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Pesticides (A - Bi)

Al | Az | B | Benz | BHC
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Acephate is an organophosphate insecticide currently registered for use on a variety of field, fruit, and vegetable crops (e.g., cotton, tobacco, cranberries, mint); in food handling establishments; on ornamental plants both in greenhouses and outdoors (e.g., nonbearing fruit trees, Christmas trees, and cut flowers); and in and around the home.  Annual domestic use is approximately 4 to 5 million pounds of active ingredient per year.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acephate can cause cholinesterase inhibition in humans; that is, it can over stimulate the nervous system causing nausea, dizziness, confusion, and at very high exposures (e.g., accidents or major spills), respiratory paralysis and death.


 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide and miticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Acequinocyl is a member of the quinoline class of insecticides/miticides and has been designated as a “reduced risk” pesticide by EPA. The available product chemistry, toxicology, ecological effects and environmental fate data for a Acequinocyl are summarized     below, along with the estimated risks to human health and the environment from use on ornamental crops grown in commercial greenhouses and shade houses.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Carcinogenicity data are required for food use pesticides and for non-food use pesticides when chronic exposure of handlers and/or bystanders may occur as a result of the pesticide’s use. The use of a cequinocylon green house/shade house grown ornamentals is expected to result in short and intermediate term handler exposure but is not expected to result in chronic exposure to the pesticide.  Therefore, cancer risk is not a concern for this use of a cequinocyl, and carcinogenicity studies are not required.


 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (neonicotinoid insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Acetamiprid is an organic compound with the chemical formula C10H11ClN4. It is an odorless neonicotinoid insecticide produced under the trade names Assail, Pristine, and Chipco by Aventis Crop Sciences. It is systemic and intended to control sucking insects on crops such as leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, pome fruits, grapes, cotton, cole crops, and ornamental plants. It is also a key pesticide in commercial cherry farming due to its effectiveness against the larvae of the cherry fruit fly.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Acetamiprid is classified as unlikely to be a human carcinogen. Acetamiprid has a low acute and chronic toxicity in mammals with no evidence of carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity or mutagenicity. It is classified as toxicity category rating II in acute oral studies with rats, toxicity category III in acute dermal and inhalation studies with rats, and toxicity category IV in primary eye and skin irritation studies with rabbits. It is mobile in soil, but degrades rapidly via aerobic soil metabolism, with studies showing its half-life between <1 and 8.2 days. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not consider it to be environmentally persistent. The EPA considers it "only moderately toxic" to bees; however, some media sources and the recent documentary Vanishing of the Bees have blamed neonicotinoids like Acetamiprid for colony collapse disorder.


 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Acetochlor is used for control of annual grasses and certain broadleaf weeds and yellow nut sedge. Crops include cabbage, citrus, coffee, corn (all types), cotton, green peas, maize, onion, orchards, peanuts, potatoes, rape, soybeans, sugar beets, sugarcane, sunflower, and vineyards. Acetochlor is applied pre-emergence, pre-plant incorporated and is compatible with most other pesticides and fluid fertilizers when used at recommended rates. Usually 0.3-0.6 inches of rainfall will activate the product if it occurs within 7-10 days.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Studies reported the oral LD50 for technical acetochlor when fed to rats ranged from 1426 mg/kg to 2148 mg/kg and formulated acetochlor in male rats ranged up to 2953 mg/kg. The oral LD50 for the formulated product Harness in female rats was reported to be 1700 mg/kg, while dermal LD50 was greater than 5000 mg/kg Acetochlor is considered moderately toxic by ingestion. The inhalation LC50 in rats exposed to acetochlor was greater than 3.85 mg/L, practically nontoxic. The acute oral LD50 of technical acetochlor when administered to bobwhite quail was 1260 mg/kg.
In a study done on rabbits exposed to technical acetochlor and the formulated product Harness (7.5 lb/gal EC), toxicity to skin, eyes, and possible danger through inhalation was tested. Rabbits exposed to technical acetochlor had a dermal LD50 of greater than 4166 mg/kg, an eye irritation classification of "practically non-irritating" and a skin irritation classification of "practically non-irritating." Rabbits exposed to Harness had a dermal LD50 of 3667 mg/kg, an eye irritation classification of "moderately irritating" and a skin irritation classification of "practically non- irritating".
Acute toxicology data submitted to EPA places technical acetochlor in toxicity category II for eye irritation, toxicity category III for acute oral, acute dermal and acute inhalation. Technical acetochlor is in toxicity category IV for primary skin irritation and is considered a skin sensitizer.
 

 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION:The pesticide Alachlor, is 2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl) acetamide. Alachlor is a herbicide used for weed control on corn, soybeans, sorghum, peanuts, and beans. There are liquid, dry flowable, microencapsulated, and granular formulations. The timing of applications is preplant, pre-emergent, at-plant for corn and soybeans, post-transplant, post-emergent, and at ground crack for peanuts only. Alachlor is applied by ground, aerial, and chemigation equipment. It can also be mixed with dry bulk fertilizer. Alachlor was first registered in 1969 as a selective herbicide for control of broadleaf weeds and grasses. The Monsanto Company in the US produces Alachlor.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Alachlor has been evaluated for carcinogenic activity in rats and mice. In accordance with the 1996 EPA proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, Alachlor was classified as “likely” to be a human carcinogen at high doses, but “not likely” at low doses. Based on numerous studies submitted by the registrant that were reviewed by Agency scientists, as well as an external peer review panel, it was agreed that a margin of exposure (MOE) approach (indicative of a non-linear dose response) should be used for the risk assessment.
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (chemicals used for killing pests, such as rodents, insects, or plants)
 
DESCRIPTION: Aldrin and dieldrin are insecticides with similar chemical structures. Aldrin quickly breaks down to dieldrin in the body and in the environment. Pure aldrin and dieldrin are white powders with a mild chemical odor. The less pure commercial powders have a tan color. Neither substance occurs naturally in the environment From the 1950s until 1970; aldrin and dieldrin were widely used pesticides for crops like corn and cotton. Because of concerns about damage to the environment and potentially to human health, EPA banned all uses of aldrin and dieldrin in 1974, except to control termites. In 1987, EPA banned all uses.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Developmental (effects during periods when organs are developing), Endocrine (Glands and Hormones), Hepatic (Liver), Immunological (Immune System), Neurological (Nervous System).
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Ametryn is an herbicide used to control broadleaf and grass weeds in
fields planted with field corn, popcorn, pineapple, and sugarcane. There is only one formulation, an 80% water dispersible granule. Ametryn is applied mainly by groundboom but also by aerial application in Florida. Ametryn was first registered as a pesticide in the U.S. in 1964. Several Generic Data Call-Ins (DCIs) were issued that required a full range of testing on ametryn’s chemistry, toxicology, and environmental fate.  Currently, only one ametryn end use product is registered.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Ametryn has been shown to have low acute dermal, oral, and inhalation
toxicity. It is classified as a Toxicity Category III for oral ingestion and dermal toxicity and Category IV for inhalation toxicity. Ametryn is non-irritating to the eye (Category III) and skin (Category IV) and did not demonstrate sensitization. Based on the available data, acute and chronic toxicity is expected to be low. Cancer is not expected to be a concern as tumors only occurred in oncogenicity studies when the maximum dose tolerated was exceeded.
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide and acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Amitraz or BAAM is an insecticide and acaricide used primarily to control the pear psylla on Oregon pear crops. It also is used to control whiteflies and mites on cotton and pear crops; livestock ticks, lice, and mange mites on beef and dairy cattle and swine; and ticks on dogs. Formulations include a wettable powder, emulsifiable concentrate, soluble concentrate/liquid, and impregnated collar (for dogs). Amitraz is applied as an air blast and concentrate spray to pears; by ground boom or aircraft to cotton; as a dip or low-pressure hand spray to cattle and swine; and through collars on dogs.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: In acute toxicity studies, Amitraz is moderately toxic by the dermal route, and has been placed in Toxicity Category II (the second highest of four categories) for this effect. It is slightly toxic by the oral and inhalation routes, and has been placed in Toxicity Category III for these effects. Amitraz is non-irritating to the eyes and skin and has been placed in Toxicity Category IV for these effects. Amitraz does not cause skin sensitization or cholinesterase inhibition. In a subchronic toxicity study using mice, Amitraz caused reduced body weight gain and liver toxicity at the higher doses. A study using Beagle dogs resulted in liver, kidney, and central nervous system effects. A study using rabbits resulted in skin reactions, anorexia, hyperglycemia, degeneration of the testes, and effects to the lymph nodes and various organs. A chronic toxicity study using dogs resulted in central nervous system depression, increased blood glucose levels, and hypothermia. In a carcinogenicity feeding study-using mice, Amitraz produced lymphoreticular tumors in females at the highest dose level. In another study using mice, Amitraz produced liver and lung tumors at the highest level studied. Based on these studies, EPA has classified Amitraz as a Group C (possible human) carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects were not observed in a study using rats.

 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Plant growth regulator)
 
DESCRIPTION: Ancymidol is a plant growth regulator registered for treating container-grown herbaceous plants, ornamental woody shrubs, and bedding plants grown in greenhouses and other plant bedding areas for commercial production. Growth regulator effects produced by Ancymidol are the result of inhibition of gibberellin biosynthesis. Since gibberellin promotes growth, treatment with Ancymidol induces a more compact growth form by suppressing growth between nodes. The amount of active ingredient required for an optimum growth response depends on pot size, stage of growth, method of application, season, and varietal response.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Testing of Ancymidol for acute toxicity on animals indicates that when
inhaled, ingested, or applied to eyes, Ancymidol is considered slightly acutely toxic (Toxicity category III). When applied to skin, it is practically non-toxic (Toxicity category IV). A subchronic 21-day toxicity study on rabbits showed no dermal irritation or systemic toxicity at the limit dose (1000 mg/kg) when applied dermally. A developmental toxicity study in rats did not indicate that Ancymidol is a developmental toxicant. From that study, a lowest observed effect level for non-developmental toxic effects was determined to be 200 mg/kg/day, based on decreased body-weight gain and food consumption; while the no-effect level was considered 50 mg/kg /day. Finally, a battery of mutagenicity studies was negative for Ancymidol. Long-term chronic toxicity testing of Ancymidol has not been conducted but is not required since it is not found in food and other potential exposure to humans is very limited.
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (selective herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: This is a selective herbicide in the chlorophenoxy class. This is widely used by homeowners, lawn care professionals, and municipalities to kill broadleaf (non-grassy) plants, such as clover and dandelions. Mecoprop is applied primarily to lawns, sports turf, and golf courses, but can also be used on drainage ditch banks, roadsides and forests. Products containing Mecoprop often contain other phenoxy herbicides.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Skin and eye irritation, resulting in redness, swelling, cloudy vision; direct and prolonged exposure to concentrated Mecoprop can cause irreversible eye damage. Mecoprop can irritate the respiratory tract (lungs, nose, and throat) and cause a burning sensation in the airways, coughing, dizziness and nausea. If swallowed, Mecoprop can cause muscle weakness, nausea, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Other symptoms include confusion, aggressive behavior, kidney failure, increased heart rate and metabolic acidosis. Some (but not all) studies have found higher rates of soft tissue cancers and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in humans occupationally exposed to phenoxy herbicides including Mecoprop. Mecoprop has caused miscarriage and birth defects in laboratory rats.
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Atrazine is a pre- and post-emergent herbicide in the triazine family)
 
DESCRIPTION: Atrazine is a pre- and post-emergent herbicide in the triazine family (which also includes simazine and propazine).  Atrazine is used to kill both broadleaf and grassy weeds. It is the second most widely used herbicide in the United States, after glyphosate. Atrazine is mainly used in agriculture.  The greatest use of atrazine by far is on corn. Besides corn, its primary uses are on sugarcane and on residential lawns in Florida and the Southeast. Other agricultural applications include sorghum, as well as minor crops such as guava, hay, macadamia nuts, pasture grasses, and winter wheat. Other non-agricultural uses include golf courses, rangeland, landscape maintenance, ornamental trees, forests, Christmas trees, recreational areas, right-of-ways, and industrial areas. Currently, the heaviest atrazine uses are in the Midwest farm region. Once in the environment, atrazine is slow to break down in soil and water. As a result, it is frequently detected as a contaminant in streams, rivers, lakes and drinking water, particularly in the Midwest. Contamination is usually highest in agricultural areas in the spring, when atrazine use peaks and large amounts of the herbicide run off in rain into surface water. Due to health and environmental concerns,. The European Union has banned atrazine.
Due to its ability to disrupt the endocrine system and interfere with hormones, atrazine has been linked to limb deformities, abnormal sexual changes, weakened immune systems, and declining populations of frogs and amphibians.  While atrazine can cause sexual abnormalities in several species, frogs are especially sensitive. Scientists have found that frogs exposed to atrazine have multiple, mixed gonads and become demasculinized.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Research in the Midwestern United States shows that men with elevated exposures to Atrazine, Alachlor and Diazinon are much more likely to have reduced sperm quality. Reduced sperm counts, decreased sperm motility, and prostate inflammation have been observed in male laboratory rats exposed to atrazine. Short-term exposure to high levels of atrazine may cause irritation of eyes, skin and mucous membranes.  High doses in animals cause damage to the liver, kidney, and heart. Can disrupt the immune system. One study found an association between maternal exposure to triazine herbicides in drinking water and increased incidence of developmental effects in newborns, including low birth weight, heart, urinary and limb defects.  Some studies have found increased rates of pre-term delivery in couples living on farms that use atrazine. Atrazine has been linked to breast and prostate cancer. Induces abortion in laboratory animals.  There are also studies suggesting that human miscarriages increase in women exposed to atrazine. Research has shown that atrazine turns frogs into hermaphrodites and lowers testosterone levels in males.
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide, molluscicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Azinphos methyl was initially registered as a pesticide under FIFRA in 1957. All Azinphos methyl liquids with a concentration greater than 13.5% are classified as Restricted Use Pesticides (RUP) by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), because of the human inhalation hazard and acute toxicity presented by this material, as well as its potential adverse effects to other mammalian species, birds, and aquatic organisms. RUPs may be purchased and used only by certified applicators. A registration standard was issued for Azinphos methyl in September, 1986. The EPA has imposed a 24-hour reentry interval for this material. Areas that have been treated with Azinphos methyl may not be reentered for at least 24 hours, unless protective clothing is worn. Products containing Azinphos methyl must bear the signal words "Danger" and "Poison”. Check with specific state regulations for local restrictions, which may apply.  Azinphos methyl is a highly persistent, broad-spectrum insecticide. It is also an acaricide, toxic to mites and ticks, and a molluscicide, poisonous to snails and slugs. It is one of a group of organic compounds called organophosphates because of the presence of phosphorous in their molecular structures. It is a nonsystemic material, meaning that it is not transported from one plant part to another. It is used primarily as a foliar application against leaf-feeding insects. It works as both a contact insecticide and a stomach poison. Contact poisons are effective upon contact with any part of the target organism. Stomach poisons become toxic when an insect eats them. Azinphos methyl is used for the control of many insect pests on a wide variety of fruit, vegetable, nut, and field crops, as well as on ornamentals, tobacco, and forest and shade trees Outside of the U.S., Azinphos methyl is used in lowland rice production. On 1986, approximately three million pounds of this active ingredient were used against more than 200 pests on about 50 different sites. Azinphos methyl is available in emulsifiable liquid, liquid flowable, ULV liquid, and wettable powder formulations. An organophosphate insecticide first registered in 1959, azinphos-methyl is widely used in agriculture and provides important pest control benefits to growers of orchard fruit, nut, and other crops. However, Azinphos-methyl also poses a high degree of risk to agricultural workers, as well as significant acute ecological risks.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Azinphos methyl is one of the most toxic of the organophosphate insecticides. It is highly toxic by inhalation, dermal absorption, ingestion, and eye contact. Like all organophosphate chemicals, Azinphos methyl is referred to as a "cholinesterase inhibitor." It binds up, blocks, or damages, the normal functioning of cholinesterase, an enzyme that is essential to the proper working of the nervous system. Individuals with a history of reduced lung function, convulsive disorders, or recent exposure to other cholinesterase inhibitors will be at increased risk from exposure to Azinphos methyl. The organophosphate insecticides are cholinesterase inhibitors. They are highly toxic by all routes of exposure. When inhaled, the first effects are usually respiratory and may include bloody or runny nose, coughing, chest discomfort, difficult or short breath, and wheezing due to constriction or excess fluid in the bronchial tubes. Azinphos methyl is easily absorbed by the skin. Skin contact with organophosphates may cause localized sweating and involuntary muscle contractions. Eye contact will cause pain, bleeding, tears, pupil constriction, and blurred vision. Following exposure by any route, other systemic effects may begin within a few minutes or be delayed for up to 12 hours. These include pallor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, eye pain, blurred vision, constriction or dilation of the eye pupils, tears, salivation, sweating, and confusion. Severe poisoning will affect the central nervous system, producing incoordination, slurred speech, loss of reflexes, weakness, fatigue, involuntary muscle contractions, twitching, tremors of the tongue or eyelids, and eventually paralysis of the body extremities and the respiratory muscles. In severe cases, there may also be involuntary defecation or urination, psychosis, irregular heartbeats, unconsciousness, convulsions and coma. Death may be caused by respiratory failure or cardiac arrest
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Azoxystrobin was discovered during research on Oudemansiella mucida and Strobilurus tenacellus, which are small white or brown coloured mushrooms commonly found in the Czech forests. No bigger than a few centimeters, these mushrooms attracted attention of scientists because of their remarkable ability to defend themselves. Their defense mechanism is based on the secretion of two substances, strobilurin A and oudemansin A. These substances allow them to keep their competitors at a distance and even destroy them when in range. Observations of this mechanism led directly to research that resulted in Azoxystrobin.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Azoxystrobin has a favorable ecotoxicological profile, meeting the expectations of agricultural demand. Its toxicity is low for mammals, birds, bees, insects, and earthworms. It is highly toxic for freshwater fish and invertebrates and very highly toxic for marine invertebrates. (This is disputed. Azoxystrobin is broken down into the soil. The agent is not very mobile and therefore is unlikely to penetrate further in the soil and encountered groundwater.
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 4-chlorobut-2-ynyl N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamate. Molecular Formula: C11H9Cl2NO2 . Molecular Weight is 258.101 g/mol. Exact Mass is 257.001 g/mol. Monoisotopic Mass is 257.001 g/mol.  Synonyms of barban are  Carbamic acid, (3-chlorophenyl)-, 4-chloro-2-butynyl ester;Carbanilic acid, m-chloro-, 4-chloro-2-butynyl ester;A 980;Barbane;C-847;Carbin;Carbine;Carbyne;Carbyne (Herbicide);CBN;Karbin;S 847;4-Chloro-2-Butynyl m-chlorocarbanilate;4-Chloro-2-butynyl 3-chlorocarbanilate;(4-Chloor-but-2-yn-yl)-N-(3-chloor-fenyl)-carbamaat;(4-Chlor-but-2-in-yl)-N-(3-chlor-phenyl)-carbamat;(4-Cloro-but-2-in-il)-N-(3-cloro-fenil)-carbammato;m-Chlorocarbanilic acid. The water-soluble metabolite was identified as a glutathione conjugate. The pH and composition of the medium have a considerable influence on barban metabolism. Elemental composition are C is 12.01078 %, H is 1.007%, Cl is 35.45%, N is 14 % and O is 15.9 percent.  Exisit in solid form. Melting point is 100.16 C. Insolubility in water. Density is 1.403 g/cm3. Flash point is 81 C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Toxicity data is LD50 orally in rats: 600 mg/kg (Bailey, White) .May cause skin irritation.

 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-N-benzyl-2-(?,?,?,4-tetrafluoro-m-tolyloxy)butyramide Molecular formula is C18H17 F4 NO2. Molecular weight is 355.3. Fluffy white powder. Density is 1.33. Melting point is 75 °C. Vapour pressure is 1.1?10-2 mPa(25 °C). Henry constant is 1.1?10-4 Pa m3 mol-1. Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water) is logP = 4.28. Solubility in water is 3.29 mg/l (20 °C). In acetone >600, 1,2-dichloroethane >544, ethyl acetate >571, methanol >473, n-heptane is  2.18, xylene  is 106 (all in g/l, 20 °C). Stable at 130 °C for 5 h. Stable at pH 5, 7 and 9 for 5 d (21 °C). Fairly stable to photolysis.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats 1826-2417, mice 3350 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >2000 mg/kg. Non-irritating to skin and eyes (rabbits). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >1.95 mg/l air. NOEL (90 d) for rats 400, dogs 50 mg/kg diet; (2 y) for rats 80 mg/kg diet. ADI 0.0062 mg/kg b.w. Water GV 9 mg/l (TDI 3 mg/kg b.w.).
Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) III EC hazard R40| Xn; R22| N; R50, R53
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is methyl N-(phenylacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate.  Chemical Formula is C20H23NO3. Molecular Weight 325.40152 [g/mol]. XLog is P3 3.4.  H-Bond Donor is 0. H-Bond Acceptor is  3. Rotatable Bond Count  is 6. Exact Mass is 325.167794 MonoIsotopic Mass is 325.167794.  Melting Point 78 to 80 C. Boiling point Decomposition occurs at 250 ºC. The effect of pH on solubility is not required as the active substance does not form ions. Dissociation in water does not occur. Benalaxyl is a systemic fungicide for control of oomycetes, or water molds, in grapes, potatoes and several vegetable crops.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Toxicity : Rat LD50 oral: 4200 mg/kg bw (rats). Rat LD50 dermal: > 2000 mg/kg bw (rabbit). Rat LC50 inhalation: > 4.2 mg/l (nose only). No skin and eye irritation. Non-sensitiser (M & K). Decreased body weight gain and increased liver weight of pups at parental toxic dose levels.

 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is  4-chloro-2-oxobenzothiazolin-3-ylacetic acetate . Synonymous are Ethyl 4-chloro-2-oxo-3H-1,3-benzothiazole-3-ylacetate; 7-Chloro-2-oxo-3(2H)-benzothiazoleacetic acid ethyl ester; 4-Chloro-2-oxo-benzothiazoleacetic acid ethyl ester. Molecular Formula  is C11H10ClNO3S Molecular Weight is 271.72. Melting point  is 79 ºC.  It I Pure is white crystalline solid; tech. is pale yellow rystalline powder with a characterestic odor. selective, systemic, growth-regulator herbicide, absorbed by leaves and translocated readily throughout the plant in the phloem. Post-emergence control of many annual broad-leaved weeds, particularly black bindweed, common chickweed, cleavers and charlock in oilseed rape. in combination with other herbicides, used for control of a wider range of broad-leaved weeds in oilseed rape, cereals, grassland, clover, alfalfa and flax. Specification are 95%tc, 30%sc, and mixture with other herbicides. A herbicide for post-emergent control of annual broad-leaved weeds especially black bindweed, chickweed and cleavers. Benazolin-ethyl has been used on a wide range of weeds present in various crops since 1964. Because benazolin-ethyl is a potential hazard to the environment and human health, it is important to remove this herbicide from the environment. However, to the best of our knowledge, no report is available in the literature regarding the microbial degradation of benazolin-ethyl by bacteria. In this study, one strain named cd-1, which is capable of degrading benazolin-ethyl, was isolated from benazolin-ethyl wastewater treatment pool. The isolate was identified as Methyloversatilis sp. according to its morphological, physiological, biochemical properties, and 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis. This strain utilizes benazolin-ethyl as the sole carbon source. and degrades 100 mg l?? benazolin-ethyl to non-detectable level within 48 h. Three metabolites were identified as benazolin, 7-chloro-3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-one, and 2-chloro-6-(methyleneamino)benzenethiol based on the MS/MS and GC/MS analyses. The first step involved in the degradation of benazolin-ethyl was the cleavage of the ester bond to form benazolin. Benazolin was subsequently subjected to demethylation for decomposition into 7-chloro-3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-one and methanol. The last step was to form 2-chloro-6-(methyleneamino)benzenethio
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Acute oral ld50 for mice >4000mg/kg, rats >6000mg/kg; acute dermal ld50 for rats > 2100mg/kg. Not irritant to skin and eyes of rabbits. Inhalation lc50 (4h) >5.5mg/l, noel (2y) for rats 12.5mg/kg (0.61mg/kg d)
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide of Carbamates Group)
 
DESCRIPTION: Bendiocarb belongs to a class of insecticides (chemicals that kill or control insects) known as carbamates.  Technical grade Bendiocarb is an odorless, non-corrosive white crystalline solid. Bendiocarb was first registered in the United States in 1980. Its registration was voluntarily canceled in September 1999, and all products containing Bendiocarb lost registration in December 2001. Products with canceled registrations cannot be purchased after that date, but existing stocks can still be used according to labeled directions.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Bendiocarb is moderately to highly toxic to both male and female rats when ingested. The oral LD50 in male and female rat ranges from 34 mg/kg to 156 mg/kg Ingested Bendiocarb is highly toxic to guinea pigs. The acute oral LD50 in guinea pigs is 35 mg/kg Bendiocarb is also highly toxic to rabbits by ingestion. The acute oral LD50 in rabbits ranges from 35-40 mg/kg in one test, female beagles were given high doses orally and recovered in 24-25 hours with no side effects. Mice fed diets containing 50, either 250, or 1250 ppm Bendiocarb did not show any significant increases in tumors over the control animals Rats fed diets containing 2, 20, or 200 ppm Bendiocarb for 104 weeks showed a dose-dependent increase in Lymphoreticular tumors. Only the highest dose  produced a statistically significant effect.
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: chemical name is  B-butyl-N-ethyl- ?, ?, ?-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-p-toluidine. Benfluralin, or benefin, is the common name for the active ingredient in several preemergent
Herbicides. Benfluralin is a yellow- to orange-colored crystalline solid at room temperature with an aromatic odor. Benfluralin herbicides are registered to control grasses and other small-seeded broadleaf weed species. It is used on residential and commercial turf. Benfluralin can also be used on alfalfa, clover, birdsfoot trefoil, lettuce, non-bearing fruit and nut trees, nonbearing berries and vineyards, ornamentals, noncropland areas, fence rows/hedgerows, and Christmas tree plantations. Workers could be exposed to benfluralin during manufacturing or formulating operations or during herbicide application in the field or on turf. Based on current use patterns, short- and immediate-term exposures to applicators for crop or noncrop uses are not of concern based on EPA evaluations. Consumers could be exposed to benfluralin when using plant or lawncare products containing it or following applications on ornamental plants or residential lawns, at golf courses, parks, or other grassy areas. Benfluralin herbicides are stable under normal storage and use conditions. Avoid temperatures above 70°C (158°F) and avoid contact with strong oxidizers. Molecular weight is 335.28. Molecular Formula is  C13H16 F3 N3O4 . Benfluralin is active ingredient in several preemergent herbicides registered to Dow AgroScience LLC, a subsidiary of The Dow Chemical Company. Benfluralin is a yellow- to orange-colored crystalline solid at room temperature with an aromatic odor. It can be formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate, soluble concentrate/liquid, water-dispersible granules, granules, and crystalline solids. Benfluralin formulations are sold under the name Benfluralin 600 WG herbicide and the trade name BALAN herbicides and are combined with trifluralin in the product TEAM. Pro specialty herbicide.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Body Weight Decrease. Suggestive Evidence of Carcinogenicity in liver. Thyroid issues. Benfluralin herbicide is highly toxic to aquatic organisms on an acute basis, but nontoxic to birds. Its bioconcentration potential is high. It biodegrades at a moderate rate and binds to soil and sediments. Benfluralin would not be expected to persist in the environment and would be removed by common wastewater-treatment processes
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical formula is ethyl N-[2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yloxycarbonyl(methyl)aminothio]-N-isopropyl-?-alaninate. Molecular formula is C20H30N2O5S. Molecular Mass is 410.53 (g mol-1) . Flash point is 100C. Mode of action is systemic, stomach and contact action. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Physical State is pale yellow viscous oily liquid . Usually supplied as granules which are applied directly to soil surface at planting.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  The toxicity of the substance and the high toxicity of some of its metabolites. The presence of carcinogenic impurities in the technical substance. The consumer exposure which is regarded inconclusive and which indicated, mainly due to certain metabolites, a potential acute risk to certain vulnerable groups of consumers. The possible contamination of groundwater, especially by a number of relevant metabolites. The substantial lack of data for almost all groups in the ecotoxicological field.
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical formula is 2,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethylbenzofuran-5-yl ethanesulfonate. Molecular mass is 256.3. EMPIRICAL FORMULA is C12H16O4S. Melting point is 32 to 35C. Vapor Pressure is 4.5mPa (25 ° C).
These Benzofuran acid alkyl ester herbicides. 2 ~ 2.0-2.8 (a.i.) / ha for the soil mix before planting cotton buds after treatment to 450 ~ 600g (a.i.) / ha for rice, which can effectively control many grassy weeds, including Cyperaceae and wooden pirate-like broad-leaved weeds and chufa. Japan tests that day, duration of 100 days. Pharmaceutical crops on the main playing by the selective application, concentration, the number of transplanting depth, soil type and temperature to determine, when asked to postpone treatment may improve the safety of the crop, five days after transplanting drug is feasible. The product is a promising herbicides can be difficult to control perennial weed control, future development will be mainly mixture to increase the efficacy of barnyard grass.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Toxicity LD50 (mg / kg): Rats the acute oral LD50 for the 2031 ~ 3536, 1986 ~ 2809 mice, dogs than 1600; in rats with acute percutaneous LD50 greater than 5,000, the largest acute inhalation LC50 greater than 5.34mgTC / L, respectively.
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 2-iodobenzanilide. Mode of action  are systemic and inhibits respiration. Molecular Formula is C13H10INO. Molecular weight is 323.13. The metabolism of Benodanil (2-iodobenzanilide) was studied in rats following an oral dose of 150 mg Benodanil kg?1 body weight. The major 24-h urinary metabolite was found to be the 4?-hydroxy derivative, both free (˜ 5%) and as the glucuronide (˜ 4%) and sulphate (˜ 4%) conjugates. Over a 6-day period, about 16% of the administered dose was excreted in the urine and about 80% in the faeces. After dosing with [14C]- benodanil, blood radioactivity levels were highest 30 min after dosing, with small broader peaks at 4 and 7 h, while biliary activity levels rose slowly to a maximum about 10–12 h after the dose, some 16% being excreted in 24 h as the glucuronide conjugate of the 4?-hydroxy derivative. XLogP3 is 2.8. H-Bond Donor is 1. H-Bond Acceptor is 1. Rotatable Bond Count is 2. Tautomer Count is 2. Exact Mass is 322.980707. Monoisotopic Mass is 322.980707. Topological Polar Surface Area is 29.1. Heavy Atom Count  is 16 .Complexity is 238. Isotope Atom Count is 0. Defined Atom StereoCenter Count is 0. Covalently-Bonded Unit Count is 1. Feature 3D Acceptor Count is 1. Feature 3D Donor Count is 1. Feature 3D Hydrophobe Count is 1. Feature 3D Ring Count 2. Effective Rotor Count is 3.  Conformer Sampling RMSD 0.6. CID Conformer Count is 4. The fungicide benodanil, at a concentration of 11 g 1?1 active ingredient, effectively stops growth and development of P. hordei when applied on either day 3 or day 5 after inoculation. It also prevents any increase in the amounts of the fungal, biochemical markers, showing the sensitivity of these chemicals as indicators of fungal growth.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It does not have any harmful effect on human or animal health and no unacceptable influence on the environment. It is relabeled in order to match the restricted conditions.

 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is (RS)-4-dichloroacetyl-3,4-dihydro-3-methyl-2H-1,4 benzoxazine. Molecular formula is C11H11Cl2NO2  .  Mocecular weight is 260.21. Melting point is  107.6 C.  Vapor Pressure is 0.59 mPa (20 C)  . KOW logP  is 2.6. Henry Constant is 7.67 ´ 10-3 Pa m3 mol-1 (calc.). Density is 1.52 (20 C) Colorless solid. In water 20 mg/l (20 ºC). In acetone 230, cyclohexanone 300, methylene chloride 400, methanol 30, n-octanol 11, isopropanol 13, toluene 90, hexane 3.2, xylene 60 (all in g/kg). Accelerates the detoxification of metalochlor. Has no herbicide activity of its own. Stable up to 200 ºC. Stable in acidic media, hydrolyses in alkaline media; DT50 c. 50 d (pH 7). Undergoes rapid photolytic degradation (c. 0.5 h, pH 7, natural sunlight). Flash point is 185 ºC.  Absorbed mainly through the shoots of germinating seedlings; accelerates the detoxification of metolachlor in maize. Benoxacor has no herbicidal activity of its own. Used as a herbicide safener, benoxacor increases tolerance of maize to metolachlor under both normal and adverse environmental conditions. Does not affect activity of metolachlor on susceptible species. Available only in mixture with metolachlor, as a 30:1 ready mix.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Protects maize from toxic effects of chloroacetanilide herbicides. Increases the expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes in plants, accelerating herbicide metabolism. Toxicity data: LD50 (mg/kg): >5000 orally in rats; >2010 dermally in rabbits; LC50 in rats (mg/l): >2000 by inhalation.

 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide. Molecular formula is C10H12N2O3S When this substance is used as a salt; its identity should be stated, for example Bentazone-sodium [50723-80-3]. Other names are Bentazon; bendioxide; Basagran; 3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one-2,2-dioxide. Pure Bentazon is a colorless to slightly brown, odorless crystalline solid. Water Solubility: 500 mg/L @ 20 C. Solubility in Other Solvents: acetone v.s.; ethanols, ethyl acetates, and benzene s.s.; cyclohexane s.s. Melting Point: 137-139 C.Vapor Pressure: Negligible; <0.46 mPa @ 20 C. Bentazone has been reported to occur in groundwater and drinking-water, predominantly in filtrate collected along the banks of the Rhine River (Germany) several years ago. Until 1988, effluents from a Bentazone production plant were discharged in the Rhine River. Since then, Bentazone levels in the river have been generally very low, with a few sporadic higher levels due to isolated accidents. It is used only as a selective herbicide, mainly on winter and spring cereals and vegetables such as peas and beans. Bentazone is a colourless to white crystalline powder and is odourless and fairly soluble in water. Bentazone released to the environment through its application as a herbicide, and also from possible accidental releases from manufacture, storage and transport. There are believed to be no natural sources. Bentazone is harmful to fish. It is only moderately persistent in the environment (weeks), being quickly degraded by sunlight, microbes and contact with air. Although it has low adsorption to soil particles it is not expected to leach appreciably when used according to good agricultural practice, due to the speed of its breakdown and it is not expected to bioaccumulate. Groundwater and drinking-water contamination is not likely under normal agricultural use, however effluents containing Bentazone arising from its production have caused problems in the past.The name “bendioxide” is used in South Africa, and the name “bentazon” is used in Canada and the USA.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Excessive exposure to bentazone may adversely affect the blood, eye, reprocuctive system, skin and the unborn child. The Environment Agency aims to ensure that environmental exposures are too low to harm human health.

 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION:  Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 3-(propan-2-yl)-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide.Molecular formula is C10H12N2O3S. Molecular weight is 240.28. Melting point is 137-139C. Flash point is 2 C. Storage temperature is approx is 4C.  Analysis of bentazone herbicide by formation of the methyl derivative in the gas - liquid chromatography using trimethylanilinium hydroxide. This derivatization technique allows a rapid qualitative and quantitative chromatography of this pesticide. Standard deviations were about ±1%. Technical Bentazone is a yellow-white crystalline powder without a noticeable odour (vapour pressure < 10 nPa). It is slightly soluble in water (0.5 g/litre), moderately soluble in benzene (33 g/litre) and chloroform (180 g/litre), and readily soluble in acetone (1.51 kg/litre) and ethanol (861 g/litre). Sodium Bentazone is considerably more soluble in water than the parent compound, with a solubility of 2300 g/liter. Bentazone is stable in acid as well as basic solutions; it decomposes at about 200°C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats >1000, dogs >500, rabbits 750, cats 500 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >2500 mg/kg. Moderately irritating to skin and eyes (rabbits). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats >5.1 mg/l air. NOEL (1 y) for dogs 13.1 mg/kg b.w.; (2 y) for rats 10 mg/kg b.w.; (90 d) for rats 25, dogs 10 mg/kg b.w.; (78 w) for mice 12 mg/kg b.w. ADI (JMPR) 0.1 mg/kg [1998]. Water GV 300 mg/l (based on ADI). Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) III; EPA (formulation) III EC hazard Xi; R36| R43| R52, R53.

 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is 1-[4-chlorophenyl)methylsulfanyl]-N,N-diethyl=foramide.  Molecular weight is 257.78 g/mol. Exisit in liquid phase. Boling point is 350C. Density is 1.163g/cm3 . Vapour pressure is 2 x 10 -5 mmHg ( at 25C) . Specific heat of vaporization 0.231 kj/g.Flash point is 166C. Preparations are EC and granule. Rice Herbicide. By diethylamide, oxygen and carbon sulfide right benzyl chloride produced by the reaction of chlorine. Rice used to broadcast live broadcast before and after use, the amount of 3 ~ 6kg/ha. Benthiocarb is a thiocarbamate cholinesterase inhibitor used as a herbicide. C12H16NOCl an amber liquid with a boiling point of 126– 129C; slightly soluble in water; used as an herbicide to control aquatic weeds in rice crops.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Benthiocarb effect on rat brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been studied to know the toxic effects of Benthiocarb on mammalian cholinergic systems. From the study, it has been observed that the inhibition of AChE activity increased with increase in treatment period that is attributed to the cumulative effects of Benthiocarb on AChE activity. The kinetic study revealed that there is a slight increase in Km and a marked decrease in Vmax which accounts for the non-competitive inhibition of enzyme during Benthiocarb intoxication.
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: An intermediate for the synthesis of macrocycles
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1,3-Bis(bromomethyl)benzene. Synonmous are M-XYLYLENE BROMIDE;m-Xylene dibromide;Xylenedibromide,97%;M-XYLYENE DIBROMIDE;M-XYLYLENE DIBROMIDE;M-XYLIDENE DIBROMIDE;1,3-Bis(bromomethyl);?,?’-dibromo-m-xylene;A,A'-DIBROMO-M-XYLENE;à,à'-dibromo-m-xylene. Molecular Formula is C8H8Br2. Molecular Weight  is 263.96. Melting point is 74-77 C. Boiling point is 135-140 C (20 mmHg). Flash point is 112 C. Water solubility is somehow in the form of hydrolysis. It is liquid which is stable under normal temperature and pressure, sensitive to moisture, and light. Additionally, this chemical should be sealed in the container that is filled with inert gas and avoided direct sunshine. Uses of 1,3-Bis(isocyanatomethyl)benzene: It can react with 5-amino-1(3)H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid amide; hydrochloride to get 1,3-bis(5-amino-4-carbamoylimidazolecarboxamidomethyl)benzene. This reaction needs reagent NEt3 and solvent acetonitrile at Ambient temperature. The reaction time is 60 hours. The yield is 92%.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following: It is flammable and can cause burns, so people should keep it away from sources of ignition. Moreover, it may cause sensitization by inhalation, so people must not breathe vapour. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. If you want to contact this product, you must wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection. In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Aromatic primary amines
 
DESCRIPTION: Benzidine, the trivial name for 4,4'-diaminobiphenyl, is the solid organic compound with the formula (C6H4NH2)2.  Melting point is 128 C. Boiling point is 402 C. Vapour density is 6.36. Density (g cm-3) is 1.25.  This aromatic amine is a component of a test for cyanide and also in the production of dyes. Benzidine has been linked to bladder and pancreatic cancer. Since August 2010, Benzidine dyes are included in the EPA's List of Chemicals of Concern. an organic chemical belonging to the class of amines and used in making numerous dyestuffs. The azo dyes derived from Benzidine are important because, unlike simpler classes of azo dyes, they become strongly fixed to cotton without a mordant. Benzidine is prepared from nitrobenzene by reduction in alkaline medium to hydrazobenzene (C6H5NHNHC6H5), which is converted to Benzidine by treatment with strong acid. This process is the simplest case of a general reaction, the Benzidine rearrangement. The chemical reactions of benzidine are typical of aromatic primary amines; with nitrous acid, it yields the bisdiazonium salt, which may be coupled with aromatic amino or hydroxyl compounds to produce azo dyes for for cloth, paper, and leather. It is no longer produced or used commercially in the U.S.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Benzidine can cause cancer. This has been shown by studies of workers who were exposed for years to levels much higher than those experienced by the general population were. It is important to note that most of the workers did not develop cancer, even after such high exposures. When cancer does occur, most often it is cancer of the urinary bladder. Some evidence suggests that other organs such as the stomach, kidney, brain, mouth, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, bile duct, and pancreas may also be targets. Experiments with animals have also shown Benzidine to be a carcinogen. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have determined that Benzidine is a human carcinogen. In addition, dyes made from benzidine, such as Direct Blue 6, Direct Black 38, and Direct Brown 95, have been shown to be carcinogenic in animals, and there is some evidence that they may cause bladder cancer in humans. The DHHS has determined that Direct Black 38 and Direct Blue 6 are carcinogenic to animals, and IARC has also determined that Direct Black 38, Direct Blue 6, and Direct Brown 95 are carcinogenic to animals. 

 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonmous are 1,2-Benz(a)anthracene ,1,2-Benzanthracene,1,2-Benzanthrene,1,2-Benzoanthracene, 2,3-Benzophenanthrene,BA,B(a)A,Benzanthracene ,Benzanthrene ,Benz(a)anthracene,Benzo(b)phenanthrene ,Benzoanthracene ,Tetraphene,Naphthanthracene. Molecular-weight is 228.29. Molecular Formulais C18-H12. Melting point is 162 C. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and an EPA Priority Pollutant. Benz(a)anthracene is an EPAclassified probable human carcinogen. Because it is formed when gasoline, garbage, or any animal or plant material burns, it is usually found in smoke and soot. This chemical combines with dust particles in the air and is carried into water and soil and onto crops. Benz(a)anthracene is also found in creosote. Of all estimated environmental releases of benzo(a)anthracene, 94% are to air. Of the remaining 6%, approximately equal amounts of B(a)A are released to water and land. The pattern of benz(a)anthracene (BA) release into air and water is quite general since it is a universal product of combustion of organic matter. Both in air and water it is largely associated with particulate matter. When released into water it will rapidly become adsorbed to sediment or particulate matter in the water column, and bioconcentrate into aquatic organisms. In the unadsorbed state, it will degrade by photolysis in a matter of hours to days. Its slow desorption from sediment and particulate matter will maintain a low concentration of BA in the water. Because it is strongly adsorbed to soil it will remain in the upper few centimeters of soil and not leach into groundwater. BA will very slowly biodegrade when colonies of microorganisms are acclimated but this is too slow a process (half-life ca 1 yr to be significant). Benz(a)anthracene in the atmosphere will be transported long distances and will probably be subject to photolysis and photooxidation although there is little documentation about the rate of these processes in the literature. Humans will be exposed to benz(a)anthracene in ambient air, particularly in industrial areas, from stoves, cigarette smoke, food (particularly when smoked or charcoal broiled), and drinking water.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: There is good evidence to suggest that the physicochemical properties of BaP allow its rapid uptake and transport through systemic circulation. The principal sites of uptake are the gastrointestinal tract, following the ingestion of food, and the lungs, following the inhalation of contaminated aerosols and particulate matter. Distribution to the well-perfused organs and tissues occurs within minutes. Excretion is via the urine as water-soluble metabolites, although some enterohepatic recycling (biliary excretion followed by reabsorption into the systemic circulation) also occurs. Benzo[a]pyrene crosses the placenta and is readily distributed to the developing foetus.The lipophilic nature of BaP favours its distribution and storage in fatty tissues, including mammary fat and bone marrow.
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
 
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical Formula is C20H12. Synonmous are BaP, benzo(d,e,f)chrysene, 3,4-benzopyrene, 3,4-benzyprene.  Benzo[a]pyrene is a complex chemical which is released to the air when many materials are burnt. It may cause cancer and genetic damage. The Environment Agency aims to ensure that there is no appreciable risk of these effects from environmental exposures. Its local impacts are significant as it builds up in certain organisms and sticks to dust particles which can be inhaled. It is long-lasting in the environment and can be transported long distances in air currents. Benzo[a]pyrene's release to the environment is quite widespread as it is a product of incomplete combustion. Major man-made sources are vehicle emissions and domestic wood and coal combustion and it is also present in small quantities in tobacco smoke. Natural sources of benzo[a]pyrene include volcanoes and natural fires They are not produced or used commercially but are very commonly found since they are formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic materials. The major environmental concern from benzo[a]pyrene is for organisms, through bioaccumulation. If released to water, it will adsorb very strongly to sediments and particulate matter, and this significantly hinders its degradation. Benzo[a]pyrene will bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms which metabolise it very slowly. If released to the soil it will be expected to adsorb very strongly to the soil and will not appreciably leach to the groundwater, although its presence in some samples of groundwater illustrates that it can be transported there - probably attached to colloidal particles.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Some people who drink water containing benzo(a)pyrene well in excess of the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for many years may experience reproductive difficulties and may have an increased risk of cancer.This health effects language is not intended to catalog all possible health effects for benzo(a)pyrene. Rather, it is intended to inform consumers of some of the possible health effects associated with benzo(a)pyrene in drinking water when the rule was finalized.
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
 
DESCRIPTION: SYNONYM is 1,12-Benzoperylene. Molecular weight is 276.34. Melting Point is 278 C.  Benzo(g,h,i)perylene is one of a group of chemicals called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs for short. PAHs are often found together in groups of two or more. They can exist in over 100 different combinations but the most common are treated as a group of 15. PAHs are found naturally in the environment but they can also be manufactured. Benzo(g,h,i)perylene is a colorless crystal-like solid. PAHs are created when products like coal, oil, gas, and garbage are burned but the burning process is not complete. Most of the PAHs are used to conduct research. Like most PAHs, benzo(g,h,i)perylene is used to make dyes, plastics, pesticides, explosives and drugs. It has also been used to make bile acids, cholesterol and steroids.The vast majority of benzo(g,h,i)perylene is released to the environment when combustion is incomplete (usually because there is insufficient oxygen). Thus, most benzo(g,h,i)perylene is released from vehicle exhausts and domestic wood and coal fires. Emmisions also arise from industrial effluents, municipal wastewater treatment facilities, waste incinerators and aluminium smelting. Trace amounts are found in cigarette smoke. Benzo(g,h,i)perylene is also released naturally from volcanoes and forest fires, but the amounts are very small compared to those released from man-made combustion sources.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Benzo(g,h,i)perylene can enter the body either by inhalation of air containing benzo(g,h,i)perylene, ingestion of water, soil or food containing benzo(g,h,i)perylene, or by dermal contact. There is little evidence available as to the full effects on human health following exposure to benzo(g,h,i)perylene. In 1987, the International Agency for Research on Cancer designated benzo(g,h,i)perylene as not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity . Exposure to benzo(g,h,i)perylene at normal background levels is unlikely to have any adverse effect on human health.
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonyms are 8,9-benzofluorathene, 11,12-benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, 2,3,1',8'-binapthylene, B(K)F, BKF. Molecular weight is 225.31. Exist in yellow crystals. Melting point is 215-217 C. Boiling point is 480 C. Floating point is 100C. Storing temperature is approximately 4C. Water solubility is somehow negligible. Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Provision to contain effluent from fire extinguishing. Well closed. Store in an area without drain or sewer access. Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed.
The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol and through the skin. Evaporation at 20°C is negligible; a harmful concentration of airborne particles can, however, be reached quickly. This substance is possibly carcinogenic to humans. This substance may be hazardous to the environment; special attention should be given to air quality and water quality. Bioaccumulation of this chemical may occur in crustacea and in fish.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Anticipated human carcinogen. Harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Benzo[k]fluoranthene produced tumors after lung implantation in mice and when administered with a promoting agent in skin-painting studies. Equivocal results have been found in a lung adenoma assay in mice. Benzo[k]fluoranthene is mutagenic in bacteria. Although there are no human data that specifically link exposure to benzo[k]fluoranthene to human cancers, benzo[k]fluoranthene is a component of mixtures that have been associated with human cancer. These include coal tar, soots, coke oven emissions and cigarette smoke.  

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CLASSIFICATION: Benzophenone is the organic compound. Benzophenone is a widely used building block in organic chemistry, being the parent diarylketone.
DESCRIPTION: Synonymous are Diphenylmethanone; phenyl ketone; Diphenyl ketone; Benzoylbenzene. Molecular Weight is 182.22. Chemical Formula is C13H10O.  White flakes or crystals with rose like odor. Melting point is 48 - 49C, boiling point is 305 - 306C. Specific gravity is 1.11. Vapour density is 6.3. Vapour pressure is 1 mm Hg at 108 C. Flash point is138 C(  close cup).  Insoluble in water.  Benzophenone is used as a constituent of synthetic perfumes and as a starting material for the manufacture of dyes, pesticides and drugs (especially anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs). Benzophenone is used as a photoinitiator of UV-curing applications in inks, adhesive and coatings, optical fiber as well as in printed circuit boards. Photoinitiators are compounds that break down into free radicals upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Photoinitiators undergo a unimolecular bond cleavage upon irradiation to yield free radicals (benzoin esters; benzil ketals; alpha-dialkoxy acetophenones; alpha-hydroxy alkylphenones; alpha-amino alkylphosphine; acylphosphine oxides). Another type of photoinitiators undergo a bimolecular reaction where the excited state of the photoinitiator interacts with a second molecule (a coinitiator) to generate free radicals (benzophenones, amines; thioxanthones, titanocenes). Ultraviolet radiation has more energy than visible light, and thus degrade the physical properties such as the appearance of organic substances and plastics. Benzophenones can act as optical filters or deactivate substrate molecules that have been excited by light for the protection polymers and organic substances. They, cosmetic grades, are used as sunscreen agents to reduce skin damage by blocking UV-A, B.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Skin, eye and respiratory irritant. Reported to be very toxic to aquatic organisms. Harmful if swallowed or inhaled. Causes irritation to skin, eyes and respiration tract. Affect central nervous system. Harmful if swallowed or inhaled. Affects central nervous system.

 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Benzoic acid
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is Benzoic acid, anhydridewith 3-chloro-N-ethoxy-2,6-dimethoxybenzenecarboximidic acid. Synonyms are Benzoicacid, anhydride with 3-chloro-N-ethoxy-2,6-dimethoxybenzimidic acid (8CI);Benzimidic acid, 3-chloro-N-ethoxy-2,6-dimethoxy-, anhydride with benzoic acid(8CI); Aazomate; Benzomate; Benzoximate; Citrazon; EthylO-benzoyl-3-chloro-2,6-dimethoxybenzohydroxamate. Molecular Formula is C18H18 Cl N O5. Molecular Weight is 363.7922. EINECS is 249-439-1. Density is 1.21 g/cm3 . Melting Point:73 C. Boiling Point:483.3 C at 760 mmHg. Flash Point is 246.1 C. Soluble in water at 30 /l (25 °C).
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Over 150,000 registered substances from RTECS database. Data from in vivo and in vitro studies of acute toxicity, mutagenicity, skin/eye irritation, tumorigenicity and carcinogenicity, reproductive effects, multiple dose effects. Over 93,000 drugs and drug development compounds. Links to chemical structures in MDL. Metabolite Database. Access to original journal.

 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is ethyl N-benzoyl-N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-DL-alaninate. This substance is a derivative of benzoylprop [22212-56-2]. Synonyms are DL-Alanine, N-benzoyl-N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-, ethyl ester;Alanine, N-benzoyl-N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-, ethyl ester, DL-;Endaven;Ethyl 2-(N-benzoyl-3,4-dichloroanilino)propionate;Ethyl 2-[benzoyl(3,4-dichlorophenyl)amino]propionate;Ethyl 2-[N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)benzamido]propionate;FX 2182;Suffix;Propionic acid, 2-(N-benzoyl-N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl))amino-, ethyl ester;N-Benzoyl-N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-dl-alanine ethyl ester;Ethyl N-benzoyl-N-(3,4-d). Chemical Formula is  C18H17Cl2NO3.  Molecular weight is 366.24. Mode of action is unknown but it does not fall into traditional classification systems, selective The name “benzoylprop-ethyl” was formerly approved by ISO for this substance, but this was replaced by the name “benzoylprop” for the acid as part of a rationalisation exercise in 1989.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Harmful if swallowed.
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical formula is C6H6Cl6 .Synonymous are 1-alpha, 2-alpha, 3-beta, 4-alpha, 5-beta, 6-beta-benzene-trans-hexachloride; alpha-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-chlorocyclohexane; alpha-benzene hexachloride; alpha-BHC; alpha-HCH; alpha-hexachloran; alpha-hexa-chlorane; alpha-hexachlorocyclo-hexane; alpha-lindane; benzenehexa-chloride-alpha-isomer; cyclohexane 1,2,3,4,5,6-(alpha, DL); cyclohexane 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro, alpha-; cyclohexane 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-, alpha-isomer; cyclohexane, alpha-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro; ENT 9232. Molecular weight is 290.83. Color is brownish to white. Crystalline solid. Melting point is 159–160 °C. Boling point is 288 °C at 760 mmHg.  Density is 1.87(g/cm3) at 20 °C. Phosgene-like odor.
Alpha-BHC in a complex food chain system showed bioconcentration as high as 267 times in algae and 140 times the ambient concentration in Daphnia. water solubility of 1630 µ g / L.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Human poisoning, the nervous system primarily manifested as headache, dizziness, sweating, weakness, tremors, epilepsy was on the lower extremities - convulsion, standing instability, movement disorders, retardation awareness, or even coma, can be inhibited by the respiratory center and the livelihood of respiratory failure. The digestive system will have salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and discomfort symptoms such as diarrhea. Respiratory and circulatory system can cause pharynx, larynx, nasal inhalation of pesticides and congestion, a foreign body sensation throat, spit bubble sputum, with bloodshot eyes, difficulty in breathing, pulmonary edema, pale-faced, blood pressure, body temperature, irregular heartbeat, tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. Right skin, eye irritation, skin flushing, have pimples, blisters, dermatitis, or even a exudative erosion occurred allergic dermatitis; With tears eye, eye and face severe pain spasm. 666 of the general toxicity of nerve and organ toxic substance, the dose can cause central nervous system and certain real organs, especially the liver and kidneys serious harm. 666 through the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and skin absorption into the body.

 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Synonymous are 1-alpha, 2-beta, 3-alpha, 4-beta, 5-aplha, 6-beta-hexachlorocyclo-hexane; beta 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-cyclohexane; beta-benzenehexa-chloride; beta-BHC; beta HCH; betahexachloran; beta-hexachloro-benzene; beta-lindane; cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-, beta-; cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-, beta-isomer; cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-, trans-; cyclohexane, beta-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-chloro-; ENT 9233; trans-alpha-benzenehexachloride. Molecular weight is 290.83.Exisit in  crystalline solid . Melting point is 314 to 315 C. Boling point is 60 C. Density is 1.89 (gm/cm3) at 19 C.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Refer to BHC alpha isomer.
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane. Synonyms are lindane, Kwell, beta-HCH, Aalindan, alpha-HCH, beta-BHC, beta-Lindane, Hexachlorane, gamma-BHC, gamma-HCH, Jacutin, alpha-Lindane, delta-HCH, Spritzlindane, Gamacarbatox, Lindagranox, Lindapoudre, Nicochloran, Agronexit, Benzene hexachloride. Mocecular Weight is 290.829840.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Refer to BHC alpha isomer.

 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is ?-hexachlorocyclohexane. Synonymous are 1-alpha,2-alpha,3-alpha, 4-beta, 5-alpha, 6-beta-hexachlorocyclo-hexane; cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-, delta-isomer; cyclohexane, delta-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-; delta-(AEEEEE)- 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-cyclohexane; delta-benzenehexa-chloride; delta-BHC; delta-HCH; delta-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclo-hexane; delta-lindane; ENT 9234. Mocecular Weight is 290.829840. Melting point is 141 to 142 C. Exisit in fine plate form. Mocecular Weight is 290.829840.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Refer to BHC alpha isomer.

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CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Acaricide)
 
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is  Hydrazine carboxylic acid, 2-(4-methoxy-[1,1-bipbenyl]-3-yl)1-methylethyl ester. Molecular Formula is C17H20N2O3.Molecular Weight is  300.36 . Exisit in Solid crystalline form with Beige color. Melting point is 120 to 124 C. Density is 1.31 g/cc @ 25C.
Bifenazate is a novel carbazate acaricide discovered by Uniroyal Chemical (now Chemtura Corporation) for the control of phytophagous mites infesting agricultural and ornamental crops. Its acaricidal activity and that of its principal active metabolite, diazene, were characterized. bifenazate is a very useful acaricide giving high efficacy, long-lasting activity and excellent selectivity for spider mites. It is, therefore, concluded that bifenazate is an ideal compound for controlling these pest mites. bifenazate is a very useful acaricide giving high efficacy, long-lasting activity and excellent selectivity for spider mites. It is, therefore, concluded that bifenazate is an ideal compound for controlling these pest mites. Floramite is registered for control of mite pests on greenhouse, shadehouse, nursery, field, landscape and interiorscape grown ornamentals.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: Bifenazate and diazene had high toxicity and specificity both orally and topically to all life stages of Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri. Acute poisoning was observed with no temperature dependency. No cross-resistance was found to mites resistant to several other classes of acaricides, such as tebufenpyrad, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide and dicofol. Bifenazate is considered to be neither mobile or persistent in the aquatic and soil environment. Bifenazate would be expected to exhibit low potential to contaminate ground and surface waters.
 
 
 
NAME: Bifenox    
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (herbicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name is methyl 5-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-2-nitrobenzoate. Molecular Formula is C14H9Cl2NO5. Formula Weight is 342.13. Storing temperature is 0 to 6C. Crystalline compound with a melting point of 84-86°C; insoluble in water; used as a preemergence herbicide for weed control in soybeans, corn, and sorghum, and as a pre- and postemergence herbicide in rice and small greens.The herbicide, methyl 5-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-2-nitrobenzoate (bifenox), had a half-life of 3 to 7 days after preemergence application to a greenhouse soil mix. Metabolites identified included: 5-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-2-nitrobenzoic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenyl 4-nitrophenyl ether (nitrofen), and 5-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)anthracitic acid over a 313-day sampling period. Comparison of the total 14C in the soil to that extractable by methanol showed an increase in the proportion of bound material. The major metabolite eluted from a Frederick clay loam soil column was identified as the acid of bifenox and its mobility was associated with the short half-life of Bifenox in soil. In vitro studies with shoot-tissue macerates showed that bifenox was not degraded by corn (Zea mays L.) or soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and was degraded to less than 1% by velvetleaf.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Occupational exposure and general population exposure should be low or non-existent(SRC) since Bifenox is no longer produced or used in the US. Average concentrations of Bifenox on work clothing of tree nursery workers involved in conifer seedling production from 2 different nurseries were 34 (4 of 311 samples pos, scouts whose job it was to examine treated beds daily)
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICASTION: Pesticide (insecticide, miticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Bifenthrin is an insecticide and a member of the pyrethroid family of chemicals.  It is considered a Type I, non-cyano pyrethroid with isomeric enrichment. The stereoisomers 1S, 3S and 1R, 3R are found in commercial products. The technical International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name for bifenthrin is 2-methylbiphenyl-3-ylmethyl (Z)-(1RS, 3RS)-3-(2-chloro-3, 3, 3-trifluoroprop-l-enyl)- 2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-carboxylate and the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry number is 82657-4-3.3. Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid insecticide that affects the nervous system of insects. It was discovered and developed by FMC Corporation. Products containing bifenthrin include Talstar, Maxxthor, Capture, Brigade, Bifenthrin, Ortho Home Defense Max, Bifen IT, Bifen L/P, and Scotts LawnPro Step 3. Bifenthrin is virtually insoluble in water with a solubility of 0.1 mg/L. Given its low solubility, bifenthrin has high persistence in soil with a half-life between 7 days and 8 months. Consequently, it is the longest residual termiticide currently registered on the market today.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS: It is highly toxic to fish, since it, like most pyrethroids, is also an ATPase inhibitor. Aquatic vertebrates are much more sensitive to ATPase inhibitors than terrestrial vertebrates due to their high dependence on ATP synthesis in the gills to maintain osmotic balance. The EPA has classified bifenthrin as a class C carcinogen, a possible human carcinogen. Based on risk assessments, EPA concludes that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to the general population and to infants and children from aggregate exposure to bifenthrin residues. Bifenthrin was included in a biocide ban proposed by the Swedish Chemicals Agency and approved by the European Parliament in 2009. Pesticides containing bifenthrin have been withdrawn from use in the European Union. 
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticides (acaricide, fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION:  Chemical name is (RS)-2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenyl 3-methylcrotonate. Molecular formula is C15H18N2O6.  Molecular mass: 322.3. Combustible. Liquid formulations containing organic solvents may be flammable. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. Sweep spilled substance into sealable containers. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing toxic fumes including nitrogen oxides. Reacts slowly with water to form harmful Dinoseb. Personal protection: P3 filter respirator for toxic particles. The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol, through the skin and by ingestion. No indication can be given about the rate in which a harmful concentration in the air is reached on evaporation of this substance at 20C. Melting point is 66-67C. Relative density (water = 1) is 1.2. not soluble in water. Vapour pressure at 60°C is 0.013.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Inhalation cause adominal pain, diarrhea, headache, sweating, nausea. Shortness of breath. Vomiting. Weakness. The substance may cause effects on the metabolism, resulting in high body temperature and sweating. The effects may be delayed. Medical observation is indicated. Binapacryl is the dimethyl acrylic ester of harmful Dinoseb. It is metabolized to form Dinoseb. Toxicity is attributed to Dinoseb. Use all available methods for reducing body temperature. Carrier solvents used in commercial formulations may change physical and toxicological properties. Acricid, Ambox, Endosan, Morocide, Niagara 9044 are trade names. Also consult ICSC 0149 (Dinoseb) and ICSC 0882 (Dinoseb acetate). Card has been partly updated in October 2004. See sections Occupational Exposure Limits, EU classification, Emergency Response.

 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Bioallethrin is an ectoparasiticide. It consists of two of the eight stereosiomers of Allethrin. Chemical name are (RS)-3-allyl-2-methyl-4-oxocyclopent-2-enyl (1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate or (RS)-3-allyl-2-methyl-4-oxocyclopent-2-enyl (1R)-trans-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate.  Molecular Formula is C19H26O3. Molecular Weight is 302.42 daltons. Purity is Greater than 98%. Although bioallethrin is a type I Pyrethroid, its effects on calcineurin resemble those of Type II pyrethrins. Unlikemost type pyrethrins, which are very weak, bioallethrin is a potent calcineurin inhibitor, with an IC50 of about 1-2nM. The substance decomposes on heating above 400C. Incompatible with alkalis.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Bioallethrin is a pyrethroid chemical used as an insecticide. The chemical is toxic to the nerve system. The substance irritates the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. The substance may cause effects on the nervous system.

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CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (Insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Molecular Formula is C19H26O3. Molecular Weight is 302.4. The substance decomposes on heating above 400°C producing irritating fumes. Relative density (water = 1): is 0.98. Flash point is 120°C. insoluble in water. Flash point is 120°C.  The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation of its aerosol and by ingestion. Provision to contain effluent from fire extinguishing. Separated from food and feedstuffs. Keep in a well-ventilated room.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  The substance is irritating to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. The substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms. This substance does enter the environment under normal use. Great care, however, should be given to avoid any additional release, e.g. through inappropriate disposal.
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (insecticide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Chemical name are 5-benzyl-3-furylmethyl (1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2 methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate or 5-benzyl-3-furylmethyl (1R)-trans-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate. Molecular formula is C22H26O3.Molecular weight is 338.4. Minimum purity is 93% total isomers. Yellow to brown viscous liquid or off-white solid. Stable at room temperature. Melting point is 32C. Flash point is 92C. Vapour pressure is 18 mPa(25C). Insolouble in water. Soluble in many organic solvents.   Bioresmethrin is effective against insects in stored products such as grain and flour, especially where resistance to organophosphate insecticides has built up. Phenothrin has been used in airport quarantine pest control. These pyrethroids are generally more effective than natural pyrethrins but act in the same way.  These pyrethroids decompose rapidly in sunlight. They thus pose little threat to the environment, but for the same reason they are not suitable for agricultural use.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  Second generation pyrethroids are not acutely toxic to people or other mammals. Bioresmethin, tested on rats, has an LD50 of 8,600 mg/kg (oral) and 10,000 mg/kg (dermal). However, chronic effects have not been exhaustively tested and exposure should be avoided.
 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION: Pesticide (fungicide)
 
DESCRIPTION: Biphenyl (or diphenyl or phenylbenzene or 1,1'-biphenyl or lemonene) is an organic compound that forms colorless crystals. It has a distinctively pleasant smell. Biphenyl is an aromatic hydrocarbon with a molecular formula (C6H5)2. Molecular weight is 154.21. Melting point is 69 - 72 C . Boling point is 255 C. Specific gravity is 0.992. Insoluble in water. Flash point 113 C.  It is notable as a starting material for the production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which were once widely used as dielectric fluids and heat transfer agents. Biphenyl is also an intermediate for the production of a host of other organic compounds such as emulsifiers, optical brighteners, crop protection products, and plastics.
 
HEALTH PROBLEMS:  In workers, acute exposure to high levels of biphenyl has been observed to cause eye and skin irritation and toxic effects on the liver, kidneys, and central and peripheral nervous systems. Symptoms include headache, gastrointestinal pain, nausea, indigestion, numbness and aching of limbs, and general fatigue.