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Pesticides (Bi - Ch)

 
NAME: Bis(2-butoxyethyl) phthalate  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pharmaceutical Intermediates
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acis bis(2-butoxyethyl)ester. Molecular Formula is C20H30O6. Molar mass is 366.45 g/mol.  EINECS is 204-213-1. Density is 1.068 g/cm3.  Flash Point is 171.2 °C. Index of Refraction is 1.492. Boiling Point is 405.2 °C at 760 mmHg. Melting point is -55C.  Vapour Pressure is 8.95E-07 mmHg at 25°C. Flash point is 95.56. Product categories of Bis(2-butoxyethyl) phthalate (117-83-9) are Functional Materials; Phthalates; Plasticizer; Polymer Additives and Science.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Practical Toxicology of Plastics," Lefaux, R., Cleveland, OH, Chemical Rubber Co., 1968Vol. -, Pg. 357, 1968. Mildly toxic by ingestion. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
 
 

NAME: Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Plasticizer and Solvent
 
DESCRIPTION: Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, commonly abbreviated DEHP, is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(C8H17COO)2. It is sometimes called dioctyl phthalate and abbreviated DOP. It is the most important "phthalate," being the diester of phthalic acid and the branched-chain 2-ethylhexanol. This colourless viscous liquid is soluble in oil, but not in water. It possesses good plasticizing properties. Being produced on a massive scale by many companies, it has acquired many names and acronyms, including BEHP and di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate. The major use of DEHP is in the production of PVC and vinyl chloride resins, where it is added to plastics to make them flexible. The vapor pressure for DEHP is 6.2 ? 10-8 mm Hg at 25 °C, and it has a log octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) of 4.2-5.11s.  The most probable route of exposure to DEHP is through food, with an average contribution of DEHP from food of 0.25 milligrams per day (mg/d). DEHP migrates into food from plastics during processing and storage.Exposure to DEHP can also occur during certain medical procedures, such as blood transfusions and kidney dialysis and use of respirators.In one study, DEHP was found in drinking water, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 30 parts per billion (ppb). The average ambient air concentration of DEHP is very low, with < 0.002 ppb in urban areas. DEHP levels in indoor air in a newly painted room or a room with recently installed flooring could be higher than levels in the outdoor air. Occupational exposure to DEHP may occur for those workers in factories that manufacture or use the chemical.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It exhibits low toxicity from acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) exposures. Acute exposure to large oral doses of DEHP can cause gastrointestinal distress in humans. No information is available on the chronic, reproductive, developmental, or carcinogenic effects of DEHP in humans. Animal studies have reported increased lung weights and increased liver weights from chronic inhalation exposure to DEHP. Oral exposure has resulted in developmental and reproductive effects in rats and mice. A study by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) showed that DEHP administered orally increased the incidence of liver tumors in rats and mice. EPA has classified DEHP as a Group B2, probable human carcinogen
 

 
NAME: Bis(2,3,3,3-tetrachloropropane)
 
CLASSIFICATION:  Fungicide (insect repellant)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are S 421;ent25,456;ENT 25,456;Monsanto 16226;monsantocp-16226;Monsanto cp-16226;TETRACHLOROPROPYLETHER;OCTACHLORODIPROPYL ETHER;Dipropyl octachloro ether;Octachloro-di-n-propyl ether. Molecular Formula is C6H6Cl8O. Formula Weight is 377.74. Flash point is 177 °C. Storage temperature is 0-6°C. Children and their parents in residences are often protected by insecticides from nuisance and disease-bearing mosquitoes. The annual worldwide consumption of the four major types of residential insecticide products--aerosols, mosquito coils, liquid vaporizers, and vaporizing mats--is in the billions of units. Mosquito coils are burned indoors and outdoors in East Asia and to a limited extent in other parts of the world, including the United States. Coils consist of an insecticide/repellant, organic fillers capable of burning with smoldering, binder, and additives such as synergists, dyes, and fungicide. The number of coil users in China is in the millions. In Indonesia alone, an estimated seven billion coils are purchased annually. Coils containing pyrethroid insecticides, particularly d-allethrin, may contain octachlorodipropyl ether (S-2, S-421) as a synergist or active ingredient. Use of those coils likely exposes children and adults to some level of bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME). BCME is formed from formaldehyde and hydrogen chloride, combustion products formed from the slow smoldering (about 8 hr/coil) of the mosquito coils. Because BCME is an extremely potent lung carcinogen, the nature and extent of prolonged exposures that recur in homes during the mosquito season in tropical regions must be evaluated with respect to health. In a small analytical study, coils purchased in Indonesia and in the United States contained highly variable amounts of S-2. Some coils that contained S-2 were not labeled, making it impossible for consumers to make an informed decision about coil contents. Mosquito coils containing S-2 are unregistered, and their use is illegal in the United States. Indoor air monitoring under conditions that represent conditions of use in tropical settings and epidemiology to assess health impacts of coil use are essential to permit responsible regulatory decisions regarding continuing S-2 use.

HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Ld50 - lethal dose, 50 percent kill, route of exposure: oral species observed rodent – rat, dose/duration: 18 mg/kg toxic Effects: details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value

 
 
NAME: Bisphenol A                   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Organic compound
 
DESCRIPTION: Bisphenol A, commonly abbreviated as BPA, is an organic compound with two phenol functional groups. It is used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, along with other applications.
BPA is also used in the production of epoxy resins. Epoxy resins have many uses including engineering applications such as electrical laminates for printed circuit boards, composites, paints and adhesives, as well as in a variety of protective coatings. Cured epoxy resins are inert materials used as protective liners in metal cans to maintain the quality of canned foods and beverages, and have achieved wide acceptance for use as protective coatings because of their exceptional combination of toughness, adhesion, formability, and chemical resistance.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:   Safety assessments of Bisphenol A (BPA) conclude that the potential human exposure to BPA from polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins is more than 400 times lower than the safe level of BPA set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This minimal level of exposure to BPA poses no known risk to human health.
The toxicology of Bisphenol A (BPA) has been extensively studied over the past several decades. Some studies have focused on the potential of BPA to act as an estrogen. These studies have shown that BPA possesses estrogenic activity in special experimental systems; however, it is not yet clear how relevant these studies are to human health. Thus, the use of these studies in estimating the NOEL for the toxicity of BPA is inappropriate at this time.


 
NAME: Bitertanol I                  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION:  Synonym are BAYCOR ; SIBUTOL; kwg0599;( 1RS, 2RS; Baycoral; biloxazol; BAYMAT(R);Biloxuron; BITERTANOL;SIBUTOL(R).  Molecular formula is C20H23N3O2. Molecular weight is 337.42.  Bitertanol is an effective fungicide used preventively or curatively for the control of certain diseases in fruits and vegetables, e.g. scab and Monilia laxa in stone fruit, and as seed treatments against Fusarium spp., Septoria, Tilletia caries etc. Melting point is 49-50°C. Boling point is 350°C. Flashpoint is 100C. White to gray power form. Bitertanol is a broad-spectrum fungicide said to be effective for the control of scab and Monilinia fruit diseases, banana and peanut leaf spot diseases, and rusts and mildews on a variety of crops. It is available as a wettable powder, emulsifiable concentrate and suspension concentrate, all applied by spraying. It is also used as a seed treatment for cereals. Only the wettable powder is recommended for pome fruit owing to possible foliage or fruit injury by the EC formulation. Sweep up, place in a bag and hold for waste disposal. Avoid raising dust. Ventilate area and wash spill site after material pickup is complete. Stable at normal temperatures and pressures. Strong oxidizing agent.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Bitertanol Toxicity: Tech (Rat): Oral LD50 >5000 mg/kg b.w.; Dermal LD50 >5000 mg/kg b.w. It should be under no circumstances whatsoever be handled by children or incompetent persons. While in storage, drum should be kept well sealed and stored in cool, dry and well ventilated place. In case of accidental ingestion, the patient should be taken to a doctor who should give symptomatic

 
 
NAME: Bitertanol II
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: BITERTANOL is a broad spectrum systemic fungicide used mostly on fruit and vegetables. It has protective and curative activity on Venturia scab diseases of pome fruit, Monilinia of stone fruit. It is also effective on leaf spot diseases and powdery mildews of stone fruit, bananas, sugar beets, peanuts and ornamentals
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Acute oral LD50 for rats and dogs >5,000mg/kg. Acute dermal LD50 for rats >2,000mg/kg. Acute inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats > 1.2 (dust) and >0.55mg/§? air (aerosol).
Non-irritating to skin and eyes(rabbits). NOEL (2 y) for rats and mice 101mg/kg diet. Acute oral LD50 for mallard ducks > 2,000mg/kg. TLm (48 h) for carps > 10ppm. Not toxic to bees

 
NAME: Boscalid (Nicobifen)          
 
CLASSIFICATION: CNS Stimulant
 
DESCRIPTION:Chemical name is 2-chloro-N-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)phenyl]pyridine-3-carboxamideSynonymous are BOSCALID;NICOBIFEN;boscalid solution;Boscalid 100mg [188425-85-6];2-CHLORO-N-(4'-CHLORO-2-BIPHENYLYL)NICOTINAMIDE;2-CHLORO-N-(4'-CHLOROBIPHENYL-2-YL)-NICOTINAMIDE;2-Chloro-N-(4?-chloro-2-biphenylyl)nicotinamide, Nicobifen;2-CHLORO-N-[2-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)PHENYL]-PYRIDINE-3-CARBOXAMIDE.  Molecular Formula is C18H12Cl2N2O. Formula Weight is 343.21. Flashing point 4C.  Storing temperature 0 to 6C.  Water Solubility (Avg, mg/L) Adsorption Coefficient (Koc) is 772.0. Hydrolysis Half-life (Avg, Days) is 30.0. Aerobic Soil Half-life (Avg, Days) is 347.0 .Anaerobic Soil Half-life (Avg, Days)  5.00 is 303.0 .    
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Nicotine is highly addictive. It is both a stimulant and a sedative to the central nervous system. The ingestion of nicotine results in a discharge of epinephrine from the adrenal cortex. This causes a sudden release of glucose. Stimulation is then followed by depression and fatigue, leading the abuser to seek more nicotine. In addition to nicotine, cigarette smoke is primarily composed of gases (mainly carbon monoxide) and tar. The tar in a cigarette exposes the user to a high risk of lung cancer, emphysema and bronchial disorders. The carbon monoxide in the smoke increases the chance of cardiovascular diseases. 
 
 
NAME: Bromacil
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil . Molecular formula is C9H13BrN2O2 . Molecular weight is 261.2.  Bromacil is used for brush control on non-cropland areas. It is especially useful against perennial grasses. It is also used for selective weed control in pineapple and citrus crops. It works by interfering with photosynthesis, the process by which plants use sunlight to produce energy. Bromacil is available in granular, liquid, water soluble liquid, and wettable powder formulations. When this substance is used as an ester or a salt, its identity should be stated, for example bromacil-lithium [53404-19-6], bromacil-sodium [69484-12-4]. Bromacil is one of a group of compounds called substituted uracils. These materials are broad spectrum herbicides used for nonselective weed and brush control on non-cropland, as well as for selective weed control on a limited number of crops, such as citrus fruit and pineapple . The herbicide is preferably sprayed or spread dry on the soil surface just before, or during, a period of active weed growth .  Bromacil is an odorless, white crystalline solid . It is chemically stable under normal storage conditions, but may pose a slight fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame. It slowly decomposes in the presence of strong acids and poses a fire and explosion hazard in the presence of strong oxidizers  Technical bromacil and its dry formulations are non-flammable, but some liquid formulations are combustible . When heated to decomposition, bromacil emits highly toxic and corrosive fumes of bromides and toxic oxides of nitrogen and carbon. Airborne bromacil dust may ignite .
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Liquid formulations of bromacil are moderately toxic, while dry formulations are relatively non-toxic. Hyvar X-L formulation can be harmful or fatal if swallowed. Industrial and agricultural workers are exposed to the wettable powders and aqueous emulsions of bromacil through two primary routes of exposure: inhalation of dusts and sprays, and skin contact with dusts, emulsions and sprays. The herbicide is irritating to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Target Organs are  eyes, skin, respiratory system, thyroid.

 
NAME: Bromfenvinphos-(Z)         
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide( insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonmous are 2-bromo-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)vinyl-O,O-diethylphosphate; IPO-62; O,O-diethyl-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-bromovinyl phosphate; bromfenvinphos, (E)-isomer; bromfenvinphos, (Z)-isomer; bromphenvinphos. Bromfenvinphos – (E,Z)-O,O-diethyl-O-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-bromovinyl] phosphate (BFVF) is the insecticide elaborated in Poland, which has been used against Varroa destructor causing honey bees disease called as varroosis. The substances that are formed as a result of bromfenvinphos synthesis are dihydro-bromfenvinphos (O,O-diethyl O-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)vinyl] phosphate); dibromo-bromfenvinphos (O,O-diethyl O-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2,2-dibromovinyl] phosphate); 2,4-dichlorophenacyl bromide; 2,4-dichlorophenacylidene bromide and 2,4-dichlorophenacylidyne bromide.In this work, we evaluated the effect of these compounds on hemolysis and hemoglobin oxidation (met-Hb formation) in human erythrocytes. Moreover, the changes in the size (FSC-A) and the shape (SSC-A) of red blood cells were assessed using flow cytometry and phase contrast microscopy.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:   In this work, we evaluated the effect of these compounds on hemolysis and hemoglobin oxidation (met-Hb formation) in human erythrocytes. Moreover, the changes in the size (FSC-A) and the shape (SSC-A) of red blood cells were assessed using flow cytometry and phase contrast microscopy.
 
 
NAME: Bromfenvinphos-(E)            
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonmous are 2-bromo-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)vinyl-O,O-diethylphosphate; bromfenvinphos, (E)-isomer; bromfenvinphos, (Z)-isomer; bromphenvinphos; ethylbromfenvinfos; ethylbromphenvinfos; ethylbromphenvinphos; IPO-62; O,O-diethyl-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-bromovinyl phosphate. Bromfenvinphos - (E,Z)-O,O-diethyl-O-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-bromovinyl] phosphate (BFVF) is the insecticide elaborated in Poland, which has been used against Varroa destructor causing honey bees disease called as varroosis. The substances that are formed as a result of bromfenvinphos synthesis are dihydro-bromfenvinphos (O,O-diethyl O-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)vinyl] phosphate); dibromo-bromfenvinphos (O,O-diethyl O-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2,2-dibromovinyl] phosphate); 2,4-dichlorophenacyl bromide; 2,4-dichlorophenacylidene bromide and 2,4-dichlorophenacylidyne bromide. In this work, we evaluated the effect of these compounds on hemolysis and hemoglobin oxidation (met-Hb formation) in human erythrocytes. Moreover, the changes in the size (FSC-A) and the shape (SSC-A) of red blood cells were assessed using flow cytometry and phase contrast microscopy. It was proven that bromfenvinphos at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 250 ?M during 1h incubation did not change the parameters examined in human erythrocytes. Similarly, most of bromfenvinphos impurities did not increase hemolysis and methemoglobin level nor changed the size and shape of the erythrocytes.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Poisoning like Morphological and histoenzymatic changes in the rat brain after experimental bromfenvinphos (Ipophos-IPO 62) poisoning]. Hemolysis the exception was dibromo-bromfenvinphos, which changed the FSC-A and SSC-A parameters, as well as 2,4-dichlorophenacyl bromide which induced hemolysis, increased the level of met-Hb and changed erythrocytes morphology. Similarly, most of bromfenvinphos impurities did not increase hemolysis and methemoglobin level nor changed the size and shape of the erythrocytes.

 
NAME: Bromobutide    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-2-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-N-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl) butyramide. Chemical formula is C15H22BrNO. Molecular Mass (g mol-1) is 312.25. Melting point is 180.1. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. A novel herbicide that is currently used to control perennial weeds in paddy fields. Modes of action are inhibition of 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase and  bleaching. Exisit in colorless yellow liquid. Stable under normal conditions. Bromobutide, a novel herbicide, was labeled with carbon-14 independently at the carbonyl group and the phenyl ring for use in metabolic studies. 14C-Carbonation of neopentylmagnesium chloride (3) gave 3,3-dimethyl[1-14C]butyric acid (4a) quantitatively. Chlorination of 4a with thionyl chloride followed by alpha-bromination with bromine yielded 2-bromo-3,3-dimethyl[1-14C]-butyryl halide (5a), which was subsequently condensed with alpha, alpha-dimethylbenzylamine (6a) to afford [carbonyl-14C]bromobutide (1a). The overall yield of 1a was 76% from barium [14C]-carbonate (2). Similarly, condensation of alpha, alpha-dimethyl[phenyl-14C]benzylamine (6b), which was prepared from alpha-methyl[phenyl-U-14C]styrene (7) in three steps, with 2-bromo-3,3-dimethylbutyryl halide (5b) gave [phenyl-14C]bromobutide (1b) in 67% yield after purification. The specific activities of 1a and 1b were 1.38 and 0.781 GBq/mmol (37.2 and 21.1 mCi/mmol), respectively.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Bromobutide and their degradation products were performed for killifish.


NAME: Bromocyclen      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 5-bromomethyl-1,2,3,4,7,7-hexachlorobicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene. Chemical formula is C8H5BrCl6.   Molecular weight is 393.75  .  The concentrations of bromocyclen were determined in the water and muscle tissue of trout and bream from the river Stör (northern Germany), to locate the source of this contaminant. The concentrations in water varied between n.d. and 261 pg/L, while in the fish samples concentrations between 0.01 and 0.24 mg/kg fat were determined. In addition, remarkably high concentrations of bromocyclen were found in waste water from sewage plants discharging into the river Stör and at the city of Hamburg. Sewage plants can be, therefore, assumed to be the main source of bromocyclen contamination. This is the first report about the contamination of river water and waste water with bromocyclen. Determination by chiral capillary gas chromatography using a modified cyclodextrin phase showed no significant enantiomeric excess in the water samples, but a preferential degradation of (+)-bromocyclen in the fish muscle tissue of breams.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: One and half hours after ingesting 10 g of bromocyclen, an 8-year-old, male Golden Retriever weighing 35 kg had a convulsion, vomited, became hyperexcited, incoordinated, tachypnoeic and salivated excessively. Examination revealed tachycardia and congested mucous membranes. The dog was sedated but still tachypnoeic following administration of 700 mg pentobarbitone intravenously. The dog was also given 3 mg acepromazine and 3 mg betamethasone intramuscularly. Approximately 8 hours later when the dog began to weaken and showed tachycardia and mild tachypnoea, a further 300 mg pentobarbitone was administered intraperitoneally and 4 mg acepromazine intramuscularly. Ten ml of 20% calcium borogluconate, 2 mg betamethasone and 2 ml multivitamin preparation were also given during the following day. Approximately 30 hours after ingesting the poison the dog began to waken and was fully conscious the next morning. It was discharged after a further 24 hours observation. 

 
NAME: Bromophos-ethyl               
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is O-4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate.  Bromophos-ethyl is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin. Molecular formula is C10H12BrCl2O3PS. Molecular weight is 394.05.  Refractive index  is n20/D 1.565. Flash point is 100 °C. Storage temperature is 0-6°C. 
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for chemical poisoning. Bromophos-ethyl includes symptoms listed below Runny nose, teary eyes, sweating, salivation, weakness, agitation, disorientation, Sneezing, Drooling, Bronchospasm, Breathing difficulty, Fatigue, Tremor, Incoordination , Twitching muscles, Dizziness, Headache, Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Abdominal cramps, Tight chest , Wheezing, Fluid in lungs, Productive cough, Shallow breathing, Pinpoint pupils, Blurred vision , Incontinence, Abnormal heart rhythm, Seizures, Unconsciousness and Cholinesterase inhibition. The primary cause of chemical poisoning.  Bromophos-ethyl is the result at any time, from exposure to toxins, poisons, environmental, or other substances.

 
NAME: Bromopropylate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is isopropyl 4,4?-dibromobenzilate. Molecular formula is C17H16Br2O3.       Molecular weight is 428.12. Flashing point is 100C. Storing temperature is 100C. White crystalline powder.  Melting point is 77C.Vapour pressure:5.5 x 10-7 mm Hg at 20°C.  Fairly stable in neutral or slightly acid media; half-life periods in aqueous 10% methanol at PH O (IN HCI) 50 days; at PH 6-7 (water) >3 years; at pH 9 (0.05 M borax buffer) 15 days. Henry constant is 5.82 ? 10-3 Pa m3 mol-1 ( calc.); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water) is logP = 5.4. Solubility in water <0.5 mg/l (20 °C), In acetone 850, dichloromethane 970, dioxane 870, benzene 750, methanol 280, xylene 530, isopropanol 90 (all in g/kg, 20 °C).; Stability:Fairly stable in neutral or slightly acidic media; DT50 34 d ( pH 9). 47.69%, H 3.77%, Br 37.33%, O 11.21%
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  TOXICITY: (Rat): Oral LD50 >5000 mg/kg. (Rabbit): Dermal LD50 >5000 mg/kg.
 
 
NAME: Bromoxynil 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Appearance: Bromoxynil is a colorless crystalline solid at room temperature. Chemical Name is 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile . Molecular Weight is 276.93. Water Solubility is 130 mg/L at 25 C. Solubility in Other Solvents: methanol vs.; ethanol v.s.; acetone v.s.; cyclohexane v.s.; tetrahydrofuran v.s.; all at 25 C. Melting Point is  194-195 C. Vapor Pressure: <1 mPa @ 20 C [1] Bromoxynil is a nitrile herbicide, which is distributed as a Restricted Use Pesticide in toxicity class II (moderately toxic), and not available for homeowner use. Trade names include Brominal, Bromotril, Bronate, Buctril, Certrol B, Litarol, M&B 10064, Merit, Pardner, Sabre, and Torch. It is used for post-emergent control of annual broadleaf weeds. It is especially effective in the control of weeds in cereal, corn, sorghum, onions, flax, mint, turf, and on non-cropland. It works by inhibiting photosynthesis. Lethal doses in mammals range between 60 and 600 milligrams ingested per kilogram of body weight, and teratogenic effects have been observed in rats and rabbits above 30 milligrams per kilogram. Chronic exposure for more than one year in humans caused symptoms of weight loss, fever, vomiting, headache, and urinary problems in one documented case. In the Great Plains region of Canada it is widely used on cereal grains. Average levels detected in drinking water were 1 nanogram per liter, but in one case as high as 384 nanograms per liter were detected. Levels of bromoxynil were consistently lower than of several other pesticides tested, and it was observed to undergo greater reduction in water treatment than the others did. Bromoxynil decomposes readily in soil, with a half life of approximately two weeks. Persistence increases in soils with elevated clay or organic matter content, suggesting the compound has somewhat limited bioavailability to microorganisms in these environments. Under aerobic conditions in soils or pure cultures, products of bromoxynil degradation often retain the original bromine groups. The herbicide, and one of its common degradation products (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid) have been shown to undergo metabolic reductive dehalogenation by the microorganism, Desulfitobacterium chlororespiranss. Bromoxynil has a low persistence in soil. In sandy soil, the half-life is about 10 days . Degradation in clay was slower, with half of the bromoxynil degraded to its metabolites in about a 2-week period at 25 C. The persistence of the compound is also slightly longer in peat field soils than in the sandy soils . The evidence suggests that, while bromoxynil is broken down by some soil bacteria, it may inhibit the action of other bacteria that promote the formation of nitrite by a process called nitrification.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:   Bromoxynil is a moderately toxic compound and carries the signal word WARNING on the label. The compound has an oral acute LD50 of 779 mg/kg in the rat (specifically for the product Buctril) and a LD50 of 691 mg/kg in the rat for Bronate. The technical material has an acute oral LD50 of 190 mg/kg in rats , an LD50 of 260 mg/kg in rabbits, and an LD50 of 63 mg/kg in guinea pigs . Dermal acute toxicity of bromoxynil is greater than 2,000 mg/kg for rabbits. The compound is a slight eye irritant  and it is not a skin irritant in rabbits. However, when in contact with abraded skin, bromoxynil may produce a mild irritation.

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NAME: Bromoxynil octanoic acid ester
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are Octanoicacid, ester with 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (7CI,8CI);2,6-Dibromo-4-cyanophenyl octanoate; 3,5-Dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrileoctanoate ester; 3,5-Dibromo-4-n-octanoyloxybenzonitrile;3,5-Dibromo-4-octanoyloxybenzonitrile; 4-Cyano-2,6-dibromophenyl octanoate;Brominal W; Bromoxynil n-octanoyl ester; Bromoxynil octanoate; Bromoxyniloctanoic acid ester; Buctril; Certrol B; NPH 1320. Molecular Formula is C15H17 Br2 N O2. Molecular Weight is 403.15.  Melting Point:45-46 ºC . Poison by ingestion. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of NOx and Br?.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Four workers in a manufacturing plant making both bromoxynil and ionoxynil developed typical symptoms of uncoupler poisoning including excessive perspiration, thirst, fever, emesis, myalgia, and weight loss. ... The effects reversed rapidly after exposure ceased. Bromoxynil octanoate is a mild skin and eye irritantand also acts as a skin sensitizer.
 
 
NAME: Bromuconazole I               
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical formula is  1-[(2RS,4RS;2RS,4SR)-4-bromo-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)tetrahydrofurfuryl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole . Molecular formula is C13H12BrCl2N3O . Molecular mass: 377.1 . For use on cereals, fruit, tropical crops, vegetables, vines, turf, ornamentals. Colorless powder. Melting point 84°C. Vapor pressure 0.004 mPa (25°C). Moderately soluble in organic solvents. Water soluibilty is 50 mg/l. Liquid formulations containing organic solvents may be flammable. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. Avoid inhalation of fine dust and mist. Local exhaust or breathing protection. First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor. Provision to contain effluent from fire extinguishing. Separated from food and feedstuffs. Well closed. The substance decomposes on burning producing toxic gases/fumes including nitrogen oxides, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, carbon monoxide. No indication can be given about the rate in which a harmful concentration in the air is reached on evaporation of this substance at 20C. The substance may cause effects on the nervous system, if ingested , resulting in depression. The substance may have effects on the liver , resulting in tissue lesions and impaired functions
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Fish: LC50 (96 h) 3.1 mg/l (bluegill sunfish); 1.7 mg/l (rainbow trout); LC50 (48 h) >5 mg/l (Daphnia). Bird: Acute Oral LD50 >2150 mg/kg b.w. (bobwhite quail, mallard duck). Bee: Nontoxic; 500 µg/bee (contact), 100 µg/bee (oral). TOXICITY: (Rat): Oral LD50 365 mg/kg; 1151 mg/kg (Mouse). Dermal LD50 >2000 mg/kg. Inhalation LC50 >5 mg/l air. (Rabbit) Non-irritating to eyes, skin.

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NAME: Bromuconazole II
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: CHIPCO® Bromuconazole is an emulsifiable concentrate formulation containing 20% of the active ingredient bromuconazole. CHIPCO® Bromuconazole is applied in a diluted form to roses to control black spot at rates of 1.0 to 1.5 fluid ounces of product in 100 gallons of water.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  The data for bromuconazole indicate that the acute oral toxicity is in toxicity category II and the acute dermal toxicity and primary eye irritation are in toxicity category III. Acute inhalation toxicity and primary dermal irritation is in category IV. Bromuconazole is not a dermal sensitizer. To evaluate potential risks associated with dermal exposure during periods of short-term and intermediate-term exposure, the Agency selected an endpoint from the dermal developmental toxicity study in rats. In this study, bromuconazole was administered to 25 Sprague-Dawley rats per dose group by the dermal route on gestational days 6-15, inclusive, atdose levels of 0, 40, 133 or 400 mg/kg/day. Compound-related maternal toxicity was ob servedin a dose-related manner at 133 and 400 mg/kg/day as evidence by increased clinical signs (ungroomed and unkempt coat). The Maternal NOAEL was 40 mg/kg/day and the Maternal LOAEL was 133 mg/kg/day. Developmental toxicity was observed in this study at 133 and 400mg/kg/day as evidenced by increased fetal and litter incidences of skeletal abnormalities (oneextra rib or a pair of extra ribs) compared to concurrent and historical controls. The Developmental NOAEL was 40 mg/kg/day and the Developmental LOAEL was 133 mg/kg/day.To evaluate potential risks posed by dermal exposure on a chronic basis, the Agency selected an endpoint from the combined chronic/carcinogenicity study in rats. The oral NOAEL in this study is 0.88 mg/kg/day based on the increase in liver non-neoplastic lesions (fatty vacuolation) at the LOAEL of 6.48 mg/kg/day.

 
NAME: Bupirimate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 5-butyl-2-ethylamino-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl dimethylsulfamate. Molecular Formula is  C13H24N4O3S. Molecular Weight is 316.4  .    Bupirimate is a Systemic fungicide with protective and curative action, absorbed by the leaves with translocation in the xylem and translaminar action. Acts by inhibiting sporulation.
It is used for control of powdery mildew of fruit, vegetables, and ornamentals such as apples, pears, stone fruit, cucurbits, roses, grapes, strawberries, gooseberries, raspberries, hops, beets and other crops. High-efficiency low toxicity and small dosage in use.  Exisit in Emulsifiable liquid. Flash point 233.9C. Density is 1.204 g/cm3. Surface Tension is 48.5 dyne/cm. Enthalpy of Vaporization is 72.44 kJ/mol.  Vapour Pressure is 9.29E-09 mmHg at 25 °C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  It is of low mammalian toxicity and is non-toxic to bees. Acute toxicity - Oral: LD50 > 4000 mg/kg (rat).Acute toxicity - Dermal: LD50 > 3000 mg/kg (rat).
 
 
NAME: Buprofezin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (Z)-2-tert-butylimino-3-isopropyl-5-phenyl-1,3,5-thiadiazinan-4-one. The name “buprofezin” was originally approved for a mixture of (E)- and (Z)-isomers [69327-76-0], but in 2008 the sponsor determined that the substance contains only the (Z)-isomer and requested that the definition be changed. Molecular formula is C16HH23N3OS. Molecular weight is 305.4.  1) Appearance: white crystals (tech., white or pale yellow crystalline powder). Melting point is 104.5 - 105.51oC. Vapor pressure is 1.25mPa (25oC). Specific gravity/density is 1.18 (20oC). Persistent insecticide and acaricide with contact and stomach action; not translocated in the plant. Inhibits molting of nymphs and larvae, leading to death. Also suppresses oviposition by adults; treated insects lay sterile eggs.
Insecticide with persistent larvicidal action against Homoptera, some Coleoptera and also Acarina. Effective against Cicadellidae and Delphacidae (leafhoppers) in rice; Cicadellidae in potatoes; Aleyrodidae (whitefly) in citrus, cotton and vegetables; Coccidae, Diaspididae (scale insects) and Pseudococcidae (mealy bugs) in citrus.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Oral: acute oral LD50 for male rats 2198, female rats 2355, male and
female mice >1000mg/kg.  Skin and eyes: acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >5000mg/kg. Mild skin irritant (guinea pigs), not irritating to skin and eyes (rabbits). Inhalation: LC50 (4h) for rats >4.57mg/L air. NOEL: for male rats 0.90, female rats 1.12mg/kg daily. ADI: 0.01mg/kg b.w. Fish: LC50 (48h) for carp 2.7, rainbow trout >1.4mg/L. Bees: no direct effect on bees at 2000mg/L (WP formulation).  Other: no effect on various predators, non-carcinogenic, non-mutagenic
 
 
NAME: Butachlor
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is N-butoxymethyl-2-chloro-2?,6?-diethylacetanilide .Light yellow to purple liquid with a faint, sweet odor. Chemical formula is C17H26ClNO2  .   Molecular Weight is 311.9. Melting point is -2.8 to 1.7°C. In water 20 mg/l (20°C). Soluble in most organic solvents, including diethyl ether, acetone, benzene, ethanol, ethyl acetate,and hexane. Butachlor is a selective systemic herbicide, absorbed primarily by the germinating shoots, and secondarily by the roots, with translocation throughout the plant, giving higer concentrations in vegetative parts than in reproductive parts. Used pre-emergence for the control of annual grasses and certain broad-leaved weeds in rice, both seeded and transplanted. It shows selectivity in barley, cotton, peanuts, sugar beet, wheat and several brassica crops. Effective rates range from 1.0-4.5 kg a.i./ha. Activity is dependent on water availability such as rainfall following treatment, overhead irrigation or applications to standing water as in rice culture. Butachlor is an herbicide of the acetanilide class. Butachlor is a kind of selective herbicide before sprout. It is principally used for control weeds of some one-year grass family and nutgrass flat sedge family as well as some weeds of broadleaf in rice field. It also can be used in seedbed, seed transplant field as well as in some crops fields such as wheat, barley, beet, cotton, rape, vegetables and peanut etc. Usually take surface treatment of the pre-sprout soil, apply in paddy field after seeding. The effective dose is 750-1500g/hectare. The spray, mix with soil and water-mix etc. methods are used in application.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Low poisoning to human being and cattle. Poisoning to fishes. Emulsion oil's LD50 for big albino rat acute oral is 3300mg/kg, for rabbit dermal poison LD50 is 4080mg/kg.  Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats 2000, mice 4747, rabbits >5010 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rabbits >13 000 mg/kg. Moderate skin irritant; practically non-irritating to eyes (rabbits). Contact sensitization reactions observed in guinea pigs. Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >3.34 mg/l air. Other Oncogenic in rats but not in mice. For detailed toxicology data, please contact Monsanto.

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NAME: Butafenacil  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1-(allyloxycarbonyl)-1-methylethyl 2-chloro-5-[1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-3-methyl-2,6-dioxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-1-yl]benzoate. Molecular formula is C20H18ClF3N2O6.        Molecular weight is 474.81. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C.  Usually supplied as water dispersible granules. Australian registration dossier states DT50 0.2-2.2 days aerobic soils, slower in water logged, anaerobic soils. This regulation establishes a tolerance for residues of butafenacil (1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy)ethyl 2-chloro-5-[3,6-dihydro-3-methyl-2,6-dioxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl] benzoate) in or on cotton and livestock commodities. Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. requested this tolerance under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended by the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996(FQPA).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Triasulfuron does not usually evoke any symptoms in animals.
The main enzyme (ALS) that is attacked in plants does not occur in animals.
Butafenacil inhibits haeme synthesis in animals. Liver necrosis and liver weight increases and porphyria have been observed in animal studies. No cases of human poisoning have been recorded.

 
NAME: Butamifos
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-{O-ethyl O-6-nitro-m-tolyl [(RS)-sec-butyl]phosphoramidothioate}.  Molecular weight is C13H21N2O4PS . Molecular weight is 332.36.   Usually supplied as emulsifiable concentrates and granules. Extract mass is 316.119 g/mol. Monoisotopic Mass is 316.119g/mol. Physical form:Tech. is a yellow-brown liquid. Density:1.188 (25 °C); Vapour pressure:84 mPa (27 °C); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = 4.62 (25 °C); Solubility:In water 6.19 mg/l (25 °C). Readily soluble in acetone, methanol, and xylene at room temperature. Water solubility is 6.19 mg/l at 25°C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Belong to toxicity class III. TOXICITY: (Rat): Acute Oral LD50 1070 mg/kg (male), 845 mg/kg (female); Inhalation LC50 >1200 mg/m3 air. Dermal: LD50 >5000 mg/kg.

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NAME: Butoxycarboxim 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (EZ)-3-mesylbutanone O-methylcarbamoyloxime. Molecular formula is C7H14N2O4S. Molecular weight is 222.26. Melting point 82C. Boling point is 318C. Carbamate pesticides are derived from Carbamic acid and kill insects in a similar fashion as organophosphate insecticides. They are widely used in homes, gardens and agriculture. The first carbamate, Carbaryl, was introduced in 1956 and more of it has been used throughout the world than all other carbamates combined. Because of carbaryl's relatively low mammalian oral and dermal toxicity and broad control spectrum, it has had wide use in lawn and garden settings. Most of the carbamates are extremely toxic to Hymenoptera, and precautions must be taken to avoid exposure to foraging bees or parasitic wasps. Some of the carbamates are translocated within plants, making them an effective systemic treatment. As with organophosphates, the signs and symptoms are based on excessive cholinergic stimulation. Unlike organophosphate poisoning, carbamate poisonings tend to be of shorter duration because the inhibition of nervous tissue acetylcholinesterase is reversible, and carbamates are more rapidly metabolized. Muscle weakness, dizziness, sweating and slight body discomfort are commonly reported early symptoms. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Contraction of the pupils with blurred vision, incoordination, muscle twitching and slurred speech have been reported.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The clinical picture of carbamates intoxication results from accumulation of ACh at nerve endings. ...The signs and symptoms can be categorized into the following 3 groups: (a) Muscarinic manifestations - increased bronchial secretion, excessive sweating, salivation, and lachrymation; pinpoint pupils, bronchoconstriction, abdominal cramps (vomiting and diarrhea); and bradycardia. (b) Nicotinic manifestations - fasciculation of fine muscles (in severe cases, diaphragm and respiratory muscles also involved); and tachycardia. (c) Central nervous system manifestations- headache, dizziness, anxiety, mental confusion, convulsions, and coma; and depression of respiratory center. All these signs and symptoms can occur in different combinations and can vary in onset and sequence, depending on the chemical, dose, and route of exposure. The duration of symptoms is usually shorter than that observed in organophosphorus poisoning. Mild poisoning might include muscarinic and nicotinic signs only. Severe cases always show central nervous system involvement; the clinical picture is dominated by the respiratory failure sometimes leading to pulmonary edema due to the combination of the above mentioned symptoms

 
NAME: Butralin
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-N-sec-butyl-2-6-dinitroaniline.  Molecular Formula is C14H21N3O4. Formula Weight is 295.33. Storing temperature 0 to 6 C. Percent Composition of compounds are C 56.94%, H 7.17%, N 14.23%, O 21.67%. Yellow-orange crystals form.  Melting Point 60-61C. Boling Point is 134-136C. Vapor pressure at 25 is 1.3 ´ 10-5 mm Hg. Flash point at open cup is 97°F (36°C). Soluble in water at 25C is 1 mg/l. Soluble at 25° (kg/kg): methanol is 0.125. Weak oxidizer; stable to hydrolysis and somewhat to photolysis.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 2500 mg/kg (McLane). Very toxic in contact with skin. May cause sensitization by skin contact. May cause harm to the unborn child. Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Evidence exists, or practical experience predicts, that the material may cause eye irritation in a substantial number of individuals. Prolonged eye contact may cause inflammation characterized by a temporary redness of the conjunctiva (similar to windburn). Skin contact with the material may produce severely toxic effects; systemic effects may result following absorption and these may be fatal. Long-term exposure to respiratory irritants may result in disease of the airways involving difficult breathing and related systemic problems. Skin contact with the material is more likely to cause a sensitization reaction in some persons compared to the general population. Ample evidence exists, from results in experimentation that developmental disorders are directly caused by human exposure to the material Flammable. Very toxic to aquatic organisms may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
 
 
NAME: Butyl benzyl phthalate        
 
CLASSIFICATION: Butyl benzyl phthalate is used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride
DESCRIPTION: Benzylbutylphthalate (BBzP), also called n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) or benzyl butyl phthalate, is a phthalate, an ester of phthalic acid, benzyl alcohol and n-butanol. It comes under trade names e.g. Palatinol BB, Unimoll BB, Sicol 160, or Santicizer 160. It is mostly used as a plasticizer for PVC. It is considered a toxicant. BBzP is commonly used as a plasticizer for vinyl foams, which are often used as floor tiles. Other uses are in traffic cones, food conveyor belts, and artificial leather. BBP is classified as toxic by the European Chemical Bureau (ECB) and hence its use has declined rapidly in the last decade. Clear, oily liquid. Boiling-point is 370°C. Melting-point is 35°C. Density is  1.1 g/cm3 at 25°C. Slightly soluble in water. Vapour pressure is 1.14 mPa at 20°C. Butyl benzyl phthalate is used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride in vinyl floor tiles, vinyl foam and carpet backing, in cellulosic resins, and as an organic intermediate. It has also been used as a solvent and fixative in perfume
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Butyl benzyl phthalate has been reported to be slightly irritating to the skin, eye and mucous membranes and to depress the central nervous system (Gosselin et al., 1984). In a patch test with 200 volunteers, which involved 15 daily applications over a three-week period, Hammond et al. (1987) observed neither primary irritation nor sensitization reactions.
 
 
NAME: Butylate
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical formula is S-ethyl diisobutyl(thiocarbamate). Molecular weight is 217.38. Butylate was initially registered in 1967 as a selective herbicide. It is registered only for use in corn to control grassy weeds such as nutgrass and millet grass, as well as some broadleaf weeds. It is applied to soil immediately before corn is planted, often in combination with atrazine and/or cyanazine herbicides . Butylate acts selectively on seeds of weeds that are in the germination stage of development . It is absorbed from the soil by shoots of grass seedlings before they emerge, causing shoot growth to be slowed, and leaves to become twisted . Butylate breaks down relatively quickly in soil, so there are no carry over problems in treated soil that might jeopardize later plantings of crops on the same plots . The exact poisoning mechanism of the herbicide in plants is not yet fully understood.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Butylate is part of a group of chemicals referred to as thiocarbamates, known for their tendency to irritate the skin and the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. It may cause symptoms of scratchy throat, sneezing and coughing when large amounts of dusts or spray are inhaled . Slight eye irritation can be caused by butylate, potentially leading to permanent eye damage. Some may be weak inhibitors of cholinesterase, causing headache, dizziness, and nausea

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NAME: Butylated hydroxyanisole      
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical formula is 88-32-4 (2-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole) and
121-00-6 (3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole) . Molecular formula is (CH3)3CC6H3 (OCH3)OH . Molecular weight is 180.24. Exist in white crystals or crystalline powder. MELTING POINT is 58 - 60 C.  Insoluble in water. Vapour density is 58 to 60 C.Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), chemically 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (DBPC), is a white crystalline solid with a faint characteristic odor. It is insoluble in water and in propylene glycol, but is freely soluble in alcohol. It is obtained by alkylation of p-cresol with isobutene or by monobutylation of m,p-cresol mixtures. BHT is used as a chemical antioxidant for food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals much like butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). BHA is insoluble in water, but is freely soluble in alcohol and in propylene glycol. BHA is the mixture of 3-tert-buryl-4-hydroxyanisole (typically 90% w/w) and 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. These phenol derivatives react with the free radicals (called free radical scavengers) can slow the rate of autoxidation that can lead to changes in the food's color and taste. Other antioxidants for food are phosphoric acid, citric acid, gallic acid, ascorbic acid and their esters which form complexes with the pro-oxidative metal traces. Antimicrobial process is also important in preserving foods. BHT and BHA are used as an antioxidant in plastics, elastomers and petroleum (lubes, greases and waxes), practically bigger market size than food field. BHT is also used as a stabilizer to inhibit the auto-polymerization of organic peroxides.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  An embryotoxicity study on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was carried out in SPF pigs (Danish Landrace). BHA was incorporated in the diet and administered to pigs in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt/day from mating (artificial insemination) to day 110 of the gestation period, when the foetuses were removed. Significant lower weight gain was observed in the dams dosed 400 mg/kg body wt/day. Absolute and relative organ weight for the liver and thyroid gland showed a dose-related increase. BHA neither affected the reproduction data nor the incidence of defects in the foetuses.


NAME: Cadusafos
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, nematicides)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is S,S-di-sec-butyl O-ethyl phosphorodithioate.  Molecular weight is 270.39.  Cadusafos is a nematicide used to control nematodes and soil insects on bananas in Ecuador, Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatemala, Columbia, and Mexico. It is not registered for use in the U.S. A single import tolerance is established, for residues of Cadusafos in or on imported bananas. About 5 to 7 % of bananas imported into the U.S. annually have been treated with Cadusafos. Potential acute and chronic dietary exposures from eating bananas treated with Cadusafos are below the level of concern for the entire U.S. population, including infants and children. Dietary risk from exposure to Cadusafos does not exceed EPA’s level of concern. Therefore, no mitigation is necessary and no further actions are warranted at this time.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Cadusafos can cause cholinesterase inhibition in humans; that is, it can over stimulate the nervous system causing nausea, dizziness, confusion, and at very high exposures (e.g., accidents or major spills), respiratory paralysis and death.
 
 
NAME: Cafenstrole                   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is N,N-diethyl-3-mesitylsulfonyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamide. Used for the pre- and early post-emergence control of annual weeds, particularly grassy weeds such as Digitaria spp., in paddy fields. Molecular formula is C16H22N4O3S. Molecular Weight is  350.44. storing temperature is 0 to 6C . Density is 1.30 (20 ° C).  Melting point is 114 ~ 116 ° C.  Vapor Pressure is 2.99E-9 (20 C).  The pure colorless crystals.  Triazole lactam herbicides. The former is a seed and seedling herbicide use. Rice can control most of the year and perennial broad-leaved weeds such as barnyardgrass, Benn grass, profiled Cyperaceae, Ying Lin, of skin, a pair of barnyardgrass effects. Elbow safety of transplanting rice. Effective over 40d, using a dose of 50 to 300g (a.i.) / ha. Preparation or Source: 2, 4, 6 - three dimethylaniline as starting material, and by diazotization thiosemicarbazide prepared mercapto - triazole reaction, the oxidation and amino chloride and condensation or to re-chloride oxidation is a condensation compounds.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:   toxicity LD50 (mg / kg): acute oral LD50: mice greater than 5,000, more than 2,000 ducks and quails. In rats with acute percutaneous LD50 greater than 2000. Ames test was negative. No mutagenicity. Fish poisoning LC50 (mg / L): Carp (48h) greater than 1.2, water lice (3h) greater than 500.

 
NAME: Caffeine
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide) & CNS stimulant
 
DESCRIPTION: Caffeine is a drug that is naturally produced in the leaves and seeds of many plants. It's also produced artificially and added to certain foods. Caffeine is defined as a drug because it stimulates the central nervous system, causing increased alertness. Caffeine gives most people a temporary energy boost and elevates mood. Caffeine (C8H10N4O2) is the common name for trimethylxanthine (systematic name is 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine or 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione). The chemical is also known as coffeine, theine, mateine, guaranine, or methyltheobromine. Caffeine is naturally produced by several plants, including coffee beans, guarana, yerba maté, cacao beans, and tea. For the plants, caffeine acts as a natural pesticide. It paralyzes and kills insects that attempt to feed on the plants. The molecule was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Ferdinand Runge in 1819. When purified, caffeine is an intensely bitter white powder. It is added to colas and other soft drinks to impart a pleasing bitter note. However, caffeine is also an addictive stimulant. In humans, it stimulates the central nervous system, heart rate, and respiration, has psychotropic (mood altering) properties, and acts as a mild diuretic. Caffeine is believed to work by blocking adenosine receptors in the brain and other organs. This reduces the ability of adenosine to bind to the receptors, which would slow down cellular activity. The stimulated nerve cells release the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline), which increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow to muscles, decreases blood flow to the skin and organs, and causes the liver to release glucose. Caffeine also increases levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Caffeine is in tea, coffee, chocolate, many soft drinks, and pain relievers and other over-the-counter medications. In its natural form, caffeine tastes very bitter. Nevertheless, most caffeinated drinks have gone through enough processing to camouflage the bitter taste. Caffeine is naturally found in certain leaves, beans, and fruits of over 60 plants worldwide. Its bitterness acts as a deterrent to pests. The most common sources in our diet are coffee, tea leaves, cocoa beans, cola, and energy drinks. Caffeine can also be produced synthetically and added to food, beverages, supplements, and medications. Product labels are required to list caffeine in the ingredients but are not required to list the actual amounts of the substance. Caffeine also increases the effectiveness of some drugs. Many over-the-counter headache drugs include caffeine in their formula. It is also used with ergotamine in the treatment of migraine and cluster headaches as well as to overcome the drowsiness caused by antihistamines.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Caffeine overdose can result in a state of central nervous system over-stimulation called caffeine intoxication  or colloquially the "caffeine jitters". The symptoms of caffeine intoxication are not unlike overdoses of other stimulants. It may include restlessness, fidgetiness, nervousness, excitement, euphoria, insomnia, flushing of the face, increased urination, gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle twitching, a rambling flow of thought and speech, irritability, irregular or rapid heartbeat, and psychomotor agitation. In cases of much larger overdoses, mania, depression, lapses in judgment, disorientation, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and psychosis may occur, and rhabdomyolysis (breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue) can be provokedA recent study with ex vivo hair follicles indicates that caffeine can reduce hair growth suppression in vitro caused by testosterone. Caffeine therefore has the potential as a therapeutic agent in Androgenic alopecia (AGA). Various manufacturers have begun putting caffeine into shower products such as shampoo and soap. Studies show that caffeine in shampoo applied for two minutes is absorbed through the skin, mostly through hair follicles, and reaches the blood stream.
 
 
NAME: Captafol
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are N-(1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethylthio)cyclohex-4-ene-1,2-dicarboximide or 3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-N-(1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethanesulfenyl)phthalimide. Molecular Formula is C10H9Cl4NO2S.Molecular weight is 349.1. Melting point is 160 to 161C. It  is a fungicide. It is used to control almost all fungal diseases of plants except powdery mildews. Although no longer sold in the United States, elsewhere it is used widely to control diseases on apples, citrus fruits, tomatoes, cranberries, potatoes, coffee, pineapples, peanuts, onion, stone fruits, cucumbers, blueberries, prunes, watermelons, sweet corn, wheat, barley, oilseed rape, leeks, strawberries, cotton, peanuts and rice. Captafol exists as white, colorless to pale yellow, or tan (technical grade) crystals, crystalline solid, or powder with a slight characteristic pungent odor. It is practically insoluble in water but is soluble or slightly soluble in most organic solvents. Captafol reacts with bases, acids, acid vapors, and strong oxidizers (HSDB 2006). It hydrolyzes slowly in aqueous emulsions or suspensions, but rapidly in acidic and basic aqueous alkaline media (UAkron 2004). Captafol will not burn, but when heated to decomposition, it emits toxic fumes such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, phosgene, and chlorine
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  A study of Captafol in rabbits indicated an acute percutaneous LD50 of >15,400 mg/kg; and it was noted that some people might develop an allergy to Captafol.
 
 
NAME Captan 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: The chemical formula for captan is C9H8Cl3NO2S, and it has a molecular weight of 300.6 g/mol.Captan is a white crystalline substance in its pure form, but technical grade material appears as yellow to buff. Captan is practically insoluble in water. Pure captan is odorless, while its technical grade has a pungent smell; the odor threshold has not been established.The vapor pressure for captan is less than 1 ? 10-5 mm Hg at 25 °C, and its log octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) is about 2.352.54. Captan is used on a variety of agricultural and greenhouse food/feed crops, indoor non-food uses, seed treatments, and ornamental plant sites. Captan is formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate, flowable concentrate, ready-to-use liquid, liquid soluble concentrate, solid, water dispersible granules, wettable powder, and dust. Occupational exposure may occur during the manufacture, formulation, or application of captan. Individuals who pick fruits and vegetables that were treated with captan may be dermally exposed and may also inhale captan that is in the air near the treated plants. Captan residues can remain on fruits and vegetables for some time after they are sprayed. Individuals may be exposed from ingestion of contaminated food.  Prodcuts contains Orthocide, Merpan and Vondcaptan. Many captan products simply have "Captan" in their name.Captan is predominantly used in agriculture as a fungicide on a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals on plant seeds, and also on food crop packaging boxes. Captan is also used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, oil-based paints, lacquers, wallpaper paste, plasticizers, polyethylene, vinyl, rubber stabilizers, and textiles
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Captan is a fungicide used on fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Acute (short-term) dermal exposure to captan may cause dermatitis and conjunctivitis in humans. Ingestion of large quantities of captan may cause vomiting and diarrhea in humans. Captan was found to be carcinogenic in one strain of mice exposed in their diet, causing tumors of the duodenum. In mice exposed by either gavage (experimentally placing the chemical in the stomach) or injection, an increased incidence of tumors was not observed. EPA has classified captan as a Group B2, probable human carcinogen. People who mixed captan products or worked in fields where captan had been applied reported eye and skin irritation. However, researchers could not determine whether these symptoms were from exposure to captan or other pesticides used in the fields. A few human volunteers reported skin irritation and allergic reactions after captan was applied to their backs.

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NAME:  Carbaryl
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: The chemical formula for carbaryl is C12H11NO2, and its molecular weight is 201.2 g/mol. Carbaryl is a white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water. Carbaryl is essentially odorless and its odor threshold has not been established. The vapor pressure for carbaryl is 0.000041 mm Hg at 25 °C, and its log octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) is 2.36.  Carbaryl is a wide-spectrum carbamate insecticide which controls over 100 species of insects on citrus, fruit, cotton, forests, lawns, nuts, ornamentals, shade trees, and other crops, as well as on poultry, livestock and pets. It is also used as a molluscicide and an acaricide. Carbaryl works whether it is ingested into the stomach of the pest or absorbed through direct contact. The chemical name for carbaryl is 1- naphthol N-methylcarbamate. Carbaryl is formulated as a solid which varies from colorless to white to gray, depending on the purity of the compound. The crystals are odorless. This chemical is stable to heat, light and acids under storage conditions. It is non-corrosive to metals, packaging materials, or application equipment. It is found in all types of formulations including baits, dusts, wettable powder, granules, oil, molassas, aqueous dispersions and suspensions.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Carbaryl is moderately to very toxic. It can produce adverse effects in humans by skin contact, inhalation, or ingestion. The symptoms of acute toxicity are typical of the other carbamates. Direct contact of the skin or eyes with moderate levels of this pesticide can cause burns. Inhalation or ingestion of very large amounts can be toxic to the nervous and respiratory systems resulting in nausea, stomach cramps, diarrhea, and excessive salivation. Other symptoms at high doses include sweating, blurring of vision, incoordination, and convulsions. The only documented fatality from carbaryl was through intentional ingestion. The oral LD50 of carbaryl ranges from 250 mg/kg to 850 mg/kg in rats, and from 100 mg/kg to 650 mg/kg in mice [8,24]. The inhalation LC50 in rats is greater than 200 mg/L [24]. Low doses can cause minor skin and eye irritation in rabbits, a species in which carbaryl's dermal LD50 has been measured at greater than 2000 mg/kg .
Chronic exposure to carbaryl results in cholinesterase inhibition, which is reversible upon discontinuation of exposure. Headaches, memory loss, muscle weakness and cramps, and anorexia are caused by prolonged low-level exposure of humans to carbaryl resulting from cholinesterase inhibition
 
 
NAME Carbetamide
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide ( herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (R)-1-(ethylcarbamoyl)ethyl carbanilate. Synonyms are Liquide;11,561rp;LEGURAME;RP11561; Arbetamex; carbetamid; carbetamex; leguramepm; CARBETAMIDE; Legurame[R] Molecular formula is C12H16N2O3. Molecular weight is 236.27.      Selective absorbed by roots with some residual activity. Usually supplied as a wettable granules or powders that are mixed with water and applied as a spray. Prevent generation of dust. carbetamide work best when applied to cold moist soils, but this must be balanced with the need to protect water. Soils do not need to be completely saturated. Where practical, avoid use if drains are flowing or are likely to flow in the near future. Use the full rate of carbetamide (2,100gai/ha) when targeting blackgrass however if annual meadow grass is the problem then 1,500gai/ha should be sufficient. Always check the required dose with your BASIS-registered adviser.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Acceptable risk to bystanders for proposed uses. Potential risk to operators - PPE/PPC necessary, low risk for other farm workers. Possible liver and thyroid toxicant.

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NAME Carbofuran   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide, nematicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate. Chemical Formula is  C12H15NO3. Molecular Weight is 221.3 .  White crystalline solid with slight phenolic odor . Melting point is 153-154°C. Vapor Pressure is 3.4 x 10-6 mm Hg at 25°C. Density/Specific Gravity is 1.18 at 20°C. Solubility is 0.7 g/L of water at 25°C.   Carbofuran is a white crystalline solid insecticide used to control nematodes, rootworm, and beetles. It is sprayed on soil and plants, just after the plants emerge from the ground. Carbofuran is used on a number of crops, including alfalfa, rice, grapes, and corn. While there is no evidence to suggest carbofuran is carcinogenic, the World Health Organization has determined carbofuran a cholinesterase inhibitor, which means it blocks neural transmissions. The health effects of short-term exposure to carbofuran include headache, sweating, nausea, diarrhea, chest pain, blurred vision anxiety, and muscle weakness, all of which can be reversed, according to the EPA. But the long-term effects are far more serious: permanent damage to the nervous system and the reproductive system. For the average person who does not work with carbofuran, exposure routes include both residues on foods and drinking water contamination from farm runoff. Cabrofuran is also a problem for wildlife. Earlier this year, reports emerged that carbofuran is responsible for poisoning of African lions.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  The acute toxicity of carbofuran has been evaluated in several species. The lethal effects of carbofuran are due largely to the chemical’s direct inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Ultimate cause of death is respiratory failure. Signs and symptoms of cholinesterase poisoning occur within minutes as carbofuran acts directly on the enzyme without metabolic activation (Tobin, 1970). Variations in species sensitivity probably reflect species differences in metabolic deactivation of carbofuran to its less potent metabolic products.

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NAME Carbofuran-3-keto   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, nematicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are 3-oxocarbofuran;3-ketocarbofuran;CARBOFURAN-3-KETO;CARBOFURAN-3-KETO PESTANAL;7-(Methylcarbamoyloxy)-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-3(2H)-one;2,2-dimethyl-7-(((methylamino)carbonyl)oxy)-3(2h)-benzofuranon;2,2-Dimethyl-7-(methylcarbamoyloxy)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-one;Methylcarbamic acid 2,2-dimethyl-3(2H)-oxobenzofuran-7-yl ester;carbamicacid,methyl-,esterwith2,2-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-3(2h)-benzofuranone; Methylcarbamic acid (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxobenzofuran)-7-yl ester. Molecular Formula is C12H13NO4. Molecular Weight is 235.24. Melting Point is 175-185 C. Flash Point is greater than 100 °C. Storage temperature of compound is  ?20°C. Carbofuran, an anticholinesterase carbamate, is commonly used as an insecticide, nematicide, and acaricide in agricultural practice throughout the world. Due to its widespread use in agriculture, contamination of food, water, and air has become imminent, and consequently adverse health effects are inevitable in humans, animals, wildlife, and fish. Much emphasis is given to the metabolism of Carbofuran, and the impact of Carbofuran and its two major metabolites (3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran) on overall toxicity. Biochemical (cholinergic and noncholinergic), hematological, and immunological effects induced by Carbofuran are discussed in detail. Carbofuran and/or its major metabolites can cross the placental barrier and produce serious effects on the maternal-placental-fetal unit. Carbofuran's toxicity can be potentiated by simultaneous exposure with other cholinesterase inhibitors. Literature on various biomarkers of Carbofuran exposure and on induced adverse health effects is also presented. To date, a combination of atropine and memantine remains the most effective antidotal treatment against acute Carbofuran toxicity.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Carbofuran's involvement is most frequently encountered in malicious poisoning. The literature on chemical properties, acute toxicity data, poisoning incidences, pharmacokinetics, and mechanism of toxicity of Carbofuran is briefly reviewed.
 
 
NAME Carbofuran-7-phenol 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2,2-Dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-7-ol .molecular  Formula is C10H12O2. Molecular Weight is 164.2. Synonyms are nia10272;7-Phenol;Nia 10272;Chebi:38474;Carbofuran-7-ol;Carbofuran 7-p;CARBOFURANPHENOL;carbofuran7-phenol;Carbofuran 7-phenol;2,2-DIMETHYL-7-HYDROXYCOUMARAN. Boiling point is 95°C 1mm. Density  is 1.101 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.). Refractive index  is n20/D 1.541(lit.). Flash point  >230 °F. The low vapor pressure and low Henry’s Law Constant of carbofuran indicates that volatilization is a minor dissipation route for carbofuran. The small amounts that do volatilize react with hydroxyl radicals, giving carbofuran an estimated half-life of 4.6 hours in a typical atmosphere. Hydrolysis is the main degradation pathway of carbofuran under alkaline conditions. Base-catalyzed decomposition products include 3-hydroxy-7-phenolcarbofuran, carbofuran phenol, and N-methylcarbamic acid. Carbofuran’s hydrolysis rate is highest under alkaline conditions, being 700 times faster in water with pH 10 than in water with pH 7. Carbofuran is a broad-spectrum carbamate insecticide, acaricide, and nematicide. HEALTH PROBLEMS: Irritating to the eyes. Irritating to the respiratory system. Irritating to the skin. 
 
 
NAME:  Carbophenothion  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is S-4-chlorophenylthiomethyl O,O-diethyl phosphorodithioate. Molecular Formula is C11H16ClO2PS3. Molecular Weight is 342.87. Flash point is -18 °C. Storage temperature is  Approx 4°C. Insoluble in water. Carbophenothion is an insecticide and acaricide . A member of the organo-phosphate class of chemicals, it has a long residual activity. For this reason, it is effective against the eggs and recently hatched young of many species . It affects insects on contact and when consumed. It is used on citrus fruit and cotton to control aphids and spider mites. When combined with petroleum oil, it controls over-wintering mites, aphids, and scale bugs . It is also used to control aphids, mites, suckers, and other pests on fruit, nuts, vegetables, sorghum, maize, and others. It is used to control parasites on animals. Carbophenothion is available as an emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, granules, and a seed treatment . The EPA has classified carbophenothion as Category I - highly toxic. Products containing the active ingredient bear the SIGNAL WORD: DANGER. Carbophenothion may enhance the toxicity of Malathion and some other compounds which are processed into more toxic forms by living organisms. An off-white to amber liquid with a mild odor of rotten eggs. Used as an insecticide and acaricide, primarily for citrus crops and deciduous fruits and nuts. Carbophenothionc is a halogenated organophosphate derivative. Organophosphates are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides. Container may explode in heat of fire. Fire and runoff from fire control water may produce irritating or poisonous gases.It is applied on citrus fruits and cotton to control aphids and spider mites and is often combined with petroleum to neutralize numerous other pests
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Carbophenothion is highly toxic; the estimated fatal oral dose is 0.6 g for a 150 lb. (70 kg) person. It is an indirect cholinesterase inhibitor, meaning its effects are on the nervous system. Carbophenothion affects the nervous system by inhibiting chlolinesterase. Symptoms of poisoning include headache, blurred vision, weakness, nausea, discomfort in the chest, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, salivation, sweating and pinpoint pupils (12, 16). It is highly toxic when eaten and nearly as toxic when absorbed through the skin.

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NAME Carbosulfan   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, nematicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl (dibutylaminothio) methylcarbamate. Molecular Formula  is C20H32N2O3S. Molecular Weight is 380.54. Flash point is 96C. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Carbosulfan is a carbamate insecticide that acts by inhibiting the activity of acetylcholinesterase. Carbosulfan was re-evaluated by the present Meeting within the periodic review programme of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues. The Meeting reviewed new data on carbosulfan that had not been considered previously and relevant data from the previous evaluation. Conclusions of studies evaluated for the 1984 JMPR that were not available for the present evaluation are included. Carbosulfan is metabolized by hydrolysis to the 7-phenol or to carbofuran and dibutylamine, and is subsequently further metabolized via hydrolysis, oxidation and conjugation to a variety of metabolites. Metabolites of the dibutylamino moiety may enter the carbon pool and be incorporated into natural constituents of the body.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Carbosulfan is minimally irritating to the eye, slightly irritating to the skin and is a dermal sensitizer. In general, in short-term and long-term studies of toxicity, the most sensitive effect of the oral administration of carbosulfan was the inhibition of cholinesterase activity, accompanied at the same or higher doses by clinical signs indicative of cholinesterase inhibition (e.g. salivation, lacrimation, ataxia, tremors, anogenital staining, diarrhoea). In a study of acute oral neurotoxicity in rats, the NOAEL was 0.5 mg/kg bw, on the basis of effects on brain cholinesterase activity as measured 4 h after dosing. In a 90-day study in rats, the NOAEL was 20 ppm, equivalent to 1 mg/kg bw per day, on the basis of inhibition of brain and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity. In a second 90-day study of rats fed with carbosulfan, the NOAEL was 20 ppm, equal to 1.2 mg/kg bw per day, on the basis of clinical signs, observations in a functional observational battery (FOB) and effects on body weight, body-weight gain and food consumption at a dose of 62 mg/kg bw per day. In this study, cholinesterase activity was not determined.

 
NAME:  Carboxin  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-oxathiine-3-carboxanilide.Carboxin is a systemic anilide fungicide. It is used as a seed treatment for control of smut, rot, and blight on barley, oats, rice, cotton, vegetables, corn and wheat. It is also used to control fairy rings on turf grass. Carboxin is a colorless crystal . Molecular Weight is 235.31. Water Solubility is 170 mg/L at 25 C. Melting Point is two crystal structures  91.5-92.5 C and 98-100 C. Vapor Pressure is less than 0.025 mPa at 25 C. Partition Coefficient is 2.1703. Adsorption Coefficient is 260. Carboxin is a systemic anilide fungicide. Using Carboxin to treat seeds of wheat and barley, wheat loose smut and barley real smut can be prevented and cured. Having high effectivity to threadlike nucleus fungi, carboxin is often used as seed treatment of cotton, peanut, vegetable and sugar beet. It also can be used as preservative to lignum. The concentrations lower than 8 ppm can inhibit the growth of basidiomycete's mycelium. In addition, carboxin can control wheat leaf rust, legumina rust, cotton seedling wilt and greensickness.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The product may be used to prevent the formation of these diseases or may be used to cure existing plant diseases . Carboxin is slightly toxic. Symptoms of poisoning can include vomiting and headache. Recovery is very rapid if the exposed individual is treated quickly. The oral LD50 is 3820 mg/kg in rats and 3550 mg/kg in mice [18]. The compound produces very little skin irritation; however, it can seriously irritate the eyes. Acute dermal exposure results in an LD50 of greater than 8000 mg/kg in rabbits. The inhalation LC50 (1-hour) is greater than 20 mg/L in rats.

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NAME:  Carfentrazone-ethyl
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl (RS)-2-chloro-3-{2-chloro-5-[4-(difluoromethyl)-4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-4-fluorophenyl}propionate. Molecular weight is 412.2.  Molecular formula is  C15H14Cl2F3N3O3;C13H10Cl2F3N3O3 for acid . Form Viscous yellow liquid. Melting point is  22.1 ºC. Boiling point is 350-355 ºC/760 mmHg. Density  is 1.457 (20 ºC). Solubility in water is 12 mg/ml (20 ºC), 22 mg/ml (25 ºC), 23 mg/ml (30 ºC). In toluene 0.9, hexane 0.03 (both in g/ml, 20 °C); miscible with acetone, ethanol, ethyl acetate and methylene chloride. Stability:  Hydrolytic DT50 3.6 h (pH 9), 8.6 d (pH 7), stable (pH 5). Aqueous photolytic DT50 8 d. Flash point is 110 ºC. Biochemistry Acts by inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, leading to membrane disruption. Mode of action: Absorbed by foliage, with limited translocation. Uses Post-emergence control in cereals of a wide range of broad-leaved weeds, especially Galium aparine, Abutilon theophrasti, Ipomoea hederacea var. hederacea, Chenopodium album and several mustard species, at 9-35 g/ha. Phytotoxicity Good tolerance in wheat, barley and rice.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Highly Toxic to Aquatic Plants. Phototoxic major metabolites are mobile to very highly mobile in soil and have potential to leach. Thymus may cause.

 
NAME Carpropamid 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2,2-Dichloro-1-ethyl-3-methyl-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid-[1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-ethyl]-amide. Molecular formula is C15H18Cl3NO. Molecular weight is 334.7.  Carpropamid is a novel melanin-inhibiting fungicide for control of rice blast caused byMagnaporthe grisea. In colonial melanization were inhibited by carpropamid. Mode of actions are systemic, protective and no curative properties. White to pale yellow power. Percent Composition of compounds are C 53.83%, H 5.42%, Cl 31.78%, N 4.19% and O 4.78%. Melting point 152C. Technical grade is a mixture of (1RS, 3SR, 1¢RR) isomer. Soluble in dichloromethane, slightly soluble in toluene, very low sol in water. Vapor pressure at 20° is 2.70 ´ 10-7 Pa.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity LD50 (mg / kg): The acute oral LD50 in mice greater than 5000, more than 2,000 acute percutaneous rats acute inhalation LC50 greater than 5000. The rabbit eye and skin stimulation. Mallard acute oral LD50 for 1979, fish toxicity LC50 (96h, mg / L): 10 trout fish, carp 6.9, water lice (3h) 410. Ames test was negative, and in vitro micronucleus test was negative.
 

NAME:  Cashmeran
 
CLASSIFICATION: Synthetic polycyclic musk
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydro-1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-4h-inden-4-one.  Colorless to pale yellow liquid. Flash Point is 94C.  Cashmeran is a very pleasant aroma, which cannot leave anyone indifferent. It is deep and rich, very intensive, diffuse and long-lasting. Its main profile is woody, spicy, musky, but the fragrance is rich in nuances: slightly spicy and aromatic, fruity (apples) and floral notes (heliotrope and jasmine), woody (pine), notes of earth (patchouli) and soft vanilla. This ingredient seems to soak all our impressions of a sensual fragrance. Molecular Formula is C14H22O. Molecular Weight is 206.32.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  May cause Cancer of endocrine system.

 
NAME:  Cekafix
 
CLASSIFICATION: Beehive medication
 
DESCRIPTION:  Molecular Formula is C14H16BrO5PS. Formula Weight is 407.22.CEKAFIX shall be used as a ready-to-use emulsion that is prepared immediately before application 1 ml of CEKAFIX shall be mixed with 25 ml of a 50% sugar solution. This mixing should be done very quickly and thoroughly in order to create a milky emulsion. Providing that the winter cluster has not yet been formed, the medication shall be dribbled roughly on the wooden structure of the beehive. This is to avoid any contamination of the comb area. If the winter cluster has formed, the solution should be dribbled directly on to the clustering bees. According to the type of beehive, various means- e.g. a dropper bottle or a large medical syringe with a long cannula or nozzle attached. Spraying of the medicating solution should be avoided, In exceptional (urgent) cases, water may be used for preparation of the ready-to-use emulsion.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Intoxication effects - pupillary contraction, muscular trembling, vomiting, diarrhoea - may occur after careless application and subsequent ingestion. Seek immediate medical treatment in such cases.
 
 
NAME:  Celestolide 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Fragrance stabilizer
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 6-tert-butyl-1,1-dimethylindan-4-yl methylketone. Flash point 94C.  This musk has warmth, brilliance, richness and strength. Good stability. Musk, powdery, fruity note. Molecular Weight is 244.4. Molecular Formula is C17H24O. Melting point 68 to 70C. Exist in white solid form.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Biochemical or cellular level changes, Persistent and bioaccumulative

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NAME Chinomethionat
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, fungicide, Miticide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 6-methyl-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b]quinoxalin-2-one or
S,S-(6-methylquinoxaline-2,3-diyl) dithiocarbonate. Molecular weight is 234.3. Store at -20C. Selective, non-systemic contact action with protective and curative properties. Exist in yellow crystals. Available in a variety of formulations including dustable powders, suspension concentrates and wettable powders. Occupational exposure may occur through inhalation and dermal contact
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Potential for serious eye damage.

 
NAME:  Chloramben methyl ester   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is methyl 3-amino-2,5-dichlorobenzoate. Synonymous are Chloramben methyl Chloramben-methyl, Methyl chloramben
Amiben, methyl ester, Amchem 65-81-b, Chloramben methyl ester, Caswell No. 168E , Chloramben-methyl [ISO], CHLORAMBEN, METHYL ESTER, Methyl 3-amino-2,5-dichlorobenzoate.  Molecular Formula is C8H7Cl2NO2. Molecular Weight is 220.053 g/mol. traspecific variability was related to higher concentrations of Chloramben in the roots of the susceptible lines, resulting from metabolic differences in these lines and rapid absorption of the herbicide by the roots of 'S-MSU 3159'. Tolerance of 'T-MSU 3207' resulted primarily from low uptake and reduced translocation of the herbicide, while tolerance of 'T-MSU 0612' was related to, but not necessarily explained by, a peculiar ??C-label distribution pattern in the leaves. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of methanol-soluble extracts from the lines studied 3 days after ??C-chloramben methyl ester treatment separated six ??C-metabolites in the roots and five in the shoots. After a 4-hr treatment, ??C-chloramben methyl ester was absorbed and translocated more rapidly than ??C-chloramben by all four lines. Tolerance or susceptibility did not always correlate with the total concentration of radioactivity in methanol-soluble shoot and root extracts.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Acute oral toxicity , Metabolism, Mutagenicity, Tumorigenic potential Skin and Eye Irritation, Nutritional use , Regulatory Clearances already given, Ease of Cleaning of Ships tanks  and Ease of Removal during the Refining Process.

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NAME:  Chloranocryl    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 3?,4?-dichloro-2-methylacrylanilide.  Molecular Formula is C10H9Cl2NO. Formula Weight  is 230.09. Melting point  128C. Percent Composition of element are C 52.20%, H 3.94%, Cl 30.82%, N 6.09% and O 6.95%. Crystals from ethanol + petr ether, mp 128°. Practically insol in water. Soluble in acetone, alcohol, isophorone, dimethyl sulfoxide. LD50 orally in rats: 3160 mg/kg (Bailey, White).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 3160 mg/kg (Bailey, White)

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NAME:  Chlorbenside                     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4-chlorobenzyl 4-chlorophenyl sulfide. Molecular Formula is C13H10Cl2S. Molecular Weight is 269.19 g/mol. Storing temperature 0 to 6 C. Estimated concentrations of chemicals with Koc values greater than 9995 ml g-1 are beyond the scope of the regression data used in SCI-GROW development. If there are concerns for such chemicals, a higher tier groundwater exposure assessment should be considered, regardless of the concentration returned by SCI-GROW. Acaricide, esp for the control of eggs and larvae of red spider mites. Crystals, mp 75-76°. Technical grades may have almond-like odor. d425 1.4210. Vapor tension at 30°: 1.21 ´ 10-5 mm. uv max (95% ethanol): 262 nm: Watson, Chem. Ind. (London) 1956, 349. Soly in water <1:5000, in ethanol about 2.9%, in kerosene 5-7.5%. Sol in acetone, benzene, toluene, xylene, petr ether. Resistant to acid and alkaline hydrolysis. Strong oxidizing agents convert it to the corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone. Exist in white crystalline solid.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: May be absorbed through the gut and skin and can cause problem. Hazardous to the digestive tract, Liver and kidney toxicant. May be irritating to skin. Kidney and liver injuries have been produced in except animals.

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NAME:  Chlorbenside sulfone          
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is p-Chlorobenzyl-p-chlorophenyl sulfone. Molecular Weight is 301.1883 [g/mol]. Molecular Formula C13H10Cl2O2S. Molecular Weight: 269.19.     Crystals, mp 75-76°. Technical grades may have almond-like odor. d425 1.4210. Vapor tension at 30°: 1.21 ´ 10-5 mm. uv max (95% ethanol): 262 nm: Watson, Chem. Ind. (London) 1956, 349. Soly in water <1:5000, in ethanol about 2.9%, in kerosene 5-7.5%. Sol in acetone, benzene, toluene, xylene, petr ether. Resistant to acid and alkaline hydrolysis. Strong oxidizing agents convert it to the corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone.
XLogP3 3.3.  H-Bond Donor is 0.  H-Bond Acceptor is 2. Rotatable Bond Count is 3. Exact Mass is 299.977856. MonoIsotopic Mass is 299.977856. Topological Polar Surface Area is  42.5. Heavy Atom Count is 18. Formal Charge is 0. Complexity is 348. Isotope Atom Count is 0. Covalently-Bonded Unit Count is 1. Synonyms are Mitox;hrs860;RD 2195;HRS 860; MITOX(R);  Chloracid;Chlorocid;ent20,696;Chlorocide;chloracide.  Storing temperature.  C 58.00%, H 3.74%, Cl 26.34%, S 11.91%. Acaricide, esp for the control of eggs and larvae of red spider mites.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  May be irritating to skin. Kidney and liver injuries have been produced in animals.

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NAME: Chlorbicyclen
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1,2,3,4,7,7-hexachloro-5,6-bis(chloromethyl)-8,9,10-trinorborn-2-ene.  Molecular formula is C9H6Cl8.     Molecular Weight is 397.77. Percent Composition: C 27.18%, H 1.52%, Cl 71.30%. Exist in  Solid form, Melting point is 104-106°C,Boling point is 172-176°C. Formerly as an insecticide and acaricide. Density is 1.74g/cm3 Boiling Point is 410.6°Cat760mmHg. Flash Point is 202.9°C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Moderately toxic by skin contact. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic vapors of Cl?.
 
 
NAME:  Chlorbromuron 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular formula is C9H10BrClN2O2  . Molecular weight is 293.5. Absorbed via roots and translocated. Movement and persistence of chlorbromuron applied at rates of 1.5, 3, and 6 kg a.i./ha was studied in a New Brunswick potato soil for one growing season. Most of the chlorbromuron remained in the 0 - 2.5 cm soil depth with slight residues in the 2.5 - 5, 5 - 7.5, and 7.5 - 10 cm depths. After 47 days the chlorbromuron residues had dropped to 40%, then gradually levelled off to 25% at the end of the season. Chlorbromuron was determined directly by electron capture gas chromatography using a short glass column of 3% OV-210. Exist in solid form. Melting point 96C. Boling point 401C. Vapor pressure is 4 x 10-7 mmHg. 
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Chronic exposure may cause protein metabolism disturbances, emphysema, and weight loss. Occupational exposure may be through inhalation or dermal contact. Consumers may be exposed through the ingestion of contaminated food.
 
 
NAME:  Chlorbufam 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-1-methylprop-2-ynyl 3-chlorocarbanilate. Molecular formula is C11H10ClNO2   . molecular weight is 223.7.  Storing temperature is 0C to 6C. Kinetics of degradation of Chlorbufam is determined in aqueous solution, in aqueous solution with humic acids, argilo-humic complexes, soil and sterile soil. The adsorption is also evaluated in this different fractions. The adsorption process has a protecting effect and the chlorbufam is not chemically degraded when it is adsorbed on organic matter. The biodisponibility is also decreased by adsorption.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Poison by intraperitoneal and possibly other routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. A pesticide. See also CARBAMATES and ESTERS. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of Cl? and NOx.

 
NAME:  Chlordecone                        
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is perchloropentacyclo[5.3.0.02,6.03,9.04,8]decan-5-one. Chlordecone  also known as Kepone. It is the trade name of the synthetic chlorinated insecticide kepone, which is a ketone analog and degradation product of mirex (see Mirex). It is a tan-to-white solid that is practically insoluble in water, but soluble in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions, alcohols, ketones, dimethyl sulfoxide, acetic acid, and hydrocarbon solvents such as hexane and benzene. Chem Sources identified one domestic supplier of kepone for 1990. In 2001, Chem Sources identified eight U.S. suppliers of the compound (Chem Sources 2001). Kepone is no longer manufactured in the United States (SRI 1986). In July 1975, the Virginia State Health Department ordered termination of production by the sole manufacturer of Keptone  when several workers developed serious neurological disorders (NIOSH 1976a). Before the shutdown, the estimated average annual production was 882,000 lb. More than 99% of the production was exported; only 0.8% was available for domestic use, primarily as bait in ant traps. Chlordecone breaks down slowly in the environment, and it may stay for years in soil and water. It also does not evaporate to any great extent from surface water or surface soil. Chlordecone does not dissolve easily in water, but will preferentially bind to soil and sediment particles. In soils, Chlordecone is fairly immobile and is unlikely to migrate far through soil or in groundwater. Like Mirex and other POPs, Chlordecone can bioaccumulate in fish or other organisms that live in contaminated water or that eat other contaminated animals.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  The mechanism of toxicity to humans is not well understood. However, workers who were exposed to high levels of Chlordecone over a long period (more than one year) showed harmful effects on the nervous system, skin, liver, and male reproductive system. These workers were likely exposed primarily through touching Chlordecone, although they may have inhaled or ingested some as well. Animal studies with Chlordecone have shown effects similar to those seen in people, as well as harmful kidney effects, developmental effects, and effects on the ability of females to reproduce. It is not known if these last three effects also occur in people. Animal studies have shown that ingesting high levels of Mirex can harm the stomach, intestine, liver, kidneys, eyes, thyroid, and nervous and reproductive systems.
 
 
NAME:  Chlordene                            
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C10H6Cl6. Molecular Weight is 338.87. Flash point is 100 °C. Storing temperature is 0-6°C. Melting point 214C. Insoluble in water. Boiling Point is 389.8 °C at 760 mmHg. Melting point is 213C – 214C. Insolubkle in water. Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect containers/cylinders from physical damage.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Low toxicity by ingestion. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic vapors of Cl?. CNS excitation, seizures, tremor, ataxia, agitation, nervousness, and amnesia may occur. Kelthane, perthane, methoxychlor, and hexachlorobenzene have little CNS toxicity; in extreme overdose CNS depression may occur. Organochlorine pesticides such as DDT pass through the placenta, with an average level in the newborn blood reaching around a third of that in maternal blood. They can also be found in breast milk. Excessive absorption of kepone (chlordecone) has depressed sperm counts and sperm motility in exposed workers. Moderately toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact. An experimental teratogen. A severe eye irritant. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl
 
 
NAME:  Chlordimeform
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chlordimeform is an acaricide and is active mainly against motile forms of mites and ticks and against eggs and early instars of some Lepidoptera insects. Its use has ceased and its registration has been withdrawn in most countries.[ Chemical name is  (EZ)-N2-(4-chloro-o-tolyl)-N1,N1-dimethylformamidine. It appears to interfere with amine-mediated control of nervous and endocrine systems in a variety of ways. Specifically, chlordimeform causes a build-up of the amines 5-hydroxytryptamine and to a lesser extent norepinephrine in the rat brain in vivo, antagonizes the in vivo action of reserpine in the rat (reserpine depletes amine stores in the CNS), inhibits monoamine oxidase from rat liver in vitro, and causes hypotension in rabbits. In the American cockroach it directly stimulates the heart in situ, acts synergistically with tryptamine in vivo, inhibits amine-N-acetyltransferase from cockroach head in vitro, causes accumulation of indolamines in cockroaches in vivo, and blocks the stimulation of adenylate cyclase by octopamine in the cockroach CNS in situ. It also inhibits tryptamine metabolism in whole mites in vitro.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Blood in the urine. Back pain. Sweet taste in the mouth. Abdominal pain. Drowsiness. Nausea. Blue lips or fingernails. Blue skin. Dizziness. Headache. Laboured breathing. Unconsciousness. Vomiting. Weakness. Respiratory arrest

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NAME:  Chlorethoxyfos   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is O,O-diethyl (RS)-O-(1,2,2,2-tetrachloroethyl) phosphorothioate.  Chemical formula is C6H11Cl4O3PS. Molecular mass is 336.0. Flash point is greater than 230 °C.  Chlorethoxyfos is an organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide. Acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, vapour action. Gray to brown granules  .  The substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms. This substance does enter the environment under normal use. Great care, however, should be given to avoid any additional release, e.g. through inappropriate disposal. Depending on the degree of exposure, periodic medical examination is suggested.Do NOT take working clothes home.Specific treatment is necessary in case of poisoning with this substance; the appropriate means with instructions must be available. Carrier solvents used in commercial formulations may change physical and toxicological properties.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Dizziness. Nausea. Sweating. Muscle twitching. Pupillary constriction, muscle cramp, excessive salivation. Laboured breathing. Convulsions. Unconsciousness. Blurred vision. Abdominal cramps. Diarrhoea. Vomiting. Cholinesterase inhibition. The substance may cause effects on the nervous system, resulting in convulsions and respiratory depression. Exposure may result in death. The effects may be delayed. Medical observation is indicated.
 
 
NAME:  Chlorfenapyr                     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, Insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-ethoxymethyl-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile. Powdered solid and light tan or light yellow color. Characteristic of halides and ketones. Melting Point is 100-101E C.  pH is 7.16; 1% aqueous slurry at 24 E C. Density is 0.543 g/ml tapped bulk density.  Molecular Formula is C15H11BrClF 3N2O  and molecular weight is 407.6.
Chlorfenapyr is a pesticide, and specifically a pro-insecticide (meaning it is metabolized into an active insecticide after entering the host), derived from a class of microbially produced compounds known as halogenated pyrroles. The United States Environmental Protection Agency initially denied registration in 2000 for use on cotton primarily because of concerns that the insecticide was toxic to birds and because effective alternatives were available. However, it was registered by EPA in January, 2001 for use on non-food crops in greenhouses.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is high toxic to aquatic livings such as fish, prawn. Also toxic to bees. No mixing with alkaline pesticides&substances. The signal word is danger. Increased cholesterol, relative liver weights and cytoplasmic vacuolation of the liver in male and females in a 28-day dermal toxicity study in rabbits

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NAME:  Chlorfenethol
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol or 4,4?-dichloro-?-methylbenzhydryl alcohol. Molecular Formula is C14H12Cl2O. Molecular Weight is 267.15. Exisit in solid form. Melting point is 70C. Boling point is 354C. Insoluble in water. Crystals from Skellysolve . Soluble in organic solvents. Percent Composition is C 62.94%, H 4.53%, Cl 26.54%, O 5.99%. 
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  an acaricide used on agricultural crops and trees. It has a low toxicity but can cause depression, diarrhea, dyspnea, salivation and lacrymation.

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NAME:  Chlorfenprop-methyl   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is methyl (RS)-2-chloro-3-(4-chlorophenyl)propionate.  Molecular Formula is C10H10Cl2O2 . Molecular weight is 233.091. This substance is a derivative of chlorfenprop. Selective, basic metabolic processes become inactivated during autolysis. Exist in liquid state. Boling point in 300C. Flash point 122C.  Specific heat of vaporization is 0.23kj/g.  A colorless to brown liquid used as a postemergence herbicide of wild oats, cereals, fodder beets, sugarbeets, and peas. Selective, basic metabolic processes become inactivated during autolysis. Chlorfenprop-methyl (the herbicidal component of BIDISIN®), and to a lesser extent the free acid, chlorfenprop, inhibit auxin mediated cell responses in coleoptiles of Avena sativa L. and Zea mays L., such as cell elongation, auxin-uptake, -transport and -metabolism, acidification of growth media, and binding of naphthyl-I-acetic acid to auxin-specific binding sites in homo-genates of corn coleoptiles. Within a very narrow concentration range (1 to 2?M) chlorfenprop-methyl arrests growth from 0 to 100% in sensitive cultivars. The compound displays neither auxin-nor anti-auxin-activity, and only the L(—)-enantiomer is active. The interaction of the herbicide with auxin at the level of membranes is proposed.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin contact. An herbicide. Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.

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NAME:  Chlorfenson 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4-chlorophenyl 4-chlorobenzenesulfonate. Molecular Formula  is C12H8Cl2O3S. Molecular Weight  is 303.16. Acts by inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation. Insoluble in water. Melting point 87.5.
Chlorfenson is used as an insecticide and acaricide, it will be directly released to the environment. If released to the atmosphere, Chlorfenson will exist in both the vapor and particulate phases in the ambient atmosphere, based on a measured vapor pressure of 1.9X10-6 mm Hg at 20 deg C. Vapor-phase Chlorfenson is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals with a half-life of about 2 to 3 days. Particulate-phase Chlorfenson may be physically removed from the air by dry deposition. An estimated Koc of 17,000 suggests that Chlorfenson will be immobile in soil. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces should not be expected based on an estimated Henry's Law constant of 1.6X10-7 atm cu m/mol, or from dry soil surfaces given the vapor pressure of Chlorfenson. Chlorfenson is expected to adsorb to suspended matter in the water based on its Koc value. This compound should not volatilize from water surfaces given its estimated Henry's Law constant. An estimated BCF value of 930 suggests that Chlorfenson will bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms. The general population may be exposed to Chlorfenson through the ingestion of contaminated foods.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Harmful if swallowed . No consensus across products or no products available . Causes skin irritation in man. Irritation or burns of the esophagus or gastrointestinal tract are also possible if caustic or irritant chemicals are ingested.

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NAME Chlorfenvinphos     
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide, insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (EZ)-2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)vinyl diethyl phosphate. Chlorfenvinphos is an organophosphorus compound that was widely used as an insecticide but has been banned in several countries. It is a colorless solid, but for commercial purposes, it was marketed as an amber liquid. Its use in the U.S. was cancelled in 1991. Chlorfenvinphos was sold under several brand names. Molecular formula is C12H14Cl3O4P. Molecular weight is 359.57. Storing temperature approximately 4C. Solubility at 20-25 C (mg/L) is 145. Chlorfenvinphos enters the environment from runoff after rainfall and leaching from hazardous waste sites. It may leach into soil and underground water. It may also be found in surface waters from rain. Chlorfenvinphos may move from soil to the air by evaporation. It does not appear to accumulate in plants, fish, or freshwater animals.The molecule can be described as an enol ester derived from dichloroacetophenone and diethylphosphonic acid. The molecule hydroyzes in the environment.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: The major effect of chlorfenvinphos is on the nervous system. Ingesting large doses may cause nausea and vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, difficulty in breathing, and fainting. Lower doses may cause headaches, dizziness, weakness, confusion, runny nose, and inability to see clearly. These symptoms may start within 30-60 minutes and reach their maximum effect after 6-8 hours. There is no evidence that long-term exposure to small amounts of chlorfenvinphos causes any harmful health effects in people. It is not known whether chlorfenvinphos can affect reproduction or cause birth defects in people. One animal study reported decreased fertility in rats given chlorfenvinphos in their food, and another study reported that chlorfenvinphos interfered with the development of rats when the pregnant animals were fed chlorfenvinphos. It is not known whether chlorfenvinphos causes cancer in people. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have not classified chlorfenvinphos for carcinogenicity.
There is a general test that can be used to determine if you have been exposed to a group of insecticides, including chlorfenvinphos. This test measures the activity of an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase in the blood. This test requires only a small amount of blood and can be done in your doctor's office. It does not specifically show exposure to chlorfenvinphos. Specific tests are available to identify chlorfenvinphos or its breakdown products in your blood, body tissue, and urine. These tests aren't available at most doctors' offices, but can be done at special laboratories that have the right equipment. 
 

NAME Chlorfenvinphos, trans-  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are SUPONA; BIRLANE; APACHLOR; ALPHA-CVP; SUPONA(R); BIRLANE(R);SAPECRON(R);STELADONE(R);CHLORFENVINPHOS;TRANS-CHLORFENVINPHOS. Molecular Formula is C12H14Cl3O4P. Formula Weight is 359.57. Storage temperature is approx. 4C. Chlorfenvinphos exists in two geometric isomeric forms: alpha (=cis)  isomer and ß (=trans) isomer. In the ß (=trans) isomer the vinyl chlorine atom is opposite to the substituted aryl ring. The technical material contains not less than 92% of total isomers; a  typical sample contains 9.7% w/w cis-and 83.8% trans-isomer. The alpha isomer is less insecticidally active than the ß isomer.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Mouse (Oral  )>Arachis oil> 133 - 155 (Hunter, 1964)   Mouse (Oral)> DMSO>150 – 200(Hutson and Hathway, 1966)


NAME:  Chlorflurecol-methyl ester    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pharmaceutical Intermediates
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is methyl 2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylate (2536-31-4).  Molecular Formula is C15H11ClO3. Molecular Weight is 274.7. Boiling Point is 426.5 °C at 760 mmHg. Storing temperature is 0 to 6 C. Synonymous are Methyl 2-Chloro-9-Hydroxy Fluorene-9-Carboxylate;IT 3456;Curbbiset( R ) ; CF 125(R) ; Chlorfiurecol( R) . Melting point is 136C to 142C. pH is not Applicable, Crystalline material.  Water solubility is 18 mg/L.Vapour pressure is 5 - 10-5 Torr at 25C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Do not apply directly to water, or to areas where surface water is present or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Do not contaminate water when disposing of equipment washwater or rinsate."
Methyl esters in the range of C8 to C18 are practically non-toxic.
Gavage studies proved methyl laurate, methyl palmitate and methyl stearate to be non-toxic to rats with LD50s exceeding the limit dose of 2000 mg/Kg body weight (IUCLID data sheet for 68937-84)-8). The acute oral toxicity of methyl caprylate to rats was investigated and found not to be harmful up to a dose of 20.5g/Kg body weight (Clayton & Clayton, 1981-1982).
Methyl myristate was also found to be not harmful to white mice following a dose of 10ml/kg body weight by gavage.
 
 
NAME:  Chlormefos 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is chloromethylsulfanyl-diethoxy-sulfanylidene-$l^{5}-phosphane . Molecular Weight is 234.70.Molecular Formula is C5H12ClO2PS2 storage temperature 2 to 8C. Flash point is greater than 100C. Colorless liquid. Used as a soil insecticide. Slightly soluble in water. Organophosphates, such as CHLORMEPHOS, are susceptible to formation of highly toxic and flammable phosphine gas in the presence of strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Partial oxidation by oxidizing agents may result in the release of toxic phosphorus oxides. Container may explode in heat of fire. Fire and runoff from control water may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Non-systemic with contact and stomach action. Acetylcholine esterase inhibitor.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  CHLORMEPHOS is poisonous; it may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin. Very toxic if ingested, inhaled or absorbed through skin

 
NAME: Chlornitrofen  
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is 4-nitrophenyl 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether. Molecular formula is C12H6Cl3NO3. Molecular Weight:  318.5391. Percent Composition are C 45.25%, H 1.90%, Cl 33.39%, N 4.40%, O 15.07%.  Pale yellow needles from ethanol. Melting Point  is 105-106C. Solubility in 0.25 mg/l water at 20-25C is 764 mg/l water. Vapor pressure (109°) is 4.67 ´ 104 mPa. Partition coefficient (octanol/water) is 4709. LC50 in carp (48 hr): >10,000 mg/l; LC50 in flea (3 hr): >40,000 mg/l (Kanazawa).                                      
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity assignment of registered pesticides are normal drugs. LD50of acute oral toxicity / weight (kg): rat 10800mg, mouse 11800mg. Fish toxicity 50% lethal concentration: carp more than 40ppm/48h . Fish toxicity rank of registered pesticides. A Reserved criterion for pesticide residue by EPA: rice 0.01ppm, vegetable 0.1ppm.

 
Chlorobenzilate 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ethyl 4,4?-dichlorobenzilate .  Appearance: Technical chlorobenzilate, a brownish liquid, contains approximately 90% active compound [17]. Pure chlorobenzilate is a yellow solid. Molecular Weight is 325.21. Water Solubility is 10 mg/L at 20 C. Melting Point is 37.5 C. Vapor Pressure is 0.12 mPa @ 20 C. Adsorption Coefficient is 2000 (estimated) . Chlorobenzilate is a pesticide that is not currently used in the USA or Europe. It was originally developed by Ciba-Geigy and introduced in 1952. It was used as an acaricide against mites on citrus trees, including deciduous fruit trees. It has been detected as a residue on tomatoes found in Japanese markets in 2005.It is a non-systemic pesticide that works through contact and as a neurotoxin: it disrupts the functioning of the nervous system.In the pure state, chlorobenzilate is a colorless to pale yellow solid, but the commercial product is a brownish liquid.It is only slightly soluble in water, but miscible with acetone, toluene and methanol. There was a statistically significant positive association between the administration of chlorobenzilate and the appearance of cortical adenoma of the adrenal gland in low dose male and high dose female rats. Although suggestive, the findings of a low incidence of benign adrenal tumors was not considered sufficient evidence to establish the carcinogenicity of chlorobenzilate for the Osborne-Mendel rat.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: There is no data on the carcinogenic effects of chlorobenzilate in humans. However, when mice were administered the substance orally, carcinogenic effects were observed.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has therefore classified chlorobenzilate as a probable human carcinogen (Group B2).The International Agency for Research on Cancer has concluded that there is insufficient information available to evaluate the carcinogenicity of chlorobenzilate in humans. Chlorobenzilate is a persistent organic pollutant and is very toxic to aquatic invertebrates.
 
 
NAME:  Chloroneb
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1,4-dichloro-2,5-dimethoxybenzene. Soil systemic and supplemental seed treatment for seedling diseases of beans, sugar beets, turf and soybeans.  Excellent against damping-off .Molecular Formula is C8 H8 Cl2 O2 . Molecular weight is 207.1. Colorless crystalline solid (pure compound) . Musty odor (pure compound) . Melting Point is      133-135 C (pure compound). Boling point  is  268 C. Vapor Pressure is  3 x 10-3 mmHg at 25 C. Solubility is 8 mg/l water at 25 C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides are likely to primarily act as "axon poisons", interfering with movement of ions across membranes resulting in CNS excitation and repetitive neuronal firing. Some of the agents are GABA antagonists as well. They may also sensitize myocardial tissue to catecholamines and predispose one to dysrhythmias in a similar manner as chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents. Chloroneb has very low oral toxicity in mammals. It may be moderately irritating to skin and the mucous membranes. A metabolite of chloroneb, dichloromethoxyphenol, is excreted in the urine. No cases of systemic human poisoning have been reported. Chlorothalonil has caused irritation of skin, the mucous membranes of the eyes, and the respiratory tract upon contact. Allergic dermatitis has been reported, but no cases of systemic poisoning in humans have been recorded. Apparently, chlorothalonil is poorly absorbed across the skin and the gastrointestinal lining. Dicloran is absorbed by exposed workers, but is promptly eliminated, at least partly in the urine. No long-term adverse effects have been observed in humans. High concentrations of pentachloronitrobenzene in prolonged skin contact have caused sensitization in some tested volunteers, but have not been reported from occupationally exposed workers.


NAME:  Chloropropylate   
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1-methylethyl 4-chloro-?-(4-chlorophenyl)-?-hydroxybenzeneacetate. Synonyms are g24163; Rospan; Rospin; g24,163; Gesakur; Rospine; ent26999; G 24,163;Acaralate;ChlormiteMolecular Formula is C17H16Cl2O3     Molecular Weight is 339.21.Melting point is 72C.  Boling point is 458C. Density is 1.35g/cm3. Specific heat of vaporization is 0.223kj/g. Flash point 230C.  The technical material is a yellowish crystalline preparation with  a purity of approximately 95 per cent. No data have been submitted on the composition of the technical product.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: No deaths resulted when mallard ducks were fed diets containing 0.8% chloropropylate for seven days, although reduced food consumption and body-weight occurred at this dose level.Bobwhite quail were fed for seven days on diets containing 0.8, 0.4 and 0.2 per cent chloropropylate. The LD50 was about 0.4% and reduced food intake and weight loss were apparent in all groups.
 
 
NAME:  Chlorothalonil 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular weight is 265.95.White, crystalline solid. Boiling-point is 350°C.
Melting-point is 250°C. Density: 1.7 g/cm3 at 25°C. Solubility: Insoluble in water; slightly soluble in acetone and cyclohexane . Volatility: Vapour pressure, < 1 Pa at 40°C. Chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) is a polychlorinated aromatic mainly used as a broad spectrum, non-systemic fungicide, with other uses as a wood protectant, pesticide, acaricide, and to control mold, mildew, bacteria, algae. Chlorothalonil-containing products are sold under the names Bravo, Echo, and Daconil. Chlorothalonil is a grey to colorless solid that is odorless to slightly pungent (EXTOXNET). It is environmentally persistent and binds strongly with soil (EPA). The expected half-life in aerobic soils is one to three months (EXTOXNET). Chlorothalonil is approved for use on a number of agricultural crops including coffee, tomato, peanut, onion, garlic, potato, beans, and many other food and feed crops. It is used on some commercial grasses such as golf courses, and it can be found in residential products for ornamental plants and lawns. Chlorothalonil may also be formulated in some paints to prevent fungal growth (EPA).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Chlorothalonil has a low acute toxicity to humans. The acute oral LD50 exceeds 10,000 mg/kg in rats (EPA). Chlorothalonil is rapidly excreted from the body (EXTOXNET). A two-year study by the National Cancer Institute, in which rats were fed chlorothalonil daily, found renal carcinomas and gland tumors in both females and males. Other similar studies however, have mixed findings on the presence of carcinogenicity. In another two year study on rats, researchers noted increased kidney weight, hyperplasia of the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidneys, and ulcers in addition to renal tumors .The EPA has listed chlorothalonil as a probable carcinogen in the Toxics Release Inventory (PANNA).Chlorothalonil may cause redness, pain, and blurred vision if exposed to the eyes. It can cause redness on skin. Inhalation of chlorothalonil can cause burning sensations. Ingesting chlorothalonil may cause abdominal pain and burning sensations (PANNA).

 
 
Contaminant Facts: Pesticides
 
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