsulfinyl)-3-methylphenyl ester;N-Isopropylamidophosphoric acid ethyl 4-(methylsulfinyl)-3-methylphenyl ester;N-Isopropylamidophosphoric acid ethyl[3-methyl-4-(methylsulfinyl)phenyl] ester. Molecular Formula is C13H22NO4PS. Formula Weight is 319.36. Flash point is 65 ¡C. Storing temperature is 2-8¡C. Used in bananas, pineapples, citrus fruit, pome fruit, stone fruit, vines, hops, cotton, cocoa, coffee, okra, peanuts, soya beans, cucurbits, tomatoes, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beet, ornamentals, tobacco, and turf. Has secondary activity against sucking insects and spider mites.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral Acute oral LD50 for male and female rats c. 6, mice, dogs and cats c. 10 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats c. 80 mg/kg. Slightly irritant to skin and eyes (rabbits). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats c. 0.12 mg/l air (aerosol). NOEL (2 y) for rats 1, mice 10 mg/kg diet; (12 mo) for dogs 1 mg/kg diet. ADI (JMPR) 0.0008 mg/kg . Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) Ib; EPA (formulation) I EC hazard T+; R28| T; R24
 
 
NAME: Fenamiphos-sulfone 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (nematicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Fenamiphos (0-ethyl-0(3-methyl-4-methylthiophenyl)-isopropylamido-phosphate),an organophosphorous pesticide, is widely used as a systemic and contact insecticide against soil nematodes in turf and horticultural crops around the world including Australia. This pesticide has been classified as highly toxic by the US EPA. There are reports on contamination of water bodies with fenamiphos and its metabolites due to their high mobility in soil. The data available on the environmental fate of fenamiphos is limited given that the previously published research focus has been temperate soils. This research focuses on (a) the fate of fenamiphos and its metabolites in soils from Australia and Ecuador, (b) the toxicity of fenamiphos and its metabolites to biota including algae, Daphnia and earthworms (c) the bioavailability of fenamiphos and its metabolites in long term contaminated soils and (d) the bioremediation of fenamiphos and its toxic metabolites by a novel bacterium. Acute toxicity of fenamiphos to earthworms was studied in three different soils. The LC50 of fenamiphos to earthworm corresponded to 175 mg/ kg. Residues of fenamiphos caused a reduction in the biomass of worms, especially the ones exposed to the pesticide in the acidic soil as the pesticide showed to be more persistent in this soil. In vitro experiments suggest that fenamiphos is biotransformed in the earthworms principally to its oxide.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:     The acute toxicity of an organophosphorous pesticide, fenamiphos and its metabolites, fenamiphos sulfoxide (FSO), fenamiphos sulfone (FSO(2)), fenamiphos phenol (FP), fenamiphos sulfoxide phenol (FSOP) and fenamiphos sulfone phenol (FSO(2)P), to the aquatic alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the terrestrial alga Chlorococcum sp. was studied. The toxicity followed the order: fenamiphos phenol>fenamiphos sulfone phenol>fenamiphos sulfoxide phenol>fenamiphos. The oxidation products of fenamiphos, FSO and FSO(2) were not toxic to the algal species up to 100 mg L(-1). Both algae were able to transform fenamiphos, FSO and FSO(2), while the phenols were found to be stable in the incubation media. Bioaccumulation of both fenamiphos and its metabolites was observed in the case of Chlorococcum sp. while only metabolites were accumulated in P. subcapitata. This study demonstrates that (i) the hydrolysis products of fenamiphos, FSOP and FSO(2)P are more toxic to both fresh water and soil algae than their parent chemicals,     

                 

 
NAME: Fenarimol  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-2,4?-dichloro-?-(pyrimidin-5-yl)benzhydryl alcohol. Molecular Formula is C17H12Cl2N2O. Molecular Weight is 331.20. Meltin point is 117 to 119C. Synonyms: ÇalphaÈ-(2-Chlorophenyl)-ÇalphaÈ-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol; Bloc;(2-Chlorophenyl)-ÇalphaÈ-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol;EL 222; Fenarimol; Rimidin;Rubigan;(2-Chlorophenyl)(4-chlorophenyl)5-pyrimidinylmethanol. Crystalline solid. White to off-white. No odor.Fenarimol is soluble in such organic solvents as acetone, acetonitrite, benzene, chloroform, and methanol, but only slightly soluble in hexane and practically insoluble in water.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:    This product is toxic to fish. Do not apply directly to water. Do not apply when weather conditions favor runoff or drift from the target area. Do not contaminate water by cleaning of equipment or disposal of wastes.    

 

 
NAME: Fenazaflor 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricides, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is phenyl 5,6-dichloro-2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazole-1-carboxylate. Yellowish crystalline solid . Inhibits oxidative phosphorylation. Molecular Weight is 375.13. Molecular Formula is C15H7Cl2F3N2O2. Boiling point is 434.3 ¡C at 760 mmHg. Storage Temperature is Approx 4¡C. Flash Point: 216.4 ¡C. Density is 1.55 g/cm3. Surface Tension is 44.4 dyne/cm. Enthalpy of Vaporization is 69.04 kJ/mol. Vapour Pressure is 9.59E-08 mmHg at 25¡C
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Harmful in contact with skin or if swallowed. Harmful if swallowed . Very Toxic to aquatic organisms. May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
 
 
NAME: Fenazaflor metabolite    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Acaricide, Insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is phenyl 5,6-dichloro-2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazole-1-carboxylate Empirical Formula is C15H7Cl2F3N2O2 . Molecular Weight is 375.13. Flash point is 216.4C. Storing temperature is 2 to 8C. Flash point is greater than 100C. Synonyms are nc5016;tarzol;lovozal;oms1243;Lavozal;ent27438;fenzaflor;nsc191025;fenozaflor;FENAZAFLOR. Inhibits oxidative phosphorylation. Yellowish crystalline solid. Decomposes before boiling. Melting point 103C. Not highly flammable. Density: 1.55 g/cm3    
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Harmful in contact with skin or if swallowed. TOXICITY CLASS: II TOXICITY: (Rat): Oral LD50 283 mg/kg.

 

 
NAME: Fenazaquin 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide , insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4-tert-butylphenethyl quinazolin-4-yl ether. Molecular Formula is C20H22N2O.Formula Weight is 306.4Density is 1.102 g/ml. Flash Point is 165.1C. Boiling Point is 461C. A mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor with contact action. Usually supplied as a suspension concentrate that is diluted with water and applied as a spray. Melting point is 80.5. Decompose before boiling. Not highly flammable. 
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Moderately toxic. Harmful by inhalation. Possible liver toxicant. Very Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Orl-rat LD50:50 mg/kg.

 

 
NAME: Fenbuconazole
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-phenyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)butyronitrile. Molecular Formula is C19H17ClN4. Formula Weight is 336.82. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Systemic protectant and curative, acts by inhibiting sterol biosynthesis in fungi. Often supplied as a oil emulsion which is mixed with water and applied as a spray. Not highly flammable. Percent Composition are C 67.75%, H 5.09%, Cl 10.53%, N 16.63%. White crystalline solid. Melting point is 124-126C. Vapor pressure (20¡C) is 0.37 ? 10-7 torr. Solubility in water (25¡C) is 0.2 ppm. Solibiliy in common organic solvents. Insoluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Used as a agricultural fungicide. This product is relatively stable and non-corrosive under normal, dry storage conditions. Avoid contact with sources of ignition. Fenbuconazole is highly adsorbed to most soils, and is therefore not subject to leaching. Information on degradation is not available.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Possible liver & kidney toxicant . Toxicity data is LD50 in rats (mg/kg): >2000 orally; >5000 dermally (Driant).        

    

 
NAME: Fenchlorazole-ethyl     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-trichloromethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-
3-carboxylate. Synonyms are Fenchlorazole-ethyl ;ethyl 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(trichloromethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylate; This substance is a derivative of fenchlorazole. Molecular Formula is C12H8Cl5N3O2. Formula Weight is 403.48. Accelerates the metabolic breakdown of fenoxaprop. White solid. Density is 1.65 g/cm3. Flash Point is 237.9 ¡C . Melting Point is 110 ¡C. Surface Tension is 53 dyne/cm. Enthalpy of Vaporization is 73.22 kJ/mol. Surface Tension is 53 dyne/cm.Enthalpy of Vaporization is 73.22 kJ/mol. Index of Refraction is 1.645. Molar Refractivity is 88.4 cm3 .Molar Volume is 243.8 cm3.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: LD50 in rats oral >2gm/kg (2000mg/kg). Altered sleep time including change in righting reflex. Changes in motar activity. Lungs, thrax, or respiration depression.
 
 
NAME: Fenchlorphos    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O,O-dimethyl O-2,4,5-trichlorophenyl phosphorothioate. Molecular Formula is C8H8Cl3O3PS. Formula Weight is 321.55. Flash point is -18 ¡C. Storage temperature is APPROX 4¡C. White to light-tan crystalline solid. Melting point is 41¡ C, Density is 1.49 g cm-3 at 25¡C. Used as an insecticide. Degrades readily in the environment by hydrolysis and oxidation. FENCHLORPHOS is non-flammable and non-combustible. Decomposes with heating to evolve toxic and corrosive vapors (hydrogen chloride, phosphorus oxides, sulfur oxides). Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Systemic, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Exisit in white powder form. The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of hydrogen chloride, phosphorous oxides and sulfur oxides.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Biocidal (toxic to all animal life in differing degrees) by its action as a cholinesterase inhibitor. Harmful in contact skin or if swallowed . The substance may cause effects on the nervous system , resulting in convulsions. Cholinesterase inhibitor. The effects may be delayed. Medical observation is indicated.        

   

 
NAME: Fenchlorphos-oxon          
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C8H8Cl3O4P. Formula Weight is 305.48. Synonmous are dowco101;phosphoricacid,dimethyl2,4,5 trichlorophenylester; ronneloxon; ronneloxygenanalog; ronnoxon;ronoxon;FENCHLORPHOS-O-ANALOGUE; FENCHLORPHOS-OXON. Flash point is -18C. Storing temperature is approx 4C. White to light-tan crystalline solid. Melting point is 41C. Density is 1.49 g cm-3 at 25¡C. Used as an insecticide. Degrades readily in the environment by hydrolysis and oxidation. FENCHLORPHOS is non-flammable and non-combustible. Decomposes with heating to evolve toxic and corrosive vapors (hydrogen chloride, phosphorus oxides, sulfur oxides). Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Biocidal (toxic to all animal life in differing degrees) by its action as a cholinesterase inhibitor.         
 
 
NAME: Fenclorim  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4,6-dichloro-2-phenylpyrimidine. Molecular Formula is C10H6Cl2N2 . Molecular Weight is 225.08. Form Colourless crystals. Melting point is 96.9 ¼C. Vapour pressure is 12 mPa (20 ¼C). KOW logP is 4.17. Henry is 1.1 Pa m3 mol-1 (calc.) . Density is 1.5 g/cm3 (20 ¼C). Solubility in water 2.5 mg/l (20 ¼C). In acetone 14%, cyclohexanone 28%, dichloromethane 40%, toluene 35%, xylene 30%, hexane 4%, methanol 1.9%, n-octanol 4.2%, and isopropanol 1.8%. Stable in neutral, acidic and weakly alkaline media. Stable up to 400 ¼C. Herbicide safener. Taken up rapidly by the roots of germinating rice seeds, and protects them from potential damage caused by pretilachlor. Used as a safener for pretilachlor in direct-seeded rice. The safe agent of pyridine herbicide, to prevent the harm of pretilachlor to rice in water field, the dosage is 100-200g AI/h with pretilachlor in 1:3, 1:2 in warm zone.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute oral LD50 for male rats 2816,female rats 2146 mg/kg. Acute percutaneous LD50 for rabbits > 5000 , rats> 2000 mg/kg. Mild skin irritant; slightly irritating to eyes. Mild skin sensitizer. LC50(1h) for rats > 5.5 mg/1air.            
 
 
NAME: Fenfuram
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-methyl-3-furanilide. Molecular Formula is C12H11NO2. Formula Weight is 201.22. Synonyms are wl22361;fenuram;Furanil;PANO-RAM;PESTANAL;FENFURAM;fenfurame;Fenfuramid;fenfuram (bsi,iso);2-methyl-3-furanilid. Inhibits mitochondrial function. Colorless crystals. Usually supplied as a liquid concentrate or in a powder formulation. Melting point is 110C. Boling point is 245C. Flash point is 102C. Insoluble in water. Strong oxidizing agents.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Emits toxic fumes under fire conditions. May be harmful if inhaled. Material may be irritating to mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. May cause skin irritation. May be harmful if absorbed through the skin. Colourless crystals. Usually supplied as a liquid concentrate or in a powder formulation. Hydrolysed in strong acid and alkaline media  
 
TOXICITY: (Rat): Oral LD50 12,900 mg/kg. Inhalation LC50 >10.3 gr/m3 of air. No-effect level of 17 mg/kg body wt. /day for 3-month feeding study. Negative Ames mutagenicity test.
 
 
NAME: Fenhexamid
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2?,3?-dichloro-4?-hydroxy-1methylcyclohexanecarboxanilide. Molecular weight is 302.2. Fenhexamid prevents fungi from infecting plants by inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth. The fungicide is absorbed into the outer waxy layer of plant surfaces and is protected from being washed off by rainfall or irrigation. White powder. No characteristic odour. Relative density is 1.34 g/mL at 20¡C. Fenhexamid is stable to hydrolysis but rapidly degrades in laboratory aqueous photolysis studies. The major photolytic degradation products were dechlorinated and hydroxylated forms of fenhexamid and CO2.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxic to fish and aquatic organisms. This product is slightly orrotating to the skin. This product is not a skin sensitizer. If absorbed through the skin, this substance is considered practically non-toxic to internal organs.
 
 
NAME: Fenitrothion.
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O,O-Dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) . In experiments, fenitrothion at sublethal doses affected the motor movement of marsupials; and at acute dose levels it reduced the energy of birds. Appearance: Pure material forms a yellowish brown liquid with an unpleasant odor. 

Molecular Weight is 277.25. Solubility in water at 20 degrees C, 30 mg/l; at 30 degrees C, 14 mg/l water; nearly insoluble in water. Readily soluble in common organic solvents, e.g. acetone, alcohol, benzene and chlorinated hydrocarbons. dichloromethane, 2-propanol, toluene. Hardly soluble in n-hexane. Soluble in ethers, methanol, xylene, ketones, esters, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Low solubility in alaphatic hydrocarbons. At 20 -25 degrees C, > 1 kg/kg dichloromethane, methanol and xylene, 42 g/kg haxane, 0.1 - 1.0 kg/kg propan-2-ol. It is hydrolyzed by alkali; at 30 degrees C, 50% loss occurs in 4.5 hours in 10M sodium hydroxide. Melting Point is 0.3 degrees C. Vapor Pressure is 7 x 10 to the minus 5 mbar at 20 degrees C (13);18 mPa at 20 degrees C. Partition Coefficient is 2380. Fenitrothion is completely stable for two years if stored at temperatures between 20 and 25 degrees C. Storage temperature should not exceed 40 degrees C. It is unstable in alkaline media. The thermal stability of this compound is low, and when it is heated above 100 degrees C it undergoes Pishchemuka isomerization and may decompose explosively. It must be stored in enameled, aluminum or glass containers. Iron promotes decomposition of fenitrothion. Specific gravity is1.3227; 1.32-1.34; 1.3084 at 20 degrees C. Boiling point is109 degrees C at 0.13 mbar; 164 degrees C at 1.3 mbar (13). 140-145 degrees C/0.1 mmHg. 244 degrees F (118 degrees C) at 0.05 mmHg (113). 118 degrees C at 0.01 mmHg. Flashpoint is166 degrees C (closed cup). Volatility is 0.09 mg/m3.

 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The acute toxicity of fenitrothion to mammals is considered to be low. The acute oral LD50 for rats ranges between 250-800 mg/kg; 715-870 mg/kg for mice; and 500 mg/kg for guinea pigs. The acute dermal LD50 for rats is >890 mg/kg and >3,000 mg/kg for mice. The acute inhalation LC50 in rats was reported to be 5.0 mg/l. The oral acute toxicity for cats was 142 mg/kg. Chronic symptoms in humans include: general malaise, fatigue, headache, loss of memory and ability to concentrate, anorexia, nausea, thirst, loss of weight, cramps, muscular weakness and tremors.        
 
 
Fenitrothion-oxon
 
NO ENTRY
 
 
NAME: Fenobucarb 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-2-sec-butylphenyl methylcarbamate. Molecular Formula is C12H17NO2. Formula Weight is 207.27. Flash point is 11 ¡C. Storing temperature is 0-6¡C. Contact acting with long residual effects. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Melting point 31.5C. Decompose before boiling. Contact acting with long residual effects. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A high efficiency and low poison carbamate pesticide andalso little effect for human and natural enemies. It is mostly used to preventand control rice delphacid and rice leafhpo-oers. It shall be use according to the general rules for safe appliaction of pesticides. In case of being poisoned, it is recommended to take atropine or be injected and avoid using oxime meddicine such as morphine, pralidoxime iodide etc
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity: BPMC in not toxic orally[oral LD50(rat)=410mg/kg] ordermallydermalLD50(rat)=4200 mg/kg]. And toxicity for fish(common carp) is TLM50=16.2ppm . BPMC is a low mammalian toxic carbamate with a good action against leafhoppers and planthoppers major pests of rice. It acts as a contact poison. It has a relatively fast killing action and a moderately long residual action. But it is none phytotoxic to rice and harmless to beneficial predatory and pollination insects.        
 
 
NAME: Fenoprop 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid. Synthetic auxin affecting nucleic acid biosynthesis and cell elongation. Melting point is 181.6. Molecular Folrmula is C9H7Cl3O3. Molecular weight is 269.51. Fenoprop was once used as an herbicide for control of woody plants and broadleaf weeds.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: A phenoxyacid herbicide of very low direct toxicity but capable of causing indirect nitrite poisoning by altering the metabolism of treated plants. Harmful if swallowed. Over a long period of time, drinking water that contains fenoprop over the mcl could cause depression, irritation of the stomach, minor kidney and liver damage.   

   

 
NAME: Fenoprop methyl ester
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C10H9Cl3O3 .Molecular weight: 283.536. Other names are Propanoic acid, 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)-, methyl ester; Propionic acid, 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)-, methyl ester; Methyl 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionate; 2-(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid methyl ester; Methyl 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propanoate; 2,4,5-TP, methyl ester; Silvex, methylated; Fenoprop, methyl ester. IUPAC Standard InChI: ?InChI=1S/C10H9Cl3O3/c1-5(10(14)15-2)16-9-4-7(12)6(11)3-8(9)13/h3-5H,1-2H3
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Kidney failure, increased heart rate.Metabolic acidosis resulting in peculiar odor on breath.          

   

 
NAME: Fenothiocarb     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is S-4-phenoxybutyl dimethyl(thiocarbamate). Molecular formula is C13H19NO2S. Molecular weight is 253.36. Storing temperature is 0 to 6 C. crystals. Density is 1.211 (20 ¡C). Tech. is >96%. Melting point is 40-41 ¡C. Vapour pressure is 0.166 mPa (23 ¡C). Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water) is logP = 3.28 (20 ¡C). Solubility in water 30 < mg/l (20 ¡C). In cyclohexanone 3800, acetonitrile 3120, acetone 2530, xylene 2464, methanol 1426, kerosene 80, hexane 66 (all in g/l, 20 ¡C).; Stability:Slowly decomposed by sunlight (>10 d). Stable to hydrolysis for 5 d ( pH 5-9, 40 ¡C). Stable to heat; <1% decomposition after 60 d at 55 ¡C. White crystal. Boiling point 155¡C/0.02 mm/Hg. Stable in acidics. Slightly unstable in alkalines. Soluble in most organic solvents. Control of eggs and young stages of Panonychus citri, Panonychus ulmi, and other Panonychus spp., at 1.2-1.8 kg/ha.Certain apple varieties, cotton, peaches, melons, legumes, brassicas and other crops may be injured at high rates of application.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: SIGNAL WORD: CAUTION. TOXICITY CLASS: III. TOXICITY: (Mouse): Oral LD50 7000 mg/kg. birds: Acute oral LD<sub>50</sub> for mallard ducks >2000, male bobwhite quail 1013, female bobwhite quail 878 mg/kg.
 
 
NAME: Fenoxanil  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Mixture of 85% (R)-N-[(RS)-1-cyano-1,2-dimethylpropyl]-2-(2,4-
dichlorophenoxy)propionamide and 15% (S)-N-[(RS)-1-cyano-1,2-dimethylpropyl]-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionamide. Molecular Formula is C15H18Cl2N2O2.Formula Weight is 329.22. Storing temperature is 0-6¡C. Colourless crystals. Fenoxanil is melanin biological synthesis inhibitor. It has very good systemic and residue activities. It is safe to plant, animal and surroundings. Melting Point is 69.0-71.5C. Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water) is 3390 ±133 (25¡). Solubility in water (20¡C) is 30.7 ±0.3 « 10-3 g/l. Solubility in most organic solvents. Vapor pressure (25¡): 0.21 ±0.021 « 10-4 Pa. Percent Composition of compounds are C 54.72%, H 5.51%, Cl 21.54%, N 8.51%, O 9.72%.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity data: LD50 orally in mice, male rats, female rats (mg/kg) : >5000, >5000, 4211 (Sieverding). 

 

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NAME: Fenoxaprop-ethyl      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are ethyl (RS)-2-[4-(6-chloro-1,3-benzoxazol-2-yloxy)phenoxy]propionate or ethyl (RS)-2-[4-(6-chlorobenzoxazol-2-yloxy)phenoxy]propionate. This substance is a derivative of fenoxaprop. Biochemistry Fatty acid synthesis inhibition in grasses, by inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase). Mode of action Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl is a selective herbicide with contact and systemic action, absorbed principally by the leaves, with translocation both acropetally and basipetally to the roots or rhizomes. Uses Post-emergence control of annual and perennial grass weeds in potatoes, beans, soya beans, beets, vegetables, peanuts, flax, oilseed rape, and cotton; and (when applied with the herbicide safener mefenpyr-diethyl) annual and perennial grass weeds and wild oats in wheat, rye, triticale and, depending on ratio, in some varieties of barley. Phytotoxicity Non-phytotoxic to broad-leaved crops. Formulation types EC; EW; SE. Selected tradenames: 'Furore Super' (Aventis); 'Puma' (Aventis); 'Whip Super' (Aventis); mixtures: 'Puma Super' (+ mefenpyr-diethyl) (Aventis).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats 3150-4000, mice >5000 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >2000 mg/kg. Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >1.224 mg/l air. NOEL (90 d) for rats 0.75 mg/kg b.w. daily (10 ppm), mice 1.4 mg/kg b.w. daily (10 ppm), dogs 15.9 mg/kg b.w. daily (400 ppm).

                 

 
NAME: Fenoxycarb       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl 2-(4-phenoxyphenoxy)ethylcarbamate .Molecular weight is 301.3. Solubility in water: 6 mg/l. Solubility in solvents: hexane, 0.5/100 g; acetone, chloroform, diethylether, methanol 25 g/100 g. Melting point is 53-54 degrees C. Vapor pressure is 1.3 x 10-8 mmhg.          

Fenoxycarb is a carbamate insect growth regulator. It is used as a fire ant bait and for flea, mosquito and cockroach control. Fenoxycarb can also be used to control butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), scale insects, and sucking insects on olives, vines, cotton and fruit. It is also used to control these pests on stored products.

 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Fenoxycarb is a slightly toxic compound and carries the signal word CAUTION on its label. Fenoxycarb blocks the ability of an insect to change into an adult from the juvenile stage (metamorphosis). It also interferes with the molting of larvae. Insects have a rigid external covering called exoskeleton. In order to grow and mature, insects must periodically shed or molt their old exoskeleton and produce a new, larger one. Fenoxycarb is nearly non-toxic to mammals. The oral LD50 of the compound is greater than 16,800 mg/kg.

 

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NAME: Fenpiclonil  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile. Molecular Formula is C11H6Cl2N2. Formula Weight is 237.08. Broad-spectrum, inhibits glucose phosphorylation. Available in a wide range of formulations including water dispensible powders, flowable concentrates, powder for dry seed treatments and emulsifiable concentrate. Percentage Composition of compounds are C 55.73%, H 2.55%, Cl 29.91%, N 11.82%. Phenylpyrrole fungicide for seed treatment; structurally related to pyrrolnitrin. Colorless, odorless crystals. Melting point is 152.9¡C. Solubility in water (20¡) is 2 ppm. Log P (n-octanol/water) is 4.3. LD50 in rats, mice, rabbits (mg/kg): >5000 orally. LD50 dermally in rats: >2000 mg/kg. LC50 (4 hr) in rats: >1502 mg/m3 by inhalation (Nevill). Surface Tension is 65.2 dyne/cm. Density is 1.46 g/cm3 .Flash Point is 218.4 ¡C .Enthalpy of Vaporization is 69.42 kJ/mol. Boiling Point is 437.5 ¡C at 760 mmHg. Fenpiclonil (CAS NO.74738-17-3) is used as Pyrrolecarbonitrile type protective fungicides. It is used for seed treatment with cereals species for pathogen transmission .It also has a good control effect on non-cereal crops of seed-borne and soil-borne pathogens .
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:   Toxicity data: LD50 in rats, mice, rabbits (mg/kg): >5000 orally; LD50 dermally in rats: >2000 mg/kg; LC50 (4 hr) in rats: >1502 mg/m3 by inhalation (Nevill).    

   

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NAME: Fenpropathrin         
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricides, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxylate. Molecular Formula is C22H23NO3. Molecular Weight is 349.43. Yellow-brown solid . Melting point is 45-50 ¼C. Vapour pressure is 0.730 mPa (20 ¼C). KOW logP is 6 (20 ¼C). Density is 1.15 (25 ¼C). Solubility in water 14.1 mg/l (25 ¼C). In xylene, cyclohexanone 1000, methanol 337 (all in g/kg, 25 ¼C). Decomposed in alkaline solutions. Exposure to light and air leads to oxidation and loss of activity. Chemical Abstracts name cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 2,2,3,3 tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxylate. Acaricide and insecticide with repellent, and contact and stomach action. Uses Control of many species of mites (except rust mites) and insects (e.g. whitefly, lepidopterous larvae, leaf miners, leafworms, bollworms, etc.) on pome fruit, citrus fruit, vines, hops, vegetables, ornamentals (including ornamental trees), cotton, field crops, and glasshouse crops (cucurbits, tomatoes, ornamentals, etc.).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral Acute oral LD50 for male rats 70.6, female rats 66.7 mg/kg (in corn oil). Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for male rats 1000, female rats 870, rabbits >2000 mg/kg. Not a skin irritant; mild eye irritant (rabbits). Non-sensitising to skin. Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >96 mg/m3. ADI (JMPR) 0.03 mg/kg b.w. [1993]. Other Non-mutagenic. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) II; EPA (formulation) II EC hazard T+; R26| T; R25| Xn; R21| N; R50, R53         

                          

 
NAME: Fenpropidin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is C1-[(RS)-3-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-2-methylpropyl]piperidine. Molecular Formula is C19H31N. Molecular Weight is 273.46. Powdery mildew in cereal and sugarbeets; partial control of rusts and Rhynchosporium in cereal. Pale yellow, odorless, slightly viscous liquid. Completely miscible with acetone, ethanol, n-hexane, n-octanol, toluene (25¡C). At 25¡C: 530 g/m3 (pH 7), 6.2 g/m3 (pH 9). Rapid dissipation in natural water with a half-life less than 14 days. Flash point is 68C. Boiling Point is 368.9 ¡C. The product is a systemic fungicide with good preventive and curative action. It is mainly used for control of powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis) in cereals. Fenpropidin works by the inhibition of the ergosterol biosynthesis in the fungus at a different biochemical stage from the triazole fungicides. There is no cross-resistance to triazoles and the product remains effective where some resistance to triazoles has developed in powdery mildew populations
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Fish: Toxic: (96 h) LC50 2.6 mg/l (rainbow trout), 1.9 mg/l (bluegill sunfish), 3.6 mg/l (mirror carp), (48 h) 0.5 mg/l (Daphnia). Bird: Slightly toxic: Oral LD50 1900 mg/kg (mallard duck), 370 mg/kg (pheasant). Bee: Low toxicity: (48 h) Oral LD50 (oral) >0.01 mg/bee, (contact) 0.046 mg/bee. (Rat): Oral LD50 >1447 mg/kg; Dermal LD50 >4000 mg/kg; Inhalation LC50 (4 h) 1220 mg/m3 air. (Rabbit): Moderately irritating to eyes, skin.          
 
 
NAME: Fenson 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C12H9ClO3S. Formula Weight is 268.72. Flash point >100 ¡C . Storing temperature is 0-6¡C. Synonyms is 4-chlorophenyl benzenesulphonate. InChI: InChI=1/C12H9ClO3S/c13-10-6-8-11(9-7-10)16-17(14,15)12-4-2-1-3-5-12/h1-9H. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with copious amounts of Water for at least 15 minutes.In case of contact, immediately wash skin with soap and copious Amounts of water.If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing give artificial Respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.If swallowed, wash out mouth with water provided person is conscious.Call a physician.Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. Extinguishing media Water spray.Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder or appropriate foam.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute effects May be harmful by inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption. May cause eye irritation.May cause skin irritation.To the best of our knowledge, the chemical, physical, and Toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated.

       

 
NAME: Fensulfothion
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (nematicide, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O,O-diethyl O-4-methylsulfinylphenyl phosphorothioate. Fensulfothion is a yellow-brown liquid at room temperature that is relatively stable. Fensulfothion was used against soil nematodes and a broad spectrum of soil-borne insects in field crops, vegetables and fruit. It is also used against nematodes in turf grasses, flowers and ornamental plants. Molecular Formula is C11H17O4PS2. Molecular Weight is 308.35. Boiling point is 138 to 141¡C. Incompatible with alkali chemicals. Hydrolyzes in alkali, isomerize in air [EPA, 1998]. Slightly soluble in water. Organothiophosphates, such as FENSULFOTHION, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is highly toxic to mammals and can be absorbed dermally, through inhalation, or through ingestion. FENSULFOTHION may burn but may not ignite readily. Containers may explode in heat of fire. When heated highly toxic fumes of phosphorus and sulfur oxides are emitted. Incompatible with alkali chemicals. Hydrolyzes in alkali, isomerizes in air. FENSULFOTHION displays cholinesterase inhibiting properties. Death results primarily from respiratory arrest stemming from failure of the respiratory center, paralysis of respiratory muscles and intense bronchoconstriction.

      

 
NAME: Fensulfothion-oxon 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonymous are dasanito;Dasanit O-analog;FENSULFOTHION OXYGEN ANALOG);fensulfothion oxygen analogue;o,o-diethylo-(p-(methylsulfinyl)phenyl) phosphate; phosphoricacid,diethylp-(methylsulfinyl)phenylester;Phosphoric acid diethyl 4-(methylsulfinyl) phenyl ester;fensulfothion-oxon / diethyl 4-methylsulfinylphenyl phosphate. Molecular mass is C11H17O5PS. Molecular weight is 292.29. Density is 1.31 g/cm3. Boiling Point is 404 ¼C at 760 mmHg. Flash Point is198.2 ¼C. Oily yellow or brown liquid.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Hazard Class 6.1(a). Very toxic in contact with skin.R28 Very toxic if swallowed. Very toxic to aquatic organisms. May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.       

          

 
NAME: Fensulfothion-oxon -sulfone  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are DIETHYL 4-(METHYLSULFONYL)PHENYL PHOSPHATE; FENSULFOTHION-OXON-SULFONE;FENSULFOTHION PO-SULFONE. Molecular Formula is C11H17O6PS. Molecular Weight is 308.29. Use in baby foods. Determination of 16 priority pesticides and transformation products specified in the EU Baby Food Directive 2003/13/EC has been compared using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Prior to analysis, co-extractives were removed from acetonitrile extracts using dispersive solid-phase extraction (SPE) with primary secondary amine
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The toxicity in the brain of several parathion, fenthion, and fensulfothion insecticides and their toxic metabolites was determined by a technique of directly injecting the compounds into the region of the third ventricle of conscious mice, an area rich in cholinesterase activity. The results were compared on a body weight basis to the toxicity of these compounds when given by ip and oral routes.          

 

 
NAME: fensulfothion-sulfone       
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (nsecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular formula is C11H17O4PS2 . Molecular weight is 324.3. Boling point is 138 to 141 C. Yellow-brown liquid . Boiling point is 138 - 141¡C at 0.01 mm Hg. stable under normal conditions of storage and use. Half-life at 81¡C and pH 2.5 - 6, 120 hours. Insecticide against soil insects; mosquitolarvicide insecticide and nematocide principally for tabacoo, corn and various other crops. Insecticides against soil insects; mosquito larvicide insecticide and nematocide and nematocide principally for tabacci, corn and various other crops.   Nematocide-Insecticide that kills by contact action. Effectively controls insects inhabiting soil and controls in a limited manner attacking insects.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Fensulfothion is acutely very toxic to mammals. The compound is metabolized similarly in animals and plants to substances of greater toxicity by oxidation of both the enolic leaving group and the phosphorothionate moiety. No effects on reproduction in rats, neurotoxicity in hens, mutagenicity or teratogenicity at low levels in rodents, or potentiation with other organophosphate compounds have been observed.

 
Contaminant Facts: Pesticides
 
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