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Pesticides (Di - Diu)

 

NAME: Dicamba

 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) is an organochlorine compound that is used as a herbicide. Brand names for formulations of this herbicide include Banvel, Oracle and Vanquish. This colourless compound is a derivative of benzoic acid. Dicamba salts used in Banvel and Vanquish formulations are highly soluble in water. Molecular formula is C8H6Cl2O3. Dicamba is used to control broadleaf plants, brush, and vines. Dicamba does not injure grasses at recommended application rates. Dicamba acts like a naturally occurring plant hormone and causes uncontrolled growth in plants. At sufficiently high levels of exposure, the abnormal growth is so severe that the plant dies. Ground or aerial broadcast, soil (band) treatment, basal bark treatment, stump (cut surface) treatment, frill treatment, tree injection, and spot treatment. Labeled application rates range from 0.25 to 8 lbs./acre. The Forest Service, however, does not use Dicamba formulations at the highest application rate. The typical rate used by the Forest Service is 2 lbs./acre in mechanical and backpack foliar applications. For cut surface treatments, the typical application rate is 1.5 lbs./acre. Dicamba is used in the control of annual and perennial broadleaf weeds, brush, and vines in rangeland and non-cropland areas. Non-cropland areas include fence rows, roadways, rights-of-way, maintenance of wildlife openings, and non-selective forest brush control (including site preparation).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Effects of human exposure to Dicamba include muscle cramps, difficult breathing, nausea, vomiting, skin rashes, loss of voice, swollen neck glands, coughing and dizziness. Dicamba does not present unusual handling hazards. It is moderately toxic by ingestion and slightly toxic by inhalation or dermal exposure (oral LD50 in rats: 757 mg/kg body weight, dermal LD502,000 mg/kg, inhalation LC50200 mg/L). In a 3-generation study, Dicamba did not affect the reproductive capacity of rats. When rabbits were given doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 10 or 20 (mg/kg)/day of technical Dicamba from days 6 through 18 of pregnancy, toxic effects on the mothers, slightly reduced fetal body weights, and increased loss of fetuses occurred at the 10 mg/kg dose. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency? (EPA) has set the NOAEL for this study at 3 (mg/kg)/day. In dog tests, some enlargement of liver cells has occurred, but a similar effect has not been shown in man.
 
 
 
NAME: Dicamba methyl ester   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Weight is 235.06. Molecular Formula is C9H8Cl2O3. Flash point is -26 ¡C. Storing temperature is 2-8¡C. Synonmous are Racuza;Racusa; 60CS16;DISUGRAN; RACUZA(R); Banvel 60CS16; dicamba-methyl;Disugran [ansi];Caswell no. 408aa;DICAMBA METHYL ESTER. Slightly soluble in water. Colorless liquid and no odour.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: May be fatal if absorbed through skin or inhaled. May be fatal or cause blindness if swallowed. Repeated exposure to vapors &/or dust can cause eye injury. Can cause gastro-intestinal disturbances. Ex posure can cause liver or kidney damage. Can cause cardiovascular system injury. Can cause convulsions.
 
 
 
NAME: Dicapthon     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O-2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl O, O-dimethyl phosphorothioate. Molecular Formula is C8H9ClNO5PS.Molecular Weight is 297.65. Melting point 63C. Slightly soluble in water. Exist in solid state. Percent Composition are C 32.28%, H 3.05%, Cl 11.91%, N 4.71%, O 26.88%, P 10.41%, S 10.77%. Reduced body temperature or elevated body temperature may occur. Low heart rate and abnormally low blood pressure may develop after moderate to severe poisoning. Rapid heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and changes in respiratory rate may also occur. Early giddiness, anxiety headache, and restlessness followed by ataxia, drowsiness, and confusion are common with moderate to severe exposures. Sporadic reports of human birth defects related to organophosphates have not been fully verified.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea are common muscarinic effects. Both painless and frank clinical pancreatitis have been reported.Toxicity data: LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 400, 330 orally; 790, 1250 dermally (Gaines). Cholinesterase inhibitor.

               

 
 
NAME: Dichlofenthion
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide ( nematicides , insecticides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O-2,4-dichlorophenyl O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate. Molecular Formula is C10H13Cl2O3PS. Molecular Weight is 315.15.Percent Composition are C 38.11%, H 4.16%, Cl 22.50%, O 15.23%, P 9.83%, S 10.17%. Boiling point is 164-169C. Index of refraction is nD25 1.5291. Slightly sol in water; miscible with most organic solvents. Flash point is 100C. Storing termperature is 0 to 6C. It's used to prevent from the flies of seeds of soybean, small bean and cucumber. Colorless liquid. Dichlofenthion has a relatively short half-life of only a few minutes in both water and soils. While little research has been conducted over the environmental fate this compound, much is known about the compound class in which it resides. Dichlofenthion is generally considered to be an organophosphate pesticide, although in a strict chemical sense, it is a phosphorothioate. Because most organophosphate pesticides biodegrade relatively quickly, they are generally regarded as safe for use. While this may be true for most compounds, bacteria still require time to adapt to break down new compounds introduced to the soil.[1] It has been shown that degradation rates increase as the same compounds are introduced repeatedly into the soil. Because the sorption to soil and sediment is considered high, Dichlofenthion is not a highly mobile compound. The estimated half-life of Dichlofenthion in water, soil, and sediment is less than a few minutes. The estimated half-life in the air is 2.78 hours, much higher than that in water, soil, and sediment. The estimated wastewater treatment removal efficiency is 84 percent with approximately 5% to air.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity data: LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 185, 172 orally; 576, 355 dermally (Gaines, Linder).
 
 
 
NAME: Dichlofluanid 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N-dichlorofluoromethylthio-N?,N?-dimethyl-N-phenylsulfamide. Molecular Formula is C9H11Cl2FN2O2S2. Molecular Weight is 333.23. Flash point is 2 ¡C. Storing temperature is Approx 4C. Water solubility is 1.3 mg/l at 20¡ C. Controls scab, brown rot, and storage diseases in apples, pears; Alternaria, downy mildew, and other fungal diseases on pome and stone fruit, berries, vegetables, ornamentals, and other crops; suppresses spider and rust mites on fruit, grapes, and other crops with only slight effect on beneficial mites. Used in IPM programs.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Dichlofluanid caused slight skin irritation and moderate eye irritation in rabbits. It was of low to moderate acute oral and dermal toxicity in laboratory animals, with oral exposure inducing various effects including central nervous system disturbances and damage to the kidney, liver and gastro-intestinal tract. Prolonged oral administration produced changes in the liver, kidneys, spleen, testes, adrenals, bones and lungs, affected thyroid function, and altered blood composition in rodents and dogs. Foetal toxicity and malformations occurred when pregnant rats and rabbits were fed maternally toxic doses. No evidence of carcinogenicity was seen in limited long-term feeding studies in rodents. Genotoxicity tests indicated a slight dominant lethal effect in mice treated orally but no chromosomal damage was reported in hamsters or mice fed Dichlofluanid. Bacterial assays (including Ames tests) gave evidence of mutagenicity and DNA damage.
 
 
 
NAME: Dichlofluanid metabolite
 
CLASSIFICATION: Wood preserving chemical   
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are N,N-dimethyl-N'-phenyl-(N'-fluorodichloromethylthio)-sulphamide and N'-dichlorofluoromethylthio-NN-dimethyl-N'-phenylsulphamide. The pure material is a white powder with slight characteristic odour, Melting point is 105.0-105.6C; insoluble in water at 20¡C, solubility in methanol is 1.5 g/100 ml and in xylene 7.0 g/100 ml. The purity of the technical material is at least 96 percent and the product contains   N', N'-dimethyl-N-phenyl sulphamide (DMSA) not more than 1 percent and ionogenic chlorine max. 0.3 percent. The technical product is formulated as 50 percent wettable powder and 7.5 percent dust. The active ingredient decomposes in alkaline media and in the presence of polysulphides. It is light-sensitive, but the discoloration induced does not affect its biological activity. Dichlofluanid has been evaluated for its use in wood preservation up to Hazard Class 3 (i.e. wood which is not covered and not in contact with ground, but exposed to weather or frequent wetting). It is applied in solvent-based product formulations either in primers or incorporated in low binder-containing paints (e.g. glazes). Products can be used for the pre-treatment of timber (dipping and automated enclosed spraying by industrial/ professional users); and the protective treatment of wood in situ by brush application (both professional and amateur users). Dichlofluanid is not recommended for treatment of wood inside housing areas (with the exception of window frames and external doors, which will usually be treated on or before installation) or for spraying manually in open systems. The guide formulation for a biocidal product submitted by the applicant contains 0.55% w/w Dichlofluanid. A ready-to-use formulation containing up to 0.7 % w/w Dichlofluanid has been considered, because the applicant believes that there is a market trend towards applying less product and/or making fewer applications to the timber. Therefore, to achieve the required retention of Dichlofluanid in the wood (1.1 g/m2 or 90 g/m3), a more concentrated product is needed. In addition, the use of a product concentrate containing 10 % w/w Dichlofluanid, which would be diluted down to the concentration of the ready-to-use products before application, has also been considered for industrial/professional use (dipping and automated enclosed spraying).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The potential human health effects of Dichlofluanid have been well investigated, almost exclusively in experimental animals. Dichlofluanid is of low acute toxicity by the oral and dermal routes of exposure, but has moderate acute toxicity by the inhalation route. It is not a skin irritant, but is an eye irritant. There is evidence that Dichlofluanid can cause some respiratory tract irritation; however, the strength of evidence does not meet the EU criteria for classification for respiratory tract irritation. Dichlofluanid is a skin sensitizer, but there is insufficient information to determine whether or not it can cause respiratory sensitization/occupational asthma.
 
 
NAME: Dichlone
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (algaecide, fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone. Molecular formula is C10 H4Cl2O2. Molecular weight is 227. Yellow crystals (pure compound). Melting point is 193 C (pure compound); not below 188 C. Solubility is 0.1 ppm in water at 25 C (pure compound). In water at 25¡C, 0.1 mg/l. Boiling Point is 275¡C at 2 mm Hg. Purity is 98.5 % minimum In xylene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene, ca. 4% moderately soluble in acetone, diethyl ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetic acid, dimethylformamide, and dioxane. Sparingly soluble in alcohols. In dry state, stable to light and heat. In solution, slowly decomposed by light. Stable in acidic media, but hydrolyzed by alkalis. DICHLONE is a halogenated ketone. Ketones are reactive with many acids and bases liberating heat and flammable gases (e.g., H2). The amount of heat may be sufficient to start a fire in the unreacted portion of the ketone. Ketones react with reducing agents such as hydrides, alkali metals, and nitrides to produce flammable gas (H2) and heat. Ketones are incompatible with isocyanates, aldehydes, cyanides, peroxides, and anhydrides. They react violently with aldehyde, HNO3, HNO3 + H2O2, and HClO4.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Irritation to mucous membrane. Irritation. Can cause CNS depression.
 
 
NAME: Dichlorophen
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (algaecide, bactericides, fungicides)
 
DESCRIPTION: 4,4?-dichloro-2,2?-methylenediphenol or 2,2?-methylenebis(4-chlorophenol). Molecular formula is C13H10Cl2O2. Molecular weight is 269.13 . White or off-white powder. Melting point is 168 - 172 C. Stable. Incompatible with strong bases, strong oxidizing agents.

Dichlorophen is used as an algicide, antihelmintic, bactericide and agricultural fungicide. It is used in antihelminthic drug fo the treatment against tapeworms. It is used to control moss in turf.It is used as an ingredient in deodorants, shampoos, soaps and cosmetics.

 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Photosensitizer - exposure can increase the sensitivity of the skin to sunlight leading to possible allergic reactions, lesions, increased propensity to sunburn etc. Swiss poison class 4.
 
 
NAME: Dichlorvos
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular weight is 220.98. Boiling point (at 20 mm Hg) is140 degrees C (284 degrees F) (decomposes). Specific gravity (water = 1) is 1.42 at 25 degrees C (77 degrees F). Vapor pressure at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F) is 0.012 mm Hg. Slightly soluble in water and glycerol; soluble in kerosene, ethanol, chloroform, and acetone. Miscible with alcohol, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, aerosol propellants, and most non-polar solvents. Colorless to mild amber; non-flammable; mild chemical odor. Heavier than air in vapor state. Dichlorvos should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers. Dichlorvos is one of a class of insecticides referred to as organophosphates. These chemicals act by interfering with the activities of cholinesterase, an enzyme that is essential for the proper working of the nervous systems of both humans and insects.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Dichlorvos is an organophosphorus pesticide and is therefore a cholinesterase inhibitor. Overexposure to this substance causes symptoms that vary by route of exposure. Inhalation causes ocular and respiratory symptoms. Ingestion causes gastrointestinal effects, while skin absorption causes localized sweating and muscle twitching in the area where entry occurred. If exposure is severe, muscle weakness, twitching, fasciculation, and paralysis may occur. Paralysis of the respiratory muscles may cause death. Cardiac irregularities, including complete heart block, may also occur [Hathaway et al. 1991]. Dichlorvos is easily absorbed through the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs because of its high volatility
 
 
NAME: Diclobutrazol  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (2RS,3RS)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol. Molecular formula is C15H19Cl2N3O. Molecular weight is 328.24. Systemic, absorbed through leaves, stem and roots and translocated. Known to block fungal sterol biosynthesis. Flash point is greater than 100 ¡C. Storing temperature is 0-6C. Percent Composition are C 54.89%, H 5.83%, Cl 21.60%, N 12.80%, O 4.87%. Odorless, colorless, crystalline solid. Melting point is 147-149C. Vapor pressure at 20¡: 1 « 10-8 to 2 « 10-8 mm Hg. Solubility in water at 20¡ is 9 mg/l. Solubility up to 50 g/l in methanol, ethanol, acetone, and chloroform.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity data: LD50 in rats (mg/kg): ~4000 orally; >1000 dermally; in mallard ducks: >9000 orally (Bent, Skidmore).
 
 
NAME: Diclocymet I     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-2-cyano-N-[(R)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-3,3-dimethylbutyramide. Molecular Formula is C15H18Cl2N2O. Molecular weight is 313.2. Pale yellow, crystalline solid. Density is1.24 (23 ¡C). Melting point is154.4-156.6 C. Vapour pressure is 2.6?10-1 mPa (25 ¡C). Solubility in water is 6.38 ?g/ml (25 ¡C). Delaus¨ (diclocymet) is a novel fungicide developed by Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd. to prevent rice blast disease in paddy field. It was registered as an agricultural chemical in April 2000 in Japan. As part of the applied development of Delaus, we also developed a mixture of diclocymet with fipronil, named Delaus. Prince, to prevent various pest insects as well as rice blast.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Hazard Class:O (Obsolete as pesticide, not classified). In order to search for a new systemic rice blast fungicide, a number of N-benzyl-alpha-cyanoacetamide derivatives and related compounds were prepared and their preventive activity against rice blast, Magnaporthe grisea was examined both in a foliar spray test and in a soil drench test. Several N-[l-(substituted-phenyl)ethyl]-2-cyano-3, 3-dimethyl-butanamides and -2-pentenamides showed high activity in both tests. Among them, (RS)-2-cyano-N-[(R)-1(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-3, 3-dimethylbuty-ramide (diclocymet, S-2900) was selected as a practical new systemic rice blast fungicide, which shows potent fungicidal activity with little crop injury
 
 
NAME: Diclofop methyl  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is methyl (RS)-2-[4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy]propionate. This susbstance is a derivative of Diclofop. Colorless crystals. Molecular Weight is 341.2. Water Solubility is 50 mg/l at 22C. Readily soluble in common organic solvents, e.g. acetone 40, xylene 50, methanol 40 (all in g/100 ml at 22C). Melting Point is 39-41C. Vapor Pressure is 3.4 x 10 to the minus 7 mbar at 30C. 3.8 x 10 to the minus 5 mbar at 54.3C. Under aerobic conditions, diclofop-methyl hydrolyzes in a matter of days in the soil to 2-[4-(2',4'-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy] propanoic acid which in turn is degraded relatively quickly with a half-life of 10 days in sandy soils and about 30 days in sandy clay soils. Small amounts of 4-(2,4 dichlorophenoxy)phenol are also produced (300, 302). Field studies of application rates up to 3.4 kg active ingredient per hectare (3.0 lb ai/acre) showed very low finite residues in soil. At harvest, small finite residues were present in the 0-7.5 cm (0-3 in) soil level and rare small residues were present above the 15 cm (6 in) level. These studies indicate that diclofop-methyl does not leach downward or move laterally, and dissipates quickly in soil (300). Diclofop-methyl is a selective post-emergence herbicide for control of wild oats and annual grassy weeds found among brassicas, carrots, celery, field beans, french beans, broad beans, barley, wheat, parsnips, peas, potatoes, soy beans, oilseed rape, onions, sugar beet, and lettuce . The herbicide comes in emulsifiable concentrate formulations . It is compatible with herbicides derived from urea, i.e. asulam, ioxynil, etc., although mixing with dinoseb and growth-regulating herbicides leads to decreased effectiveness.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The acute oral LD50 for rats ranged between 563-693 mg/kg (in sesame oil). The acute dermal LD50 for female rats was greater than 2,000 mg/kg. The no effect level (NEL) for a 90-day feeding to rats was 12.5 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg for a 15-month feeding to dogs (1, 242, 300). The acute percutaneous LD50 for rats was greater than 5,000 mg/kg (242). The acute inhalation toxicity for rats exposed to technical diclofop-methyl was greater than 3.83 mg/l/hour (300). Rats exposed to the product Hoelon 3EC (contains diclofop-methyl) had an oral LD50 value of greater than 2,000 mg/kg. The acute dermal LD50 for exposure to the same product was greater than 5,000 mg/kg (300). The inhalation LC50 in rats for a 36%EC formulation of diclofop-methyl over a four-hour period was 8.3 mg/l air (1). Inhalation: a rate of 4,800 ml of a 5% solution in a 4 cubic meter container for four hours was studied. Deaths occurred with rabbits, but not with rats, guinea pigs or cats at this high rate. The 4-hr LC50 for rats was 8,274 mg/m3 (300). The acute dermal LD50 for rabbits was reported to be 640 mg/kg. A diclofop-methyl study on rabbits indicated no skin irritation at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Eye irritation in rabbits was found to be zero at 3, 7, or 24 hours (300). Other studies have reported eye irritation in rabbits as corneal opacity spots and conjunctival irritation in both rinsed and non-rinsed groups. Reversibility was observed in all but one animal in each group at 7 days. A 10% solution produced corneal opacity in some of the animals that was completely reversible in 72 hours (300, 207). The acute dermal LD50 for rabbits was found to be 640 mg/kg (300).

            

 
NAME: Dicloran  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline. Dicloran¨ (Diclofenac) is a non steroidal
anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It inhibits prostaglandins synthesis by decreasing the activity of the enzyme, cyclo-oxygenease, which results in decreased formation of prostaglandin precursors. It should be applied only to healthy and intact skin surfaces. It should not be allowed to come in contact with the eyes or with mucous membrane. Not to be taken with mouth. Should be used for topical application only.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain and discomfort in the epigastrium, flatulence, constipation, diarrhea, and in some cases - erosive-ulcerative lesions, gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation; rarely - abnormal liver function. When rectal administration - in isolated cases were observed inflammation of the colon bleeding, exacerbation of ulcerative colitis.

From the side of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system: dizziness, headache, agitation, insomnia, irritability, fatigue, rarely - paresthesia, visual disturbances (blurred, double vision), tinnitus, insomnia, cramps, irritability, tremors, mental disorders, depression. Hemopoietic system: rarely - anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis. Urinary system: rarely - renal failure; in predisposed patients may be swelling. Dermatological reactions: rarely - hair loss.

 
 
NAME: Dicrotophos
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (E)-2-dimethylcarbamoyl-1-methylvinyl dimethyl phosphate or 3-dimethoxyphosphinoyloxy-N,N-dimethylisocrotonamide. The molecular formula for dicrotophos is C8H16NO5P. Molecular Weight is 237.19.Percent Composition are C 40.51%, H 6.80%, N 5.91%, O 33.73%, P 13.06% . Liquid, commercial grade is brown. bp760 400¡. d1515 1.216. nD23 1.468. Misc with water, ethanol, xylene; somewhat sol in kerosene. Dec at 90¡ after 7 days; at 75¡ after 31 days. LD50 in female, male rats (mg/kg): 16, 21 orally; 42, 43 dermally (Gaines). Boiling point is 400C. Index of refraction is 1.468. Density is 1.216.

Dicrotophos can cause cholinesterase inhibition in humans; that is, it can overstimulate the nervous system causing nausea, dizziness, confusion, and at very high exposures (e.g., accidents or major spills), respiratory paralysis and death. Dicrotophos causes cholinesterase inhibition at very low concentrations and this inhibition can last for up to two weeks from a single exposure.

 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: May cause Miosis, blurred vision; headache; nausea; dizziness, anxiety, restlessness; muscle twitching, lassitude (weakness, exhaustion), labored breathing; tremor; incoordination; vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea; salivation, sweating, lacrimation, rhinitis; anorexia; malaise; hypotension; convulsions, unconsciousness; respiratory failure; SKIN ABS.

Toxicity data: LD50 in female, male rats (mg/kg): 16, 21 orally; 42, 43 dermally (Gaines)

 

NAME: Dicyclopentadiene 
 
CLASSIFICATION:Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular formula is C10H12. Colourless crystals with a camphor-like odour. Melting point is 32.5 C. Boiling point is 170 C. Vapour density is 4.55 (air = 1). Vapour pressure is 10 mm Hg at 48C. Specific gravity is 0.979. Flash point is 32C. Stable at room temperature, but may form explosive peroxides if stored in contact with air. Incompatible with oxidizing agents. Decomposes on heating. Flammable. Mixtures of the vapour with air are explosive. Harmful by ingestion, inhalation and through skin contact. Dicyclopentadiene is a man-made substance produced by heating crude oil products. ItÕs a colorless, waxy, flammable solid or liquid, with a camphor-like odor. As dicyclopentadiene enters the air, it breaks down quickly into simpler, less-toxic chemicals. However, it can stay unchanged for a long time in soil and in water. Dicyclopentadiene is not a common ingredient of products used in homes. It is used to make bug sprays, paints, and varnishes. Most dicyclopentadiene in the environment results from industrial processes and from improper waste disposal. Do not handle near heat, sparks or flame. Avoid contact with incompatible agents. Use only with adequate ventilation/personal protection. Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Do not enter storage area unless adequately ventilated. Metal containers involved in the transfer of this material should be grounded and bonded.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Irritation of eyes, nose, and throat. Temporary changes in kidney and lung functions. Headache and loss of balance. Convulsions at very high levels.
 
 
NAME: Dieldrin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular weight is 380.91. Molecular formula: C12H8Cl6O. White or light brown powder or crystals. Melting point is 176 C. Boiling point is 385 C. Specific gravity is 1.75. Slightly soluble in water. Stable. Breakdown product of aldrin in the environment. Incompatible with acids, active metals and strong oxidizing agents. Harmful to wildlife. Removed only slowly from the environment by natural processes. Dieldrin is an insecticide and a by-product of the pesticide Aldrin. From 1950 to 1974, dieldrin was widely used to control insects on cotton, corn and citrus crops. Also, dieldrin was used to control locusts and mosquitoes, as a wood preserve, and for termite control. Usually seen as a white or tan powder, most uses of dieldrin were banned in 1987, however, dieldrin is no longer produced in the United States due to its harmful effects on humans, fish, and wildlife. Dieldrin is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) pollutant targeted by EPA.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Decreases the effectiveness of our immune system. May increase infant mortality. Reduces reproductive success. May cause cancer. May cause birth defects. Damages the kidneys.
 
 
NAME: Diethatyl ethyl  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl N-chloroacetyl-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)glycinate. This substance is a derivative of diethatyl. Molecular Formula is C16H22ClNO3. Formula Weight is 311.8 Colorless crystals. Used as a selective herbicide. Hydrolyzed by either strong aqueous base or acid. Diethatyl ethyl is a selective pre-emergence herbicide with activity against many annual grasses and some broadleaved weeds. Tolerant crops are alfalfa (established), carrots, cole crops, cotton, dry beans, flax, lima beans, peanuts, peas, potatoes, red beets, southern peas, soybeans, spinach, sugar beets, and tomatoes
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: DERMAL: LD50 = 4,000 mg/kg (rabbit). LD50 = >4,556 mg/kg (male albino rabbit, technical product); >6,834 mg/kg <10,250 mg/kg (female albino rabbit, emulsifiable concentrate - 4 lb/gal). Skin irritation - minimally irritating (0.2/8.0) (albino rabbit, technical product); slightly irritating (albino rabbit, emulsifiable concentrate - 4 lb/gal) .

           

 
NAME: Diethofencarb 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is isopropyl 3,4-diethoxycarbanilate. Molecular Formula is C14H21N04. Molecular weight is 267.32 g/mol. Systemic with protective and curative action. Light brown power. For carbendazol-resistant strains of various fungi,strong activity against strains of botrytis cinerea. Minimum 90% pure. White to pale pink crystalline solid. Usually as a wettable powder that is mixed with water and used as a spray.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Liver, kidney and bladder toxicant.
 
 
NAME: Diethyl dithiobis (thionoformate)
 
CLASSIFICATION: Food flavor enhancer
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C6H10O2S4. Molecular Weight is 242.4. Yellow needles,Onion-like odor. Solubility in alcohol is 2 g/100 ml. Freely sol in benzene, ether, petrether, oils. Almost insoluble in water. Melting point is 54 to 56C.Other names are Formic acid, dithiobis[thio-, O,O-diethyl ester; Thioperoxydicarbonic acid ([(HO)C(S)]2S2), diethyl ester; Antigal; Auligen; Aulin; Aulinogen; Bexide; Bis[ethylxanthogen]; BEXT; Diethyl Dixanthogenate; Diethyl xanthogenate; Diethylxanthogen disulfide; Dithiobis(thioformic acid) O,O-diethyl ester; Dixan; EXD; Galasan; Herbisan; Herbisan 5. O-Ethyl thioformate has been synthesized from triethylorthoformate and hydrogen sulfide gas using a Br¿nstead acid catalyst. The product can be isolated as a neat liquid in 83% overall yield. Both the crude and purified thiolate can be used to thioformylate a variety of amines in good to excellent yields.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Moderately toxic by ingestion. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic vapors of SOx. TEST: LD50 - Lethal dose, 50 percent kill. ROUTE OF EXPOSURE       : Oral SPECIES OBSERVED Rodent Ð rat. DOSE/DURATION           : 480 mg
 
 
NAME: Diethyl phthalate    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Plastisizer
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms is ethyl phthalate, diethyl o-phthalate . Molecular formula is C6H4(COOC2H5)2. Molecular Weight is 222.24. Clear oily liquid. Melting point is -3 C. Boiling point is 298 -299 C. Vapor density is 7.6. HenryÕs law is 460 C. Flash point is 160 C. Stable under ordinary conditions. Specific gravity is 1.118. Insoluble in water. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is a phthalate ester, namely the diethyl ester of phthalic acid. It is a clear substance that is liquid at room temperature and which does not occur in nature. It has a faint, disagreeable odor and can be transferred from the plastics that contain it. When burned, DEP produces toxic gases. Since the compound is a suitable solvent for many organic molecules, it is often used to bind cosmetics and fragrances. Other industrial uses include plasticizers, detergent bases and aerosol sprays. Because of the frequent dermal exposure of humans to the chemical, the question of toxicity is crucial.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Irritant. Possible risk of harm to the unborn child. Little is known about the chronic toxicity of diethyl phthalate, but existing information suggests only a low toxic potential. Studies suggest that some phthalates affect male reproductive development via inhibition of androgen biosynthesis. In rats, for instance, repeated administration of DEP results in loss of germ cell populations in the testis. However, diethyl phthalate doesn't alter sexual differentiation in male rats. Dose response experiments in fiddler crabs have shown that seven-day exposure to diethyl phthalate at 50 mg/L significantly inhibited the activity of chitobiase in the epidermis and hepatopancreas. Chitobiase plays an important role in degradation of the old chitin exoskeleton during the pre-moult phase.
 
 
NAME: Diethylene glycol 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Diethylene glycol (DEG) is a valuable chemical intermediate used in the production of unsaturated polyester resins (UPR), plasticizers, acrylate and methacrylate resins and urethanes.
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Weight is 106.14. Molecular Formula is C4H10O3. Flash point is 124C (255F) CC. Autoignition temperature: 229C (444F). Flammable limits in air % by volume is 1.6. Fire is possible at elevated temperatures or by contact with an ignition source. Clear, colorless liquid. Odorless. Boiling Point is 244 - 245C (471 - 473F). Melting Point is -6.5C (21F). Vapor Density (Air=1) is 3.66. Vapor Pressure (mm Hg) is 1 @ 91.8C (198F). Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Strong oxidizers, strong acids and strong bases. This compound is used in the production of polyurethane, unsaturated polyester resins and triethylene glycol. It is also used as a textile softener, in petroleum solvent extraction, in the dehydration of natural gas, as a plasticizer, in surfactants and as a solvent for nitrocellulose, resins, dyes, oils and many other organic compounds. It is used as a humectant for tobacco, cork, printing ink and glue. It is also used in casein, in synthetic sponges and paper products, in bookbinding adhesives, as a dyeing assistant, in cosmetics, in antifreeze solutions, in lacquers, in lubricants and in brake fluids.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Low acute toxicity. Probable lethal dose to humans is 0.5-5 g/kg. Causes nerve depression, liver and kidney lesions and anuria (urination retardation). Causes irritation to the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems or impaired liver or kidney function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance. Liver and kidney lesions and damage. May be an irritant to eyes and surrounding tissue. Toxic gases and vapors may be released if involved in a fire. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may form when heated to decomposition.
 
 
NAME: Diethylstilbestrol 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Synthetic estrogen.
 
DESCRIPTION: Diethylstilbestrol is a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen. It has a molecular weight of 268.4 and occurs as small white plates from benzene or as a white crystalline powder. It has a melting point of 169¡C to 172¡C and a log octanol-water partition coefficient of 5.07. Diethylstilbestrol is practically insoluble in water and soluble in ethanol, chloroform, diethyl ether, acetone, dioxane, ethyl acetate, methyl alcohol, vegetable oils, and aqueous solutions of alkaline hydroxides. It emits acrid smoke and fumes when heated to decomposition (HSDB 2003). Diethylstilbestrol dipropionate has a molecular weight of 380.4 and occurs as odorless, tasteless, colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It has a melting point of 105¡C to 107¡C. Diethylstilbestrol dipropionate is soluble in 90% ethanol, diethyl ether, olive oil, fixed oils, acetone, and chloroform, but it is very slightly soluble in water and insoluble in solutions of alkaline hydroxides. Diethylstilbestrol dipropionate differs from diethylstilbestrol in solubility and rate of absorption, but once absorbed into the body diethylstilbestrol dipropionate is converted to diethylstilbestrol. Diethylstilbestrol may also be used, at higher doses, to treat breast cancer in post-menopausal women. It is not fully understood how it works in this situation, but it brings about a reduction in tumor size.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Diethylstilbestrol is occasionally used in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Prostate cancers are sensitive to testosterone and their growth is increased in the presence of this hormone. Diethylstilbestrol works by reducing the production of testosterone. This starves the prostate cancer cells of testosterone, which slows down their growth. Eventually this may cause the prostate tumor to shrink.
 
 
NAME: Difenoconazol I
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 3-chloro-4-[(2RS,4RS;2RS,4SR)-4-methyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]phenyl 4-chlorophenyl ether. Molecular formula is C19H17Cl2N3O3. An intermediate-term adverse effect was identified; however, difenoconazole is not registered for any use patterns that would result in intermediate-term residential exposure. Intermediate-term risk is assessed based on intermediate-term residential exposure plus chronic dietary exposure. Because there is no intermediate-term residential exposure and chronic dietary exposure has already been assessed under the appropriately protective cPAD (which is at least as protective as the POD used to assess intermediate-term risk), no further assessment of intermediate-term risk is necessary, and EPA relies on the chronic dietary risk assessment for evaluating intermediate-term risk for difenoconazole.Show citation box
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Difenoconazole possesses low acute toxicity by the oral, dermal and inhalation routes of exposure. It is not considered to be an eye or skin irritant and is not a dermal sensitizer.Show citation box. In an acute neurotoxicity study in rats, reduced fore-limb grip strength was observed on day 1 in males and clinical signs of neurotoxicity in females at the limit dose of 2,000 milligrams/kilogram (mg/kg). This effect in males is considered as transient since it was not observed at later observation points and toxicity in females was observed only at doses exceeding the limit dose. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study in rats decreased hind limb strength was observed only in males, which was considered as nonspecific in nature.Show citation box
 
 
NAME:  Difenoxuron 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 3-[4-(4-methoxyphenoxy)phenyl]-1,1-dimethylurea. Molecular formula is C16H18N2O3. Molecular weight is 286.326 g/mol. Density is 2.54g/cm3. Specific heat of vaporization. Liquid phase. Insoluble in water. Flash point 236C. Inhibition of photosynthesis, absorbed by roots and translocated .
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Protein metabolism disturbances, moderate emphysema, and weight loss with chronic exposure. Systemic toxicity is unlikely unless large amounts have been ingested. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, confusion and electrolyte depletion. May cause irritation. Coughing and shortness of breath.
 
 
NAME: Diflufenican
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2?,4?-difluoro-2-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyloxy)nicotinanilide. Composition ³97percentage pure. Molecular Weight is 394.3. Molecular formula is C19H11F5N2O2 . Form Colourless crystals. Melting point is 159-161 ¡C. Vapor pressure is 4.25 ? 10-3 mPa (25 ¡C, gas saturation method). KOW logP is 4.9. Henry is 0.033 Pa m3 mol-1 .Solubility in water <0.05 mg/l (25 ¼C). Soluble in most organic solvents, e.g. acetone, dimethylformamide 100, acetophenone, cyclohexanone 50, isophorone 35, xylene 20, cyclohexane, 2-ethoxyethanol, kerosene <10 (all in g/kg, 20 ¼C). Stable in air up to melting point. At 22 ¼C, very stable in aqueous solution at pH 5, 7 and 9. Fairly stable to photolysis.Plants in cereals, rapidly metabolised via the nicotinamide and nicotinic acid to CO2. Following pre-emergence application in autumn, no residues are detectable in the grain and straw after c. 200-250 days. Soil/Environment In soil, degradation proceeds via the metabolites 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)nicotinamide and 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)nicotinic acid to bound residues and CO2. Half-life varies from 15 to 30 weeks, depending on soil type and water content.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats >2000, mice >1000, rabbits >5000 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >2000 mg/kg. Non-irritating to skin and eyes (rabbits). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >2.34 mg/l air. NOEL In 14 d sub-acute trials in rats, no adverse effect observed at 1600 mg/kg b.w. In 90 d feeding trials, NOEL for dogs was 1000 mg/kg b.w. daily, for rats 500 ppm diet. Other Non-mutagenic in the Ames test. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) III (Table 5) EC hazard R52, R53.
 
 
NAME: Diisobutyl phthalate   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Plasticizer
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is bis(2-methylpropyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate . Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) is prepared by esterification process of isobutanol and phthalic anhydride. Its structural formula is C6H4(COOCH2CH(CH3)2)2. Refractive index is 1.488 - 1.492 (20 ¡C, D). DIBP is odorless plasticizer and has excellent heat and light stability. It is the lowest cost plasticizer for cellulose nitrate. DIBP has lower density and freezing point than DBP (dibutyl phthalate, CAS No.: 84-74-2). It has similar properties as dibutyl phthalate and can be used as a substitute for it. DIBP is used in nitro cellulose plastic, nail polish, explosive material, lacquer manufacturing and used with methyl methacrylate applications. a clear, colorless liquid, C 14 H 26 O 4 , used chiefly as a plasticizer for nitrocellulose. Phthalates are by far the most widely used plasticisers, primarily to make soft and flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for the applications in the industry of automotive, building & construction material, cable, flooring, medical device and toys. Phthalates make the long polyvinyl molecules to slide against one another. Minor quantity of phthalates are used in adhesives, caulk, sealants, paint to improve work performance. Small molecule phthalates are used as solvents in perfumes to provide longer linger longer and in nail polish to prevent chipping. They are also used as ingredients of insect repellents, as solvents in lacquer and pesticides, and as dye carrier. They are used as textile lubricating agents and as solid rocket propellents. Phthalates are produced by the reaction of phthalic anhydride with appropriate alcohols from methanol up to isodecanol (C13), either as a straight chain or with some branched in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst. Excess alcohols are recovered and recycled and phthalates are purified by vacuum distillation and/or activated charcoal. A wide range of phthalates of varying chain length and structure provides each adequate properties and cost-effective for various processing and mechanical requirements. C8 - C9 phthalates, such as di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP or called DOP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) are the most widely used general purpose phthalates. DOP is the dominant plasticizer used in PVC, providing low cost. Short chain phthalates (C3 - C7) are used when rapid setting and stain resistance is required. 2-Ethyl hexanol, produced by the dimerisation of butyraldehyde obtained from propylene, is cheaper than isononyl alcohol which are prepared by the carbonylation of an olefin. Long chain phthalates (C11 - C13) are used when high temperature stability is required. C1 and C2 phthalates are used as solvents. Special phthalates which contain aromatic ring in the side chain are used when fast-fused is required. Diallyl phthalate is used as a crosslinking agent, plasticizer or dying carrier for polyesters.Ê
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The structural characteristics of the ester side chains affect the physicochemical and toxicological properties of the phthalate. Reproductive and developmental toxicity appear to be associated predominantly with phthalates of carbon backbone of C3 up to C6 as known for DIBP, DBP, DPP, BBP, DIHP and DEHP. Alternative substances could be searched for in phthalates with shorter or longer carbon backbone lengths (C1, C2 or > / = C7) or among non-phthalates.
 
 
NAME: Dimefox
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide ( acaricides, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are tetramethylphosphorodiamidic fluoride or bis(dimethylamino) fluorophosphine oxide. Chemical formula is C4H12FN2OP. Molecular weight is 154.12. Dimefox is an organophosphorus agent and a colourless liquid with a fishy odour. The structure consists of a central phosphate atom, which is connected to an oxygen by a double bond. The phosphor also binds to a fluor atom (the leaving group which is most reactive) and two aminodimethyl groups. Dimefox was used as pesticide, but has been deemed obsolete or discontinued for use by the World Health Organisation. However, they do not guarantee that all commercial use of this compound ceased. Nevertheless, in most countries it is no longer registrated for use as a pesticide
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: dimefox is by butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). This is a B-esterase that is secreted into plasma by the liver. It can bind Dimefox and so protect AChe against the pesticide. There are many varieties of BChE due to genetic polymorphisms. This is reflected in the strength of their bond to Dimefox. This explains why some people with a less active variety of the enzyme are more susceptible to Dimefox toxicity.
 
 
NAME: Dimepiperate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is S-1-methyl-1-phenylethyl piperidine-1-carbothioate. Chemical formula is C15H21NOS. Chemical Weight  is 263.4. Storage temperature is 0 to 6C. Wax-like solid. Density is 1.08 (25 ¡C). Melting point is 38.8-39.3 ¡C. Vapour pressure is 0.53 mPa (30 ¡C). Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water) is logP = 4.02. Solubility in water is 20 mg/l (25 ¡C). In acetone 6.2, chloroform 5.8, cyclohexanone 4.9, ethanol 4.1, hexane 2.0 (all in kg/l, 25 ¡C). Stability:Stable >1 y (30 ¡C), and in light when dry. Aqueous solutions are stable at pH 1 and pH 14. Systemic, translocates upwards through plant. Inhibits lipid synthesis.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Moderately toxic by ingestion, intraperitoneal, and skin contact routes. Low toxicity by inhalation. Experimental reproductive effects. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic vapors of NOx and SOx.
 
 
NAME: Dimethachlor
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C13H18ClNO2. Molecular Weight is 255.74. Storing temperature is 0-6C. Colourless crystals. Density is 1.23 (20 ¡C). Melting point is 45.8-46.7 ¡C. Vapour pressure is1.5 mPa (25 ¡C). Henry constant is1.7?10-4 Pa m3 mol-1 ( calc.). Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water) is logP = 2.17. Solubilityin water is 2.3 g/l (25 ¡C). Readily soluble in most organic solvents, e.g. ketones, alcohols, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons. In methanol, benzene, dichloromethane >800, n-octanol 440 (all in g/ kg, 25 ¡C). Very stable in neutral media and in dilute acids. Hydrolysed in alkaline media ( pH 13). Readily soluble in most organic solvents, e.g. ketones, alcohols, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons. In methanol, benzene, dichloromethane >800 g/kg, n-octanol 440 g/kg at 25¡C. Selective, absorbed by new shoots of seedlings and roots. Usually supplied as an emulsifiable concentrate that is mixed with water and used as a spray.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Skin sensitizer
 
 
NAME: Dimethametryn
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-N2-(1,2-dimethylpropyl)-N4-ethyl-6-methylthio-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine. Mode of actions are Selective, absorbed by roots and foliage . Molecular Formula is C11H21N5S. Molecular Weight is 255.38. Flash point is 204C. Insoluble in water. Melting point 152C. Boiling point is 413C. it can be dissolve in Methanol, alcohol, doesn't dissolve in water and methyl acetyl. N6-(delta 2-Isopentenyl)-adenine can help corn longer and full, increase corn quantity and weigh; lead to mature earlier. To used on watermelon, increase sugar content and output. And it also can be use on cabbage, eggplant, tomato, tea, tobacco, rice etc. To used on orange, it can increase fruit setting ratio, suger content and output.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The toxicity to rice, grade of weed control were recorded as well as the height of rice at harvest, number of panicles/0.5 square meters and yield of rice. At Suphan Buri, toxicity to rice for the treatments of application at 3 DBS tended to be less than those at 10 DAS except bensulfuron-methyl. Grades of weed control were identical between two application times of herbicide and among herbicidal treatments in each time of application. At Chai Nat, the results in wet season in term of the toxicity to rice were the same between the times of application and among herbicidal treatments piperophos/dimethametryn had highest toxicity. Grades of weed control at 3 DBS and 10 DAS were almost the same resulting in no difference in yield. For the dry season, it was found to be similar to the wet season in case of toxicity to rice and weed control. The yields were the same between two application times but not in each application time.
 
 
NAME: Dimethenamid
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-2-chloro-N-(2,4-dimethyl-3-thienyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide. Molecular weight is 275.8. Molecular formula is C12H18ClNO2S. Form Yellowish-brown, viscous liquid. Boling point is 127 ¼C. Solubility In water is 1.2 g/l (pH 7, 25 ¼C). In heptane 282, iso-octane 220 (both in g/kg, 25 ¼C). In ether, kerosene, ethanol all >50% (25 ¼C). Stable in storage at 54 ¼C for 4 weeks, and at 70 ¼C for 2 weeks. Estimated decomposition at 20 ¼C within 2 years is <5%. Stable at pH 5-9 (buffered, 25 ¼C) for 30 d. F.p. 91 ¡C (Pensky-Martens closed cup)
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute oral: LD50 429 mg/kg. Acute dermal : LD50 2000 mg/kg .

Acute inhalation is LC50 2.2 mg.

 
 
NAME: Dimethipin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Plant growth regulator
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2,3-dihydro-5,6-dimethyl-1,4-dithiine 1,1,4,4-tetraoxide. Molecular Formula is C6H10O4S2. Molecular Weight is 210.27. Flash point is -4 ¡Cstorage temperature. Approx. -4¡C. Melting point is 167C. Density is 1.59g/cm3. Vapour pressure is 4 x 10 -7mmHg(at 25C). Colorless crystals with a mild odor. Used as a defoliant. Slowly decomposes in water.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: DIMETHIPIN slowly decomposes in water to form toxic or flammable products. The decomposition is accelerated by acids. May react with aldehydes, nitrides, and hydrides to generate flammable gases. Reacts with aldehydes, nitrides, and hydrides. Incompatible with acids, peroxides, and acid halides.
 
 
NAME: Dimethoate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticides, nematicides)
 
DESCRIPTION: chemical name are O,O-dimethyl S-methylcarbamoylmethylphosphorodithioate or 2-dimethoxyphosphinothioylthio-N-methylacetamide. Dimethoate is an insecticide used to kill mites and insects systemically and on contact. It is used against a wide range of insects, including aphids, thrips, planthoppers and whiteflies on ornamental plants, alfalfa, apples, corn, cotton, grapefruit, grapes, lemons, melons, oranges, pears, pecans, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, tangerines, tobacco, tomatoes, watermelons, wheat and other vegetables. It is also used as a residual wall spray in farm buildings for house flies. Dimethoate has been administered to livestock for control of botflies. Dimethoate is available in aerosol spray, dust, emulsifiable concentrate, and ULV concentrate formulations
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Dimethoate is moderately toxic (World Health Organisation class II) by ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption. Most oral LD50s (dose at which half the sample is dead) in rats range from 150-400 mg/kg body weight. For mice, rabbits and guinea pigs, the LD50s are 160, 300 and 350 mg/kg respectively. As with all OPs, dimethoate is rapidly absorbed through the skin, and easily absorbed through the lungs.

The population as a whole is not generally subject to exposure to dimethoate from air, water or food; however occupational exposure may occur during manufacture, formulation and use. This mainly occurs through inhalation and dermal absorption, although occupational exposure can occur by accident or as a result of incorrect handling. Where humans are exposed to dimethoate, there are many effects: when inhaled, the first effects are usually respiratory and may include a bloody or runny nose, coughing, chest discomfort, difficult or short breath, and wheezing due to constriction or excess fluid in the bronchial tubes. Skin contact may cause skin sensitisation. Eye contact will cause pain, bleeding, tears, pupil constriction and blurred vision. Following exposure by any route, other systemic effects may begin within a few minutes or be delayed for up to 12 hours. These may include pallor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, eye pain, and blurred vision. Severe poisoning will affect the central nervous system producing lack of coordination, slurred speech, loss of reflexes, weakness, fatigue, involuntary muscle contractions, twitching, tremors of the tongue or eyelids, and eventually paralysis of the body extremities and the respiratory muscles.

 
 
NAME: Dimethomorph-(E)   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C21H22ClNO4. Molecular Weight is 387.86. Melting point is 125-149¡C. Storing temperature is 0-6¡C. Dimethomorph , its cas register number is 110488-70-5. It also can be called 2-Propen-1-one,3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(4-morpholinyl)- ; 4-(3-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)morpholine ; Morpholine, 3-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl)- ; Morpholine, 4-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl). Safty information about Dimethomorph. Dimethomorph is a systemic fungicide which protects plants from molds, as well as killing molds on plants and preventing their spread. It is a cinnamic acid derivative and a member of the morpholine chemical family. It is a mixture of two isomers but only the Z isomer has fungicidal activity. Dimethomorph is used as a wood preservative to control downy mildew on vines, and to control late blight on tomatoes and potatoes. Application Sites: Dimethomorph is a systemic morpholine fungicide for use on potatoes. Its mode of action is the inhibition of sterol (ergosterol) synthesis. Morpholines are all systemic with curative and preventative qualities. Dimethomorph was developed for downy mildews, late blights, crown and root rots for grapes, potatoes, tomatoes, and other vegetables. Time-limited tolerances (in conjunction with Section 18 requests) are also established under 40 CFR ¤180.493 for residues of the fungicide Dimethomorph in or on various raw agricultural commodities (RAC's) including cantaloupes, cucumbers, potatoes, squash, tomatoes, and watermelons.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. The EPA has classified Dimethomorph as Toxicity Class III - slightly toxic. Products containing Dimethomorph bear the SIGNAL WORD: CAUTION . It is available as a wettable powder, a dispersible concentrate, and a suspension concentrate. Chronic dietary (food only) exposure estimates for Dimethomorph do not exceed EPAÕs level of concern. The most highly exposed population subgroup was children age 1 to 6 years old at 4 percent of the chronic RfD. In conducting the chronic dietary risk assessment, EPA made very conservative assumptions: that all commodities having Dimethomorph tolerances will contain residues of Dimethomorph, and that these residues will be at the level of the tolerance. This results in an overestimate of human dietary exposure. The predicted Dimethomorph surface and ground water concentrations are well below EPAÕs drinking water level of concern (DWLOC). EPA used the SCI-GROW (Screening Concentration In Ground Water) model to estimate the Estimated Environmental Concentration (EEC) of Dimethomorph residues in ground water. The reported EEC for Dimethomorph residues using SCI-GROW is 0.26 ppb. EPA used the Generic Estimated Environmental Concentration (GENEEC) model to estimate acute and chronic EECs of Dimethomorph residues in surface water. The GENEEC model estimated that, with the present use pattern, surface water concentrations of Dimethomorph ranged from a peak of 28 ppb to a 56-day concentration of 24 ppb. EPAÕs level of concern for chronic exposure to residues of Dimethomorph range from 960 ppb for children 1-6 years old to 3400 ppb for the US population and males 13 years and older. Therefore, exposure from water is below EPAÕs level of concern for all of the populations examined. In addition, the aggregate (food and water) chronic exposure for infants, children and adults does not exceed EPAÕs level of concern and adverse health effects from chronic exposure to Dimethomorph in food and water are not expected in these populations.
 
 
NAME: Dimethylphthalate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insect repellent)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1,2-dimethyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate. Molecular formula: C6H4-1,2-(COOCH3)2. Colourless oily liquid. Melting point is 2C.Boiling point is 284 C. Vapour density is 6.7 (air = 1). Vapour pressure is 1 mm Hg at 100 C. Density (g cm-3) is 1.19.Flash point is 146 C. Explosion limits is 0.9 - 8%. Slightly soluble in water. Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases, nitrates. Sensitive to prolonged exposure to light. The vapor pressure for dimethyl phthalate is 4.19 ? 10-3 mm Hg at 20 ¡C, and it has a log octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) of 1.56. Above the flash point, explosive vapor-air mixtures may be formed. Phthalates are by far the most widely used plasticizers, primarily to make soft and flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for the applications in the industry of automotive, building & construction material, cable, flooring, medical device and toys. Phthalates make the long polyvinyl molecules to slide against one another. Minor quantity of phthalates are used in adhesives, caulk, sealants, paint to improve work performance. Small molecule phthalates are used as solvents in perfumes to provide longer linger longer and in nail polish to prevent chipping. They are also used as ingredients of insect repellents, as solvents in lacquer and pesticides, and as dye carrier. They are used as textile lubricating agents and as solid rocket propellants. Phthalates are produced by the reaction of phthalic anhydride with appropriate alcohols from methanol up to isodecanol (C13), either as a straight chain or with some branched in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst. Excess alcohols are recovered and recycled and phthalates are purified by vacuum distillation and/or activated charcoal. A wide range of phthalates of varying chain length and structure provides each adequate properties and cost-effective for various processing and mechanical requirements. C8 - C9 phthalates, such as di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP or called DOP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) are the most widely used general purpose phthalates. DOP is the dominant plasticizer used in PVC, providing low cost. Short chain phthalates (C3 - C7) are used when rapid setting and stain resistance is required.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: May be harmful if swallowed or inhaled. May act as a teratogen. May irritate skin, eyes or respiratory system.Acute exposure to dimethyl phthalate, via inhalation in humans and animals, results in irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Acute animal tests in rats have shown dimethyl phthalate to have moderate acute toxicity from oral and dermal exposures.
 
 
NAME: Dimethylvinphos(E)   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are DIMETHYLVINPHOS; DIMETHYLVINPHOS; DIMETHYLVINPHOS (E TYPE);2-chloro-1-(2,4dichlorophenyl)ethenyldimethylphosphate; ent25,818;oms-712;phosphoricacid,2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethenyldimethylester; phosphoricacid,2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) vinyldimethylester. Molecular formula is C10H10Cl3O4P. Molecular weight is 331.52. Molecular weight is 331.5. Pale white, crystalline solid. Density is1.26 (25 ¡C). Comprises >95.0% (Z)- isomer, <2.0% (E)- isomer. The diethyl ester analogue (mixture of (E)- and (Z)- isomers) is chlorfenvinphos ( q.v.). Melting point is69-70 ¡C; Vapour pressure is1.3 mPa (25 ¡C); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water) is logP = 3.12 (25 ¡C); Solubility:In water is 130 ppm (20 ¡C). In xylene 300-350, acetone 350-400, cyclohexanone 450-500 g/l (20 ¡C). Hydrolysis DT50 40 d ( pH 7.0, 25 ¡C). Unstable in sunlight.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Contact and stomach acting, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor.

        

 
NAME: Dimethylvinphos(Z)   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are DIMETHYLVINPHOS; DIMETHYLVINPHOS; DIMETHYLVINPHOS (E TYPE);2-chloro-1-(2,4dichlorophenyl)ethenyldimethylphosphate; ent25,818;oms-712;phosphoricacid,2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethenyldimethylester; phosphoricacid,2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) vinyldimethylester. Molecular formula is C10H10Cl3O4P. Molecular weight is 331.52. Molecular weight is 331.5. Pale white, crystalline solid. Density is1.26 (25 ¡C). Comprises >95.0% (Z)- isomer, <2.0% (E)- isomer. The diethyl ester analogue (mixture of (E)- and (Z)- isomers) is chlorfenvinphos ( q.v.). Melting point is69-70 ¡C; Vapour pressure is1.3 mPa (25 ¡C); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water) is logP = 3.12 (25 ¡C); Solubility:In water is 130 ppm (20 ¡C). In xylene 300-350, acetone 350-400, cyclohexanone 450-500 g/l (20 ¡C). Hydrolysis DT50 40 d ( pH 7.0, 25 ¡C). Unstable in sunlight.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Contact and stomach acting, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Other synonyms are (Z)-DIMETHYLVINPHOS;DIMETHYLVINPHOS (Z TYPE);Phosphoric acid (Z)-2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)vinyl dimethyl;Phosphoric acid (Z)-2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)vinyldimethyl ester. Molecular weight is C10H10Cl3O4P. Molecular mass 331.52. 
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor

        

 
NAME: Dimetilan
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1-dimethylcarbamoyl-5-methylpyrazol-3-yl dimethylcarbamate. Molecular Weight is 240.26. Molecular Formula is C10H16N4O3. Melting point is 70C. Boling point is 205C. Colorless solid. The technical product is a yellow to reddish-brown solid. Used as an insecticide for insect control on livestock, especially houseflies control. DIMETILAN is no longer produced commercially in the U.S. Readily soluble in water. DIMETILAN is a carbamate ester. Carbamates are chemically similar to, but more reactive than amides. Like amides they form polymers such as polyurethane resins. Carbamates are incompatible with strong acids and bases, and especially incompatible with strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Flammable gaseous hydrogen is produced by the combination of active metals or nitrides with carbamates. Strongly oxidizing acids, peroxides, and hydroperoxides are incompatible with carbamates. When heated to decomposition, DIMETILAN emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides. (Non-Specific -- Carbamate Pesticide, Solid, n.o.s.) DIMETILAN may burn but does not ignite readily. Container may explode in heat of fire. Hydrolyzed by acids and alkalis.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Very toxic; probable oral lethal dose for humans is 50-500 mg/kg or between 1 teaspoon and 1 oz. for a 70 kg (150 lb.) person. DIMETILAN is highly toxic by ingestion and moderately toxic by contact with the skin. Death is primarily due to respiratory arrest of central origin, paralysis of the respiratory muscles, intense bronchoconstriction, or all three. DIMETILAN is a cholinesterase inhibitor.
 
 
NAME: Dimoxystrobin   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (E)-2-(methoxyimino)-N-methyl-2-[?-(2,5-xylyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetamide. Molecular formula is C19H22N2O3. Protectant, curative and translaminar. Respiration inhibitor (QoL fungicide). Often available as a suspension concentrate comprising of dimoxystrobin and other active substances. Pictor* for use on sunflowers; Swing* Gold for use on winter wheat.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Harmful if inhaled. Minimal risk from dietary exposure]. Risk assessment indicates ARfD would not normally be execeeded.
 
 
NAME: Diniconazole
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (E)-(RS)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pent-1-en-3-ol. The (R)-isomer of this substance has the common name diniconazole-M. Molecular Formula is C15H17Cl2N3O. Molecular Weight is 326.22. Melting point is 134 to 156?. Density is 1.32. Systemic with curative and protective action. Inhibits the demethylation of steroids distrupting ergosterol biosynthesis. Available in a variety of formulations including emulsifiable concentrates, water dispersible granules and wettable powders. Biochemistry Steroid demethylation (ergosterol biosynthesis) inhibitor. Mode of action Systemic fungicide with protective and curative action. Uses Control of leaf and ear diseases (e.g. powdery mildew, Septoria, Fusarium, smuts, bunt, rusts, scab, etc.) in cereals; powdery mildew in vines; powdery mildew, rust, and black spot in roses; leaf spot in peanuts; Sigatoka disease in bananas; and Uredinales in coffee. Also used on fruit, vegetables, and other ornamentals. Formulation types EC; SC; WG; WP. Selected tradenames: 'Spotless' (Sumitomo); 'Sumi-8' (Sumitomo)
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Oral Acute oral LD50 for male rats 639, female rats 474 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >5000 mg/kg. Mild eye irritant; non-irritating to skin (rabbits). Not a skin sensitiser (guinea pigs). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >2770 mg/m3. Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) III; EPA (formulation) III EC hazard Xn; R22| N; R50, R53 ((E)- isomers)
 
 
NAME: Dinitramine 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N1,N1-diethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-trifluoromethyl-m-phenylenediamine. Molecular Formula is CH4N4O4 . Molecular Weight is 136.0669. Molar Refractivity is 25.91 cm3. Molar Volume is 88.2 cm3 . Surface Tension is 59.4 dyne/cm. Density is 1.542 g/cm3 . Flash Point is 149.4 ¡C. Enthalpy of Vaporization is 56.53 kJ/mol. Boiling Point is 323.4 ¡C at 760 mmHg Vapour Pressure is 0.000263 mmHg at 25¡C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: A powerful and sensitive explosive. It explodes when heated to 217¡C. The lead salt explodes at 195¡C. Upon decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.
 
 
NAME: Dinobuton 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenyl isopropyl carbonate. Molecular Formula is C14H18N2O7. Molecular Weight is 326.30 .Percent Composition are C 51.53%, H 5.56%, N 8.59%, O 34.32%. Crystals from methanol or petr ether. Melting point is 56-57¡C. Often supplied as an emulsifiable liquid or a concentrate in an aromatic solvent. Non-systemic, rapid contact action
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity data: LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 59, 71 orally (Gaines). Moderately toxic.
 
 
NAME: Dinoseb
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol. Dinoseb is a dark reddish-brown solid or dark orange viscous liquid, depending on the temperature. It has a pungent odor. Dinoseb is corrosive to mild steel in the presence of water. Toxic fumes are emitted upon decomposition of dinoseb. Solubility in water: 0.0052 g/100 g (25 degrees C). Soluble in alcohol, ethanol, heptane, spray oil, and most organic solvents and oils. Melting point is 32-42 C. Vapor pressure is 1 torr (151.1 degrees C). Log P is 0.0 (151.1 degrees C). Its greatest use is as a contact herbicide for post-emergence weed control in cereals, undersown cereals, seedling lucerne and peas. Dinoseb is also used as a corn enhancer and an insecticide and miticide.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Dinoseb is a highly to extremely toxic compound, and is labeled with a DANGER signal word. Exposure to dinoseb can occur by direct contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Inhalation of dusts and sprays may be irritating to the lungs and eyes, and may cause serious illness. Symptoms occurring in humans include fatigue, thirst, sweating, insomnia, weight loss, headache, flushing of the face, nausea, abdominal pain, and occasional diarrhea. Dinoseb is absorbed through animal and human skin, and direct skin contact will cause irritation, yellow stains, burns, and dermatitis. Spray operators have died upon dermal exposure to dinoseb. In one fatality, a farm worker was using a backpack hand-held sprayer that leaked dinoseb onto his body and penetrated his skin
 
 
NAME: Dinoseb acetate  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenyl acetate. Molecular Formula is C12H14N2O6. Formula Weight is 282.25. Flash point is 100 ¡C. Storage temp is 2-8¡C. Melting point is 27C. Boling point 364C. After Bud herbicide, to dinoseb and chloride produced by the reaction. For graminaceous plants, corn, beans, and rice, potato and other crops control annual broadleaf weeds, dosage 2.5kg/ha. Combustible. Liquid formulations containing organic solvents may be flammable. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute oral LD50 60 ~ 65mg/Kg. Agents 40% WP, 50% EC. Headache. Sweating. Nausea. Shortness of breath. Unconsciousness. Vomiting. Elevated body temperature. Thirst. Loss of appetite.

         

 
NAME: Dinoseb methyl ether          
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C11H14N2O5.Formula Weight is 254.24. Flash point is -26 C. Storing temperature is 2-8¡C. Dinoseb, or 2,4-dinitro-6-sec-butylphenol, is a selective non-systemic herbicide and desiccant with moderate use in Canada (50 000 to 300 000 kg active ingredient per year).It is marketed as an oil formulation or ammonium salt. Dinoseb is effective in the control of many broadleaf weeds in such crops as cereals, seedling alfalfa and peas and is also used for pre-emergence control of annual weeds in beans, peas and potatoes and for control of runners and suckers in raspberries and strawberries. Dinoseb is considered to be of intermediate to high mobility in silt loam, sandy soils, sandy loam and silty clay loam soils. 6 It is considered by Agriculture Canada to have a high potential for leaching based on its soil half-life and its soil organic carbon partition coefficient, although in some experiments dinoseb could not be leached from the top 30 cm of soil in the first year after application.It has been reported to persist for about two to four weeks after application.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Dinoseb is well absorbed by both oral and dermal routes. A study with rabbits showed that 66% of a single oral dose of 3 mg/kg bw was absorbed. Dermal application resulted in 68% absorption after one week.Penetration through the skin was found to be age-related, being more absorbed in the adult female rat (86 to 93%) than in young rats. Dinoseb was about 50% metabolized after 24 hours in adult mice after both oral and intraperitoneal routes of administration, but only 15 and 43% were metabolized in the embryo after oral and intraperitoneal administration, respectively. No appreciable amounts of dinoseb were shown to accumulate in the blood, liver or kidney. Tissue levels in the embryo never exceeded 2.5% of maternal plasma levels regardless of route of administration.The products of metabolism include nitroamino-, diamino- and dinitrophenols. In Sherman strain rats fed a diet of dinoseb for 60 days (0 to 500 ppm), residue levels were found to be dose-dependent and decreased as follows: blood > faeces > urine > adipose tissue > brain > liver.
 
 
NAME: Dinoterb
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-tert-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol. Molecular Formula is C10H12N2O5. Formula Weight is 240.21. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Yellow solid. Used as a herbicide and a rodenticide. Slightly soluble in water. Nitrophenolates, such as DINOTERB, range from slight to strong oxidizing agents. If mixed with reducing agents, including hydrides, sulfides and nitrides, they may begin a vigorous reaction that culminates in a detonation. The aromatic nitro compounds may explode in the presence of a base such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide even in the presence of water or organic solvents. The explosive tendencies of aromatic nitro compounds are increased by the presence of multiple nitro groups. Severe explosion hazard when dry. When heated to decomposition DINOTERB emits toxic nitrogen oxide fumes.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: DINOTERB is toxic by all routes of exposure. The dangerous single oral dose of dinitro-o- cresol, a structurally similar compound, is estimated to be about 29 mg/kg.
 
 
NAME: Dinoterb acetate    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-tert-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenyl acetate. Molecular Weight is 282.24936 [g/mol]. Molecular Formula is C12H14N2O6. Boiling Point is 374.2 ¡C at 760 mmHg. Flash Point is 151.9 ¡C. Index of Refraction is 1.54.8 Molar Refractivity is 69.07 cm3 . Molar Volume is 217.4 cm3 . Polarizability is 27.38?10-24 cm3 . Surface Tension is 46.5dyne/cm. Enthalpy of Vaporization is 62.16 kJ/mol. Vapour Pressure is 8.49E-06 mmHg at 25 C.XLogP3-AA is 3. H-Bond Acceptor is 6. Rotatable Bond Count is 3. Exact Mass is 282.085186. MonoIsotopic Mass is 282.085186. Topological Polar Surface Area is 113. Heavy Atom Count is 406. 
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: May cause harm to the unborn child. Toxic in contact with skin. Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
 
 
NAME: Dioxabenzofos   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are (RS)-2-methoxy-4H-1,3,2?5-benzodioxaphosphinine 2-sulfide or (RS)-2-methoxy-4H-1,3,2?5-benzodioxaphosphorine 2-sulfide. Molecular Formula : C8H 9O3PS. Molecular weight is 216.2. Light yellow crystal. Melting point is 55-56C. Vapour pressure is 4.7x 10-3mmHg/25C. Solubility (in solution 1l) in Water is 58ppm / 30c, Acetone, Benzene, Ethanol, Ether : mix toluene, xylene, Cyclohexane are soluble.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: LD50of acute oral toxicity / weight (kg) : rat (male) 125mg, rat (female) 180mg, mouse(male) 91.3mg, mouse(female) 128mg . Percutaneous LD50 : rat (male) 400mg, rat (female) 590mg, mouse(male)(female) more than 1250mg. Intraperitoneal injection LD50 is rat (male) 81.6mg. Fish toxicity 50% lethal concentration is carp 3.55ppm/48h, goldfish 2.8ppm/48h. Fish toxicity rank of registered pesticides is B.
 
 
NAME: Dioxacarb 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)phenyl methylcarbamate. Molecular Formula is C11H13NO4. Formula Weight is 223.23. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Systemic. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Meting point is 113C. Boling point is 320C. Falsh point is 148C. Exisit in solid state. Soluble in water. Systemic. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Inhalation, eye, skin, ingestion. TOXICITY: (Rat): Oral LD50 60-80 mg/kg. Dermal 3000 mg/kg.
 
 
NAME: Dioxathion
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaroids, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is S,S?-(1,4-dioxane-2,3-diyl) O,O,O?,O?-tetraethyl bis(phosphorodithioate). Reddish brown liquid. Molecular Formula is C12H26O6P2S4. Molecular Weight is 456.54. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Dark amber viscous liquid. Tan liquid (technical grade is brown). Used for the control of insects and mites on grapes, citrus, walnuts, ornamentals, apples, pears, and quince. Also used as a spray or dip for the control of ticks, lice, hornfly, and sheep ked on cattle, goats, sheep, and hogs. Insoluble in water. Dioxathion is stable in water at a neutral pH. Dioxathion is heat sensitive. Dioxathion may react with iron or tin surfaces. Dioxathion may be hydrolyzed by strong acids or alkalis. . Organophosphates are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides. Shock can shatter container, releasing contents. (Non-Specific -- Organophosphorus Pesticide, Liquid, n.o.s.) Container may explode in heat of fire. Fire may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Runoff from fire control water may give off poisonous gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. When heated to decomposition, dioxathion emits highly toxic fumes of oxides of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Avoid alkali materials and heat. Dioxathionis unstable to iron or tin surfaces and when mixed with certain carriers. Tan liquid (technical grade is brown). Used for the control of insects and mites on grapes, citrus, walnuts, ornamentals, apples, pears, and quince. Also used as a spray or dip for the control of ticks, lice, hornfly, and sheep ked on cattle, goats, sheep, and hogs.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: May cause mild transient conjunctivitis. Very toxic. Very toxic. Probable oral lethal dose for humans is 50-500 mg/kg or between 1 teaspoonful and 1 oz. for a 70 kg (150 lb.) person. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Death is primarily due to respiratory arrest arising from failure of the respiratory center, paralysis of respiratory muscles, intense bronchoconstriction, or all three.
 
 
NAME: Diphacinone
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (rodenticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-(diphenylacetyl)indan-1,3-dione. Molecular weight is 340.37. Technical diphacinone is an odorless, pale yellow powder . Diphacinone is stable under normal temperatures and pressures. It may burn, but does not ignite readily. Thermal decomposition of diphacinone may release carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Diphacinone has a low potential to leach in soil. Diphacinone is rapidly decomposed in water by sunlight Melting point is 146-147 degrees C. Technical material decomposes at 338 degrees C without boiling. Vapor pressure is 13.7 mm Hg at 25C. Anticoagulant rodenticide. Diphacinone is an anti-coagulant rodenticide bait used for control of rats, mice, voles and other rodents. It is available in meal, pellet, wax block, and liquid bait formulations, as well as in tracking powder and concentrate formulations.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: If SWALLOWED, diphacinone is Very Highly Toxic.If ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN, diphacinone is Very Highly Toxic. If INHALED (SNIFFED OR BREATHED IN), diphacinone is Highly Toxic. Can cause kidney and liver damage. Can cause cardiopulmonary and neurologic injury in laboratory rats leading to death before hemorrhaging occurs. These symptoms have not been seen in humans.
 
 
NAME: Diphenamid
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N,N-dimethyl-2,2-diphenylacetamide. Molecular Formula is C16H17NO. Molecular Weight is 239.31. Melting point is 132-136 ¡C(lit.). Storing temperature is 0-6¡C. Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases. White or off-white powder. Colorless to off-white crystals. Used as an herbicide. DIPHENAMID is an amide. Amides/imides react with azo and diazo compounds to generate toxic gases. Flammable gases are formed by the reaction of organic amides/imides with strong reducing agents. Amides are very weak bases (weaker than water). Imides are less basic yet and in fact react with strong bases to form salts. That is, they can react as acids. Mixing amides with dehydrating agents such as P2O5 or SOCl2 generates the corresponding nitrile. The combustion of these compounds generates mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx). DIPHENAMID is decomposed by strong base or acid.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Groups of purebred beagle dogs, 3 of each sex, were fed 0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day diphenamid for 2 years. Daily observations were made for the occurrence of untoward clinical signs, changes in food consumption, behavioral changes, stool consistency, urinary excretion, and indications of emesis. Histopathologic observations revealed no distinction between treated and control dogs, with the exception of an increase in portal macrophages and fibroblasts in the 10 and 30 mg/kg/day groups. A slight increase in liver weight occurred in the 10 and 30 mg/kg/day groups. At 30 mg/kg/day these effects were noted in a greater number of dogs
 
 
NAME: Diphenyl phthalate     
 
CLASSIFICATION: used as a plasticizer for cellulosic and other resins.
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C20H14O4 Molecular Weight is 318.32876. Melting point is 74-76 ¡C(lit.). Boling point is 400-405¡C. Density is 1,28 g/cm3. Flash point is 224¡C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute oral toxicity in rats: >2,197 mg/kg body weight. Acute dermal toxicity in rabbits: >10,000 mg/kg body weight. Acute inhalation toxicity in rats: >320 mg/l (4-hour exposure). Skin irritation in rabbits: Not an irritant. Eye irritation in rabbits: Not an irritant. May cause irritation of the digestive tract. Low hazard for usual industrial handling. The toxicological properties of this substance have not been fully investigated. Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid if cough or other symptoms appear.
 
 
NAME: Diphenylamine
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is diphenylamine. Molecular Weight is 169.24. Chemical Formula is (C6H5)2 NH. White to yellow crystals. Floral odor. Insoluble in water. Boiling Point is 302C. (576F). Melting Point is 52C (126F). Vapor Density (Air=1) is 5.82. under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Discolors on exposure to light. Burning may produce carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: May cause irritation to the mucous membranes. Inhalation of dust may cause systemic poisoning, symptoms may parallel those from ingestion exposure. May cause methemoglobinemia. May cause anoxia, headache, fatigue, anorexia, cyanosis, vomiting, diarrhea, emaciation, hypothermia, bladder irritation, kidney, heart, and liver damage. May cause methemoglobinemia. Prolonged or repeated exposure from inhalation or skin absorption of liquid may cause damage to the nervous system, liver, kidneys, and bone marrow. May also cause weight loss, anemia, weakness, and irritability.
 
 
NAME: Dipropetryn  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 6-ethylthio-N2,N4-diisopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine. Molecular Weight is 255.38294 [g/mol] . Molecular Formula is C11H21N5S. Percent Composition are C 51.73%, H 8.29%, N 27.42%, S 12.56%.Pre-emergence herbicide. Absorption and translocation in plants: E. Basler et al., Weed Sci. 26, 358 (1978).Powder form, Melting point is 104-106¡. Vapor pressure at 20¡: 7.3 « 10-7 mm Hg. Solubility in water at 20¡ is16 mg/l. Soluble in organic solvents.Melting point is 104-106C. : Dipropetryn is more readily adsorbed on soils with high clay and organic mattercontent. Dipropetryn and other alkylthio-s-triazines are adsorbedto a greater extent than most other commercial triazines. Soil microorganisms do appear to play a significant role in degradation of dipropetryn. Loss from photodecomposition and/or volatilization: Slight losses. Average persistence at recommended rates: When used at recommended rates under normal environmental conditions, dipropetryn's residual activity is from one to three months. Dipropetryn is registered for preemergence control of pigweed and Russian thistle on cotton. In addition, dipropetryn is registered for use only on cotton grown on the sandy soils in Oklahoma, Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acute systemic toxicity is unlikely unless large amounts have been ingested. Irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract.
 
 
NAME: Dipropyl isocinchomeronate    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insect repellent)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular formula is C13H17NO4 . Molecular weight is 251.28. No rapid reaction with air. No rapid reaction with water. Boling point is 175C. Density is 1.12. Synonyms are 2,5-Pyridinedicarboxylicacid,ÊdipropylÊester (6CI,7CI,8CI,9CI); Di-n-propyl 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate;Di-n-propylÊisocinchomeronate;ÊDipropylÊ2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate;ÊDipropylisocinchomeronate; ENT 17595; Isocinchomeronic acidÊdipropylÊester; MGK 326;MGK Repellent 326; MGK-R 326; NSC 22364; R 326; Repel 333. MGK¨ Repellent 326 was initially registered by the USDA in 1957 as an insect repellent for livestock. Tolerances were established for meat and milk and are found in 40 CFR ¤ 180.143. However, in 1993, McLaughlin Gormley and King Company, the technical registrant, elected to voluntarily cancel use on livestock intended for slaughter, which resulted in MGK¨ Repellent 326 being limited to indoor non-food (i.e., pet living/sleeping quarters) and residential use (i.e., repellents for humans and companion animals). In addition, in light of the fact that there are no active food uses, the Agency is recommending that all existing tolerances for MGK¨ Repellent 326 be revoked. Because food uses have been cancelled and the Agency is revoking all tolerances, EPA did not perform the standard FFDCA analyses in this reregistration. MGK¨ Repellent 326 is never used as the sole active ingredient (a.i). Rather, it is used to expand the spectrum of repellency of other formulation components. For instance, when found in products intended for use on humans, MGK¨ Repellent 326 is always combined with DEET (N,Ndiethyl-m-toluamide) and MGK¨ 264. According to current marketing data, the total amount of MGK¨ Repellent 326 sold to customers with pesticide labels for use as Òpersonal insect repellentsÓ is approximately 15,000 to 20,000 pounds (lbs) of a.i. Whereas use on dogs/cats and horses average 2,100 and 14,000 lbs of a.i., respectively. HEALTH PROBLEMS: Headache, dizziness, nausea, and loss of coordination are indications of excessive exposure to vapors or spray mists. Redness and itching or burning sensation may indicate eye or excessive skin exposure. For MGK¨ Repellent 326, there are no proposed or registered food uses. Therefore, there are no potential dietary (food) exposures from the use of MGK¨ Repellent 326, and a dietary (food) risk assessment was not conducted. Further, the Agency proposes to revoke all the following established tolerances found at 40 CFR ¤ 180.143, because the livestock commodity uses have been deleted: meat, fat and meat byproducts of cattle, goats, hogs, horses, and sheep; and milk.
 
 
NAME: Disulfoton  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O,O-diethyl S-2-ethylthioethyl phosphorodithioate. Disulfoton is a selective, systemic organophosphate insecticide and acaricide that is especially effective against sucking insects. It is used to control aphids, leafhoppers, thrips, beet flies, spider mites, and coffee leaf miners. Disulfoton products are used on cotton, tobacco, sugar beets, cole crops, corn, peanuts, wheat, ornamentals, cereal grains, and potatoes. Disulfoton is a manufactured substance used as a pesticide to control a variety of harmful pests that attack many field and vegetable crops. It does not occur naturally. Pure disulfoton is a colorless oil with an unidentifiable characteristic odor and taste. The technical product is dark yellowish, with an aromatic odor. Common trade names are Di-syston, Disystox, Frumin AL, and Soilvirex. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the Public Health Service, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is used to protect small grains, sorghum, corn, and other field crops; some vegetables, fruit, and nut crops; and ornamental and potted plants against certain insects. Although it is used mostly in agriculture, small quantities are used on home and garden plants, and for mosquito control in swamps. The use of disulfoton has decreased in recent years.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Disulfoton is highly toxic to all mammals and birds by all routes of exposure, i.e., breathing, drinking, eating, and skin contact. Obviously, breathing its dust or getting it on your skin while using the product on your roses is not a good idea. The risk is much higher for smaller mammals such as little children or pets or birds. A cat could lick the granules off its paw and die. Besides ingesting granules during foraging, birds can also ingest insects and earthworms from disulfoton treated gardens and die. Standing water in treated areas can be fatal to birds drinking or bathing.
 
 
NAME: Disulfoton sulfone     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C8H19O4PS3. Formula Weight is 306.4. Storing temperature 2 to 8C. Light yellow liquid. Boiling point is 62¡C at 0.01 mm Hg. Vapour pressure is 0.6 x 10-4 mm Hg at 10¡C. Volatility is 0.9 mg/m3 at 10¡C. Approximately 1:40 000 in water at room temperature: soluble in most organic solvents. Insecticide for mites & aphids on small grains, corn & sorghum, cotton, other field crops, vegetables, fruit & nuts, ornamentals systemic insecticide & acaricide recommended for cotton, beets, potatoes, hops, vegetables, ornamentals against wide range of insects & mites. Shows some nematicidal action which may persist for 6-12 WK. Application sites: Cole crops, root crops, pome, strawberry and pineapple fruits, forage, field and vegetable crops, sugarcane, seed crops, forest plantings, ornamentals, and potted plants (including houseplants). Control of aphids, thrips, mealybugs, and other sucking insects, and spider mites in cereals, maize, sorghum, rice, soya beans, groundnuts, lucerne, clover, sugar beet, hops, cotton, coffee, tobacco, fruit and nut crops, and forestry nurseries. Also prevents cucumber mosaic and potato leaf roll viruses by controlling the virus vectors. Side dressing, broadcast, in the seed furrow or foliar spray to control many insect, mite species. Seed treatment for sucking insects.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Disulfoton is very highly toxic to most species of warm water fish. Cold water species (rainbow trout) appear to be less sensitive. In on study, the measured LC50 for bluegill sunfish was 0.038 mg/L. Disulfoton has been detected in groundwater in random testing surveys in Virginia and Wisconsin at 1.0 mg/L. Massive fish kills have been noted in the past in conjunction with Disulfoton use. Disulfoton is very highly toxic to mammals through all exposure routes: oral, dermal, and inhalation. The Disulfoton LD 50 for rats is 1.9 to 6.2 mg/kg . The LD 50 for the sulfone metabolite in rats is 11.24 mg/kg. The metabolites of Disulfoton are more toxic to honeybees than the parent compound; the metabolites are more persistent as plant residues than is Disulfoton.
 
 
NAME: Ditalimfos      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (ungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O,O-diethyl phthalimidophosphonothioate
or N-(diethoxyphosphinothioyl)phthalimide. Molecular formula is C12H14NO4PS. Molecular weight is 299.28. Flash point is greater than 100C. Storing temperature is approximately 4C. colorless crystal flat. The temperature is 83 ¡ C ~ 84. Solubility in water at room temperature about 133mg.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Possible immunotoxicant, Skin sensitizer. TOXICITY:Ê(Rat): Oral 5660 mg/kg (male); 4930 mg/kg (female). (Rabbit): Dermal 1000 mg/kg..
 
 
NAME: Dithiopyr  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is S,S?-dimethyl 2-difluoromethyl-4-isobutyl-6-trifluoromethylpyridine-3,5-dicarbothioate. Molecular Formula is C15H16F5NO2S2 Molecular weight is 401.4. Colorless, crystalline solid with faint odor. Melting point is 65¡. Vapor pressure at 25¡ is 4 « 10-6 mm Hg. Solubility in water (20¡) is 1.38 ppm. Percent Composition are C 44.88%, H 4.02%, F 23.66%, N 3.49%, O 7.97%, S 15.98%. Dithiopyr can be used as a pre-emergence or post-emergence herbicide to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. It exhibits excellent control of crabgrass and good to excellent control of goosegrass and annual bluegrass. Dithiopyr is safe for use on most cool-season and warm-season turfgrasses. However, it has been shown to cause intermediate injury on fine fescue.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Causes eye irritation. Harmful if absorbed through the skin. Avoid contact with skin, eyes or clothing. Wash thoroughly with soap and water after handling. Avoid breathing dust. Remove contaminated clothing and wash clothing before reuse. This product is toxic to fish and highly toxic to other aquatic organisms including oysters and shrimp. Use with care when applying to turf areas adjacent to any body of water. Drift and runoff from treated turf may adversely affect aquatic organisms in adjacent aquatic sites. Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present, or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Do not apply when weather conditions favor drift from treated areas. Do not contaminate water when disposing of equipment wash waters. Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: >5000 mg/kg (Fujiyama, Yamane)
 
 
NAME: Diuron
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: The chemical (IUPAC) name for diuron is N-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-N, N-dimethylurea (C9H10Cl2N2O). Molecular weight is 233.10 g/mole. Water solubility is 36.4 ppm (25¼ C).Vapor pressure is 6.90 x10-8 mm Hg (25¼ C). Hydrolysis half-life is1490 days (pH 5), 1240-1330 days (pH 7). Molecular weight is 233.1. Diuron is a substituted urea herbicide used to control a wide variety of annual and perennial broadleaf and grassy weeds. It is used to control weeds and mosses on non-crop areas and among many agricultural crops such as fruit, cotton, sugar cane and legumes. Diuron works by inhibiting photosynthesis.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Diuron has a low acute toxicity to mammals even though it carries the signal word WARNING on the label. The signal word is applied because the compound can cause eye and throat irritation. It is much less of an irritant to intact skin. The rat oral LD50 ranges from 1017 mg/kg to 3750 mg/kg. Some signs of central nervous system depression have been noted at high levels of diuron exposure. For humans, the only reported case of acute, oral exposure to the herbicide produced no significant symptoms or toxicity.
 
 
NAME: Diuron Metabolite
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Diuron (N?-[3,4-dichlorophenyl]-N,N-dimethylurea) is a herbicide belonging to the phenylurea family, widely used to destroy weeds on uncultivated surfaces. This study aims to characterize the metabolism of ?-thujone in human liver preparations in vitro and to identify the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and possibly other enzymes catalyzing ?-thujone biotransformations. With a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method developed for measuring ?-thujone and four potential metabolites, it was demonstrated that human liver microsomes produced two major (7- and 4-hydroxy-thujone) and two minor (2-hydroxy-thujone and carvacrol) metabolites. Glutathione and cysteine conjugates were detected in human liver homogenates, but not quantified. No glucuronide or sulphate conjugates were detected. Major hydroxylations accounted for more than 90% of the primary microsomal metabolism of ?-thujone. Screening of ?-thujone metabolism with CYP recombinant enzymes indicated that CYP2A6 was principally responsible for the major 7- and 4-hydroxylation reactions, although CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 participated to a lesser extent and CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 catalyzed minor 2-hydroxylation. Based on the intrinsic efficiencies of different recombinant CYP enzymes and average abundances of these enzymes in human liver microsomes, CYP2A6 was calculated to be the most active enzyme in human liver microsomes, responsible for 70-80% of the metabolism on average. Inhibition screening indicated that ?-thujone inhibited both CYP2A6 and CYP2B6, with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 15.4 and 17.5 µM, respectively.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Because of its toxicity for aquatic organisms and suspicion of being carcinogenic for humans, diuron is the object of growing environmental concern. Therefore, we have developed the electro-Fenton method, an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP), to degrade diuron in aqueous medium, and we have studied the evolution of the toxicity of treated solution during the process. Indeed, the EAOPs catalytically generate hydroxyl radicals that oxidize the persistent organic pollutants, and can ultimately destroy and mineralize them. But, sometimes, relatively toxic organic metabolites are formed during the oxidation reaction. In this work, the evolution of toxicity of diuron aqueous solutions was studied at different initial concentrations, during treatment by the electro-Fenton method. Samples were collected at various electrolysis times and mineralization degrees during the treatment. The toxicity of the samples was measured using the bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Microtox) and the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Our results demonstrated that the toxicity of diuron aqueous solutions (concentrations = 3.0Ð27.6 mg L?1) varied considerably with time.

 
Contaminant Facts: Pesticides
 
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